Exam 1 Study Guide
Popular in Hollywood and American
Popular in Film
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by asmith28 on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CNPH 21400 at Ithaca College taught by Andrew Utterson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Hollywood and American in Film at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
n o i s s e c c u s k c i u q n i d e y a l p s e g a m i s e t a t s e c n e i c S & t r A : s m u i d e m : r u c c o e p o c s a t i V e h t r e t f a l l u f s e e s a c i r e m A : s n o s a e r 2 r o f d i p a r o s Film Screenings: Eadweard Muybridge - (1877) Early ideals of motion capture Kinetoscope - (1894) Sense of familiarity (home ﬁlms) A novelty “narrative” is introduced (see: seminary girls) Lumiere ﬁlms - (1895) “documentarian” in style A sense of experience (for someone who has never seen the movement of a lion they now can) A Trip to the Moon- (1902) Introduction of the narrative Constructed (set,costumes,actors) Adds spectacle through editing Travelogue - (1897-1910) True documentaries —> Sense of experience (see early ﬁlms) The Great Train Robbery - (1903) Film Language expands (narrative and editing) culturally more representative (compare: Trip to the Moon) Use of Planes of Action When the fourth wall is broken —> critics argue: genius or mistake? Corner in the Wheat - (1909) Emphasis on Acting (see: vaudeville) softer light (compare: Lumière) Depth of Field Symbolism more intricately woven into narrative (meta-narrative of cultural values) Musketeers of Pig Alley - (1912) More intricate set Words (written) are driving narrative Allows for a more complex story Space is being played with (see: going through doors to multiple connected locations) Heteronormative reconciliation (may form base for formulaic hollywood) **Disclosure: The above is based off of a subjective analysis of the ﬁlms presented. Furthermore, it is used to exemplify the means by which the ﬁlmic language grew. Each ﬁlm presented adds or builds off of the previous ﬁlm analyzed. Films may contain multiple ideals but if discussed in a prior ﬁlm the ideal is subject to isolation. ** Lecture 2 Notes: 3 “arcs” occurred during the ﬁrst 25 years of the ﬁlm industry (1895-1920) • 1.) Technological Arc • The 19th c. = Age of Invention • Photography, persistance of vision, ﬂexible ﬁlm, projection • Each invention thus leads to an industry Each became a distributor of an aspect of ﬁlm • 2.) Industrial Arc (ﬂexible roll ﬁlm, projection, cinematic cameras, • Celig etc… could only be bought through one of these • Lubean men • Edison 9 companies in all • Became an effective monopoly • • Essentially because the industry grew so fast, no one could stop it Thus the MPPC is created • 1 Oct. 1915 supreme court ruled this illegal in: United States v. Motion Picture Patents Co. • 3.) Creative arc • People started to disagree with the MPPC • Independent ﬁlmmakers went out west to escape the MPPC • Laemmle est. ﬁrst major studio (today: Universal) 3 S’s: • - Stars - Studios - Stories • D.W Grifﬁth - • Creative leader of ﬁlm industry - Both of a Nation - Intolerance Writes ﬁlmic Language - Way Down East - innovates camera aesthetic • CoA (Curve of Adoption) drives these arcs • CoA = 20 years Climate of Acceptance drives Curve of Adoption! —> • Immigration / large middle class • • (silent ﬁlm = no language barrier / middle class had leisure time) • Technology D.W Grifﬁth - • Born in 1875 in Kentucky to Southern Colonel • His ﬁlmic career was from 1908-1922 • 1914 = ﬁrst feature! • BoN = First blockbuster Largest grossing silent ﬁlm of…well…ever Intolerance = most “magniﬁcent” ﬁlm • • Sets were 300 feet tall and 1 mile in length • Way Down East • Lillian Gish - “best role” • grossed $7.2 milllion Lecture 3 Notes: Studios and Comedy — MPPC - Motion Picture Patent Corporation • Monopolized the technology aspect (thus the “patent” aspect) • Forced directors North (such as to Ithaca) & West (such as to Hollywood) i.e - The Wharton Brothers i.e - Laemmle This Forged the studios: • Studios (or the independents that created them) did 6 things the MPPC (and other trusts) did not 1. Made Features (NOT sold by the foot) 2. Established the Star System • Florence Lawrence The studios established these star’s • Mary Pickford identities and were able to sell more • Charlie Chaplin because of it • Theda “The Vamp” Bara 3. Formation of United Artists • First establishment of a group of artists able to form their own studio - Pickford - Fairbanks - Chaplin - Grifﬁth 4. Moved West • They were able to escape persecution from the MPPC and other trusts 5. Motion Picture Palaces were built • you had to be making a lot of money in order to build these giant theaters - The Strand (1913, 18 years after the invention of ﬁlm) - The Realto (1916, 21 years after the invention of ﬁlm) - The Roxy (1926, 31 years after the invention of ﬁlm) - “The Cathedral of ﬁlm houses” 6. Shift in the audiences perspective on ﬁlm • Everything listed above comes together to shift the perspective of “Novelty gag” to “industrial powerhouse” Impact of World War One European ﬁlm industry is essentially gone during this period and it will take time to be • reestablished • 1918- 80% of European ﬁlms being exhibited were American • 1925 - 95% of all European ﬁlms being exhibited were American • The Studios thus became a world power on a two fold system: 1.) Export - Dominated exhibition in Europe 2.) Import - Brought stars in from Europe (such as F.W. Murnau) The Climate of the 1920’s • 2 Competing ideologies at play: 1. Liberation/Freedom • Women could vote People of color had more power than int he 19th c. • • Lawlessness from Prohibition 2. Censorship • Prohibition • Religious attitudes shift (Catholics made up the majority of ﬁlmic audiences) - The Response by Hollywood: 1. Return to moral values • Pickford / Fairbanks Gish • • Grifﬁth (Way Down East) 2. Liberate freedoms • Theda Bara • Valentino • Clara Boe • DeMille (The Cheat) A series of scandals in and amongst hollywood lead to a lot of local censorship of ﬁlms. This was particularly hard on directors as they did not know where their ﬁlms could/could not be shown. MPPDA - Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America • Established by Will Hayes • Hayes Code: Series of “Do’s” and “don’t’s” • • Breene Commission (post-code) • Very strict Studios begin to control…well everything: 1. Moral This is the beginning of Vertical 2. Financial Integration - or - the establishment of 3. Creative “The Studio System” Irving “Boy Wonder” Thalberg - Propelled “Studio System • Producer for MGM • Managed Stars • Read scripts • made schedule • “An economic engine fueled by personality” - Bohn The Golden Age - 1920-1930 Coined for it’s striking contrast of cinematic style in comedy • Originally: Comedy based on action & motion • • 3 revolutionaries: 1. Charlie Chaplin (Everyman) • Advances comedic narrative style • characters evolve through narrative and Gags aren’t the plots focus 2. Buster Keaton (Pessimist) • Gag focused • Did not advance narrative style Hardly Lloyd (optimist) 3. • Iconic for his comedic modernity • although lacked cohesive narrative structure (arguably had a better narrative than Keaton though)
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