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EDS 160 Study Guide

by: Keturah Hrebicik

EDS 160 Study Guide EES 160

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Geology > EES 160 > EDS 160 Study Guide
Keturah Hrebicik
GPA 2.7

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This study guide goes over the majority of words that the class went through since the last exam. All the words on this sheet contain the definition or explanation of what was asked. At the end of ...
Geoogy for elementary teachers
Study Guide
EDS160, Geology, Earth Science
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keturah Hrebicik on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EES 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Geoogy for elementary teachers in Geology at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
This study guide can be found on canvas without the definitions filled in. Most of the words are found on the study guide, but not all are included. 78 of the words on the original list are still included. Word Wall (Words for Study for Second Hourly Exam) Lecture 11: Constructive Processes: Patterns on Maps I  Constructive vs. destructive processes- Constructive processes are the processes that are fueled by the internal heat engine within earth, most of these fall under the category of plate tectonics. Deconstructive processes are those that tear down the earth, for example tornados, weather, erosion, people, ect.  Using maps as teaching tools- It may be hard to teach elementary students the constructive and deconstructive processes, but looking at maps can help the students understand what is going on.  Patterns on maps- The earth is made up of many different plates, and the movement of these plates creates patterns that can easily be seen on a map. For example, mountains, volcanoes, earth quake zones and trenches. Mid-oceanic ridges- long ridge system in the middle of an ocean which makes the sites of upwelling magma, caused by seafloor spreading. The most common example is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Age of mid-oceanic ridges- Most of the rocks on the mid oceanic ridges are less than 200 million years old.  Oceanic crust (low in ocean basins) vs. continental crust (makes up high continents)- Oceanic crust is less dense, while continental crust is denser.  Heat flow in the ocean- There is more heat around the plate boundaries compared to the rest of the ocean floor.  Earthquake distribution- Most seismic activity happens around the plate boundaries. This makes sense since earthquakes are caused by plates rubbing against each other.  Pangaea (last supercontinent)- Plates slowly move around the earth due to plate tectonics and convection currents, after long periods of time, the continents come together to create one really big continent. The last large continent was called Pangea.  Spreading, divergent, or constructive plate boundaries- divergent plate boundaries are those that contain plates that move in opposite directions, away from each other. This plate boundary causes the creation of new crust from magma coming up where the plates separate.  New oceanic crust- New oceanic crust is created by divergent plate boundaries.  Linear seas- A newly formed sea caused by plates pulling away from each other. Lecture 12: Constructive Processes: Patterns on Maps II  Active plate boundaries- Plate boundaries where a lot of seismic activity occurs.  Linear sea vs. major ocean- Linear seas are only made from continental crust being pulled apart and being filled with water. Major Oceans are continental plates pulled apart but after long periods of time, oceanic crust is formed where the water is instead of continental crust remaining  Makeup of oceanic crust- the majority of oceanic crust is basalt.  Rift valleys- A rift valley is caused where there is a divergent plate boundary with two continental crusts involved.  Modern linear seas- An example of a modern linear sea is the red sea.  Modern divergent boundaries within continents- Example=East Africa Rift Valley  Convection- Convection is the circulation of a liquid caused by the heating and cooling of said liquid. Hot liquid rises while cold liquid falls. This causes a circular pattern in the mantle.  Composition of mantle- Mantle is mostly made up of an ultramafic rock called peridotite.  Composition of magmas/lavas along mid-oceanic ridges- The magma here is about 60% SiO2  Earth’s internal heat engine- Mantle and Core  Source of heat for Earth’s internal heat engine- The heat for earths internal heat engine is from either radioactive decay in mantle and crust and the left over heat from the formation of the crust. Lecture 13: Constructive Processes: Patterns on Maps III  Matchup of mountain belts, volcanoes, and earthquake zones- Many people question why mountain belts, volcanoes and earth quake zones match up. The answer is clear, plate boundaries. All three of these features are only caused by plate tectonics. When the plates move and against each other, these features are formed.  Continent-margin mountain belts- Mountain belts are formed on the continental margins because there are two continental crusts that must collide to create a mountain.  Pacific ring of fire- A ring of volcanoes in the pacific.  Composition of continental crust- continental crust is mostly granite.  Oceanic trenches and subduction zones- When a plate collides with one, it must move away from another plate on the opposite side. When the oceanic plate gets pulled away, it can create large openings called trenches in the middle of the ocean.  Continental crust/lithosphere  Subducting, convergent or destructive plate boundaries- Subducting plate boundaries are those where a continental plate and an oceanic plate meet and move towards each other. Since there is a difference in density, the oceanic plate moves under the continental plate.  Modern subducting plate boundaries  Melting along subduction zone and formation of volcanoes- When the oceanic crust goes under the continental crust, the oceanic crust gets deeper and deeper until it reaches such high temperatures that the crust melts. Since the crust is less dense than continental crust, it rises due to the difference in density. This creates the volcano.  Sliding, transform or conservative plate boundary- Transform, sliding or conservative plate boundaries are those which two plates rub against each other but do not move directly at each other or away from each other. This plate boundary is commonly known for creating earthquakes.  San Andreas Fault- The San Andreas fault is a perfect example of a transform plate boundary. Like in the definition of transform plate boundaries, one can see that this creates many earthquakes. San Andres is known for such earthquakes. Lecture 14: Igneous Rocks and Plate Tectonics  Magma vs. lava- Magma is the molten rocks inside earth but when it leaves the mantle and reaches earth’s surface it is lava.  Intrusive vs. extrusive- Intrusive rocks are the rocks that are formed inside earth interior from magma while extrusive rocks are those that are formed from lava on the surface of the earth  Types of cooling in extrusive vs. intrusive igneous rocks- Extrusive rocks cool fast due to the cool temperatures, this causes the crystals to be fine. Intrusive rocks are cooled slowly and are made up of large crystals.  Volcanic products: ash (pyroclastic debris), gases, lava- These three products are formed by extrusive volcanic activity  Igneous rock identification based on composition and grain size (texture)- Most igneous rocks can be classified by just looking at the composition and the grain size. For example, a rock that is more than 63% SiO2 and coarse-grained can be identified as being granite.  Properties of felsic, intermediate and mafic igneous rocks- Felsic rocks have a composition of >63% SiO2. Intermediate rocks have a composition 52- 63% SiO2. Mafic rocks have 45-52% SiO2 and high levels of iron and magnesium.  Relationships between grain size, extrusive and intrusive and composition- Fine grained igneous rocks are extrusive while coarse grained rocks are intrusive. Felsic rocks are lighter in color while mafic rocks are darker.  General characteristics of felsic, intermediate and mafic lavas and types of volcanoes they form- Felsic and intermediate lavas form very viscous lavas. They don’t flow far from the volcanoes because of this.  Shield volcano, strato-cone, and cinder cones vs. lava types- Shield volcano= Basalt. Strato-cone=felsic and intermediate. Cinder cone=all types of lava.  Calderas: how and why? - When strato-volcanoes collapse (emptying the magma chamber), they produce large craters called calderas.  Magma chamber- The area at the base of the volcano which holds the magma. Lecture 15: Igneous-Metamorphic Transition  Relate volcanoes with types of lava- Strato-cone or composite volcano=Felsic or intermediate igneous lavas. Shield volcano=mafic lavas. Cinder cone=all kinds of lava. Caldera=All kinds of lavas  Intrusive structures – sill, dike, laccolith, batholith- Sills a horizontal intrusive body. A vertical intrusive body is called a dike. Laccolith is a mushroom shaped intrusive body. Batholith is an intrusive igneous body greater than 40 square miles in the area.  Metamorphic rocks- Rocks of any type which have been changed due to heat, pressure, or chemically active solutions. Most are formed near convergent plate boundaries.  Agents of metamorphism: heat, pressure and chemically active solutions  Types of metamorphism: regional, contact, dynamic- Regional metamorphism is metamorphism caused by pressure, heat and compression stress. Contact metamorphism is only caused by heat. Dynamic metamorphism is caused by faulting, pressure and shear stress (rubbing against each other)  Understand how metamorphism occurs at convergent plate boundaries- At convergent boundaries, the intense heat and pressure generated during subduction will change most rocks to metamorphic rocks.  Classification of metamorphic rocks- metamorphic rocks are classified into two categories, foliated and non-foliated  Foliated metamorphic rocks: slate, phyllites, shist and gneiss-layered metamorphic rocks  Non-foliated metamorphic rocks: marble and quartzite- non-layered metamorphic rocks  Dynamic metamorphism: fault breccia- metamorphism produced by mechanical forces including crushing and grinding  Contact metamorphism: Hornfels- metamorphism due to contact with or proximity to an igneous intrusion  Rock cycle- The constant cycling of different types of rocks into other types of rocks. Lecture 16: Metamorphic-Sedimentary transition  Constructive processes- Processes that build the earth up.  Destructive processes- Processes that tear the earth apart  Setting for regional metamorphism- Convergent plate boundary  Metamorphic equivalents of limestone and sandstone- Limestone=Marble. Sandstone=Quartzite  Sediment- natural occurring rock material that is broken down by processes of weathering and is subsequently transported and deposited by the action of fluids.  Lithification processes- compaction, cementation, and recrystallization  Major sedimentary rock types: clastics, carbonates, chemical, and organic (know examples of each)- Clastic example is conglomerate. Carbonates example is limestone. Chemical example is salt. Organic example is coal.  Types of clastic sedimentary rocks: types are based on grain size- Clastic is large. Carbonate is medium. Chemical is small. Organic is very small.  Be able to identify conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and shales- Conglomerate is created from large pieces of sediment larger than 2 mm. Sandstone is crated from smaller pieces of sediment ranging from 1/16-2 mm. Siltstone is made up of silt, 1/16 – 1/256 mm. Shale is made up of sediment so small it can’t have been seen with your eyes, shale breaks into sheets.  Sedimentary features- There are many different features of sedimentary rocks including layers, fossils and sedimentary structures (crossbedding, ripples and mud cracks) Lecture 17: Structural Geology  Know the difference between stress and strain- stress is the force applied over an area, strain the change of shape caused by stress.  Types of stress: compression, tension, shear- Compression is pushing together, tension is pulling away from and shear is when they rub against each other.  Be able to relate types of plate boundaries to types of stress- convergent plate boundaries are compression, divergent plate boundaries are tension and when the plates slides against each other then they are shear.  Types of faults and how to recognize them (normal, reverse, thrust, lateral)- Normal-^\v Reverse ^/v thrust fault is a reverse fault but at a low angle. Lateral is when they slide against each other.  Types of folds and how to recognize them (anticline, syncline, monocline)- monocline is only one change in elevation. Syncline is more like a U shape and anticline is more n shaped. Lecture 18: Earthquakes  Why are earthquakes concentrated along plate boundaries? - Earthquakes happen more often around plate boundaries because there is more plate activity in these area  Why earthquakes occur- Earth quakes occur from two plates sliding against each other in opposite directions, because of this, there are earthquakes  Earthquake epicenters and foci (focus)- The foci are where the seismic waves come from (where the earthquake takes place) the epicenter is above the foci, the same location just on the surface of the earth.  Types of earthquake waves (P, S, and surface waves) and how they form- P waves are primary waves, S waves are shakes and secondary waves and surface waves are the waves on the surface of the earth Which waves travel through fluids and which do not- P waves can travel through liquids and solids, S waves will not travel through liquids but will travel through solids and surface waves will not travel through liquid or solid. In addition, to understanding the meaning of the terms noted above, please go back and make sure  that you can understand each essential question that begins a module, as well as the questions at the  end of Powerpoint section. The questions at the end of each chapter in the book are also a useful way to study. Sample Questions: The picture above represents what kind of stress? a. Compression (Cannot be compression. Compression is where two plates  move towards each other.) b. Strain (Strain  is a change in shape due to stress, not a type of stress) c. Tension (Tension is when two plates move away from each other) d. Shear (Shear is when two plates slides against each other) e. Transformation (Transform describes the type of plate boundary, not the  kind of stress) If the picture above represented a type of plate boundary, what kind of boundary  would it be? a. Transform b. Divergent c. Convergent d. Destructive e. Constructive The picture above shows what kind of rocks? a. Igneous b. Metamorphic c. Sedimentary d. Hydrothermal    e. None of the above    At what type of plate boundary would one expect to find regional metamorphism? a. Transform b. Divergent c. Convergent d. Conservative e. Constructive                                                  In the diagram above (on the previous page), what kind of volcanic structure is being  shown? a. Strato­cone b. Composite cone c. Shield volcano d. Cinder cone e. Caldera In the diagram above (on the previous page), what kind of lava would one expect to  form the cone? a. Felsic b. Intermediate c. Mafic d. All of the above e. None of the above In the diagram above, what kind of plate boundary is represented? a. Transform b. Divergent c. Convergent d. Conservative e. Destructive In the diagram above, what kind of stress is involved at the boundary? a. Shear. b. Compression c. Tension. d. Compaction. e. Lithification In the picture below, what kind of fault is shown? The yellow lines show the same  offset bed. a. Normal. b. Reverse. c. Thrust. d. Lateral. e. Transform. In the fault picture above, the hanging wall has moved up. a. True. b. False. In the fault picture above, what kind of stress is shown? a. Shear. b. Compression c. Tension. d. Compaction. e. Lithification In the picture above, what kind of fold is shown? a. Anticline b. Syncline c. Monocline. d. Lateral fault. e. Hanging wall.


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