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UCI / Linguistics / LINGUIS 3 / arunima choudhury

arunima choudhury

arunima choudhury

Description

School: University of California - Irvine
Department: Linguistics
Course: Intro to LINGUIS
Professor: Arunima choudhury
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Linguistics, linguistics 3, arunima choudhury, choudhury, consonants, and vowels
Cost: 25
Name: Linguistics 3 - Choudhury
Description: These notes cover what was talked about in the first three lectures: Intro to Linguistics, Articulation of consonants, and Articulation of vowels. Hope this helps!
Uploaded: 04/10/2016
8 Pages 628 Views 0 Unlocks
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Linguistics 3 week 1 and 2 We also discuss several other topics like What are the factors that causes the decline of economy?

Language

  • an extremely important way of interacting w/ people around us; a means to communicate; a semiotic system (a set of signs) 1
  • a combination of a complex system of sounds, which form a set of words ) that follow a specified set of syntax, and is used by a particular community to transfer meaning information from one person to another in the society

If you want to learn more check out What is kekule and its role?

Signifier vs Signified

  • Ferdinand de Saussüre (Swiss Linguist) said language is made up of signifier + signified
  • Signifier = Form = String of sounds
  • Example: /dog/
  • Signified = meaning
  • Example: the actual dog

We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of an assistance robot?

6 Unique Properties of Language (Humans) (animal are complete opposite)

  • 1. Arbitrariness: There is no"natural" connection between a signifier/form and its signified/meaning; there is no arbitrary relation (exception = onomatopoeic words, those that imitate a sound an object makes
  • 2. Displacement: allows humans to communicate about things and events not present in immediate moment; humans can communicate about events at different points in time and Space
  • 3. Productivity (Creativity); when new situations arise or new objects have to be described, we manipulate our linguistic resources to produce new expressions and new sentences; because of productivity of human language, utterances in human language are infinite
  • 4. Cultural Transmission: human language is acquired within a social and cultural setup, NOT IN GENES
  • 5. Discreteness: every language comprises smaller discrete units (sounds like /p/, /b/, /n/, etc.)
  • 6. Duality: Language is organized at two levels simultaneously (duality or "double articulation") -> sounds and meaning

If you want to learn more check out What is meant by cryptology?

Linguistic Relativity

  • Sapir - Whorf Hypothesis; the way we see the world is reflected through our lang;  language has bi-directional relationship with our world view
  • Edward Sapir; distinguished professor of linguistics and anthropology at Yale
  • Benjamin Lee whorf: former student of Sapir, who by profession was a Chemical engineer

We also discuss several other topics like by the end of middle childhood, the capacity of long-term memory is
If you want to learn more check out What is a concerto grosso?

What is Linguistics?

  • scientific analyses of human language
  • language processed in brain
  • sound words
  • sentences
  • meaning of sentences
  • meaning in context/ Discourse
  • social use of language
  • (Qualitative and Quantitative)

Areas of Linguistics

  • Phonetics and Phonology: Study of articulation of sounds in a language and the principle behind the combination of sounds
  • Morphology: study of structure of words in a language
  • Syntax: study of sentence structure of a language and the principles behind sentence formation
  • Semantics: study of meaning
  • Pragmatics: study of meaning in context
  • Sociolinguistics: study of language used in social context  
  • Psycholinguistics: study of language processing in human mind

Sounds (consonants and vowels)

  • divided into 2 categories:

1. Articulation (Pronetics)

2. Organization (Phonology)

The Anatomy

  • Vocal tract: the cavity where speech sounds are produced
  • Larynx: also called voice box; hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to lungs and holding the vocal folds; controls pitch and volume of speech
  • Vocal folds/cords: mucous membranes stretched horizontally across larynx; vocal folds remain closed during speech production; they may or may not vibrate during speech production

How do we produce consonants?

  • all sounds produce from airflow and muscle contracting in the vocal system
  • Step 1: air flows from lungs to mouth
  • Step 2: air passes through larynx to vocal folds
  • Step 3: air moves on to the vocal tract
  • Step 4: While air Havels through vocal tract, which produces different consonant sounds
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