Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Bio 1144
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Murry on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Biology II Exam 2 Study Guide Master Vocabulary List • Indeterminate growth – plants keep growing until they die • Sporophyte – spore producing platform; the diploid phase • Gametophyte – the game producing platform; the haploid phase • Syngamy – fertilization • Zygote – fertilized egg • Shoots – stems and leaves • Primary Growth – elongation of plant organs • Secondary Growth – expansion of plant organs • Meristems – big clusters of cells that function as cell factories that constantly divide to produce more cells; most vital part of reproduction • Bud – a new shoot • Node – any point along the stem where a leaf, bud, or branch arises • Internode – the region between 2 nodes; all elongation occurs here • Mesophyll – photosynthetic tissue where chloroplasts are located (green tissue) • Vein – a vascular bundle • Stomata – provides gas exchange • Net venation – a network of veins throughout the leaf • Parallel venation – veins run parallel without touching • Hormones – chemical messengers produced by plants; mostly internal and transported in phloem tissue • Aleurone layer – outermost portion of food material • Radicle – the first root to grow down • Cotyledons – embryonic leaves • Tissue – an aggregation of functionally similar cells • Organ – 3 organs in a plant: root, stem, leaf • Xylem – moves water and nutrients from the soil • Phloem – moves food, carbohydrates, and hormones • Solution – a mixture of 2 or more compounds • Solvent – compound in a solution usually in greatest quantity and usually a liquid • Solute – compound in a solution of lesser quantity and usually dissolved • Hydrogen Bonding – provides a tight net between water molecules • Cohesiveness – molecules stick together tightly • Adhesiveness – water sticks to other polar compounds like cellulose • Transportation – the loss of water exiting through stomata of the leaves in vapor form • Turgid – cells full of water • Transpiration Stream – the pathway of transpiration; only runs one way: up through the plant • Translocation – movement of solutes (food and hormones) • Source – sight of excess carbohydrate • Sink – the storage sight or sight where sugar is quickly needed • Pedicel – the modified stem aka: stalk • Receptacle – enlarged tip of flower stalk • Sepal – protection of the unopened bud • Calyx – term for collection of all sepals • Corolla – collection of petals • Stamen – consists of filament and anther • Androecium – all stamens; the male household; where pollen is produced • Pistil – the stigma, style, and ovary make up female part of plant • Gynoecium – all pistils; the female household; where eggs are produced • Anther – bi-lobed with 2 pollen chambers per lobe (4 total) • Pollination – transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma • Self Pollination – transfer between the same flower or within the same plant; low genetic variation • Cross Pollination – transfer between plants • Ovule – future seed enclosed within ovary of pistil • Embryo Sac – the female gametophyte • Double Fertilization – angiosperms produce a fertilized egg as well as primary endosperm cell Outline of Things to Know • The sexual cycle of angiosperms o Syngamy o Mitosis/Cytokinesis o Meiosis o The sporophyte generation o The gametophyte generation o At what point is the chromosome number halved? o At what point is the chromosome number restored? • Plant Organs o Organs composed of roots and shoots. o What plants exhibit primary growth? o Know the 6 types of Primary Tissues and their functions: § Primary Xylem § Primary Phloem § Epidermis § Parenchyma § Collenchyma § Sclerenchyma o What plants exhibit secondary growth? o What are the 2 major groups of Angiosperms? o Know the differences between monocots and dicots. (Growth, leaf types, root systems, cross section examples, etc.) o Know anatomy of roots, leaves, and stems o What are the functions of roots? o What are the functions of stems? o What are the functions of leaves? • Be able to explain Primary Growth and Secondary Growth • Know Vascular Cambium and Cork Cambium • What are the best conditions for plant growth? When is the plant dormant? • What regulates plant growth? • Know the 5 types of hormones, their locations, if they are growth promoting/inhibiting, and their effects o Auxins o Cytokinins o Gibberellins o Abscisic Acid o Ethylene • How is food broken down with Gibberellic Acids? • What are the internal and external conditions required for breaking dormancy? • How many essential elements are required for plant nutrition? o What are the Macronutrients and their uses? o What are the Micronutrients and their functions? • What is the importance of water in plants? • What are the properties of water? • Distinguish between xylem and phloem • Know principles of water and molecule movement and what processes require energy • Explain Transpiration o What are guard cells and how do they work? • What causes water loss? • Explain Translocation • Compare/Contrast Transpiration and Translocation • Provide an example for the source and the sink in a plant • Know parts of the ideal flower o Pedicel o Stamen o Pistil o Receptacle o Androecium o Style o Sepal o Pistil o Ovary o Calyx o Gynoecium o Filament o Corolla o Anther • Know the male sexual side of an angiosperm o Anther o Microspores o Tube cells o Pollen • How does pollen transfer between plants? What is the most common way pollen transfers? • Know the female sexual side of an angiosperm o Ovary o Ovule o Embryo sac o Polar nuclei o Micropyle • Know about Syngamy in an angiosperm o Tube cells and pollen tubes o Where does the pollen come in contact with the pistil? o Double Fertilization o Primary endosperm cell • Why does fruit taste good? • Know about seed germination o How are seeds dispersed? What is the most common method of dispersion? o What is the radicle? o How can you tell if a plant is a monocot or dicot as a seedling? • There are helpful diagrams posted on mycourses!
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