COM 217 Exam 1 Study Guide
COM 217 Exam 1 Study Guide COM217LEC-RL
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Date Created: 02/18/16
COM 217 Exam 1 Ch. 1 Four aspects of our world that dominate our thinking <20 years 1). Globalization Global economy and internet Lead to opportunities for entrepreneurs Problems: job loss, exploitation of workers (outsourcing), environmental problems (not a lot of regulation of chemicals) Complexities for business, government, culture -Ex: Toxic Toys: toys shipped to the U.S. had contaminating paint Lead to outsourcing (moving manufacturing where labor is cheap) 2). Terrorism A set of strategies that involve the use of unpredictable violence against individuals to create fear and suspicion Implications of 9/11 are everywhere -Personal freedom is lost -Airport security is invasive -We have become numb to regular/predictable acts of terrorism such as school shootings -Comm. scholars look at how they communicate, crisis communications, and information security and preservation of civil liberties 3). Climate Change Greenhouse gases -Sea levels, glaciers, permafrost -Weather effects (hurricanes) Human created, result of industrialization -Love of petrochemicals gases “Green” theme (study of) -In corporate communications and actions; changes our communication pattern -We are more likely to buy something if it has the green logo on it -How to communicate preparedness -Reaching individuals to make a difference -We go green when we can, but when it comes down to purchasing things we don’t care if it hurts the environment because we buy things based on prices not the environment Org’s are implicated in the debates about global warming and what to do about it- these debates are global because countries such as China and India are rapidly becoming industrialized 4). Demographic Change Characteristics used to describe the population – Age, income, race, height, education Trends from 2010 -Increase in Spanish speaking Americans (17%)- Hispanics surpass African Americans as largest minority -Shift of population to Sunbelt, Pacific Northwest -Projected Population over 65 years increase to 20% by 2050 -This might lead us to change our behavior by learning how to speak Spanish -Changes in demographics impacts what we do, where we go, how and why we communicate About Organizations Think about new hierarchies, structures, teams -Concept of Requisite Variety: as “complicated as the environment” Think about new ‘goals’: -Bottom line plus “green” Service organizations… not manufacturing Rise of the NGO’s globally -Span across geographic/political boundaries; influence on how things are working Virtual organizations -Ex: Facebook, LinkedIn, Five critical features of organization: social collectivity, organizational and individual goals, coordinating activity, organizational structure, and the embedding of the organization within an environment of other organizations About Communication Organizations in today’s society, technology -No communication if there is no shared meaning -Sending a message to someone and having no response= no communication occurred Communication as Constitutive versus Transactional o Constitutive: talks more about building shared meanings; comm. occurs where the meaning occurs which is in your head o Transactional Robert Craig Proposed a model of communication theory that helps sort out these various aspects He contrasts a transmission model with a constitutive model of comm. He believes that the transmission model can be useful to consider in some cases when you need to get evacuation information to residents Craig’s 1999 model approaches – Rhetorical: practice of art of discourse. Strategies of org leaders during times of crisis, discourse by leaders – Semiotic: intersubjective mediation by signs. Ways orgs create and sustain identity through corporate symbolism, corporate symbolism – Phenomenological: experience of otherness; dialogue. Using dialoge to mediate conflict between two employees - dispute facts – Cybernetic: process information; finding optimal ways to set up comm. network system for employees who telecommute – Sociopsychological: interaction and influence; expression, interaction, and influence. Using knowledge about personality and interaction style to improve conflict management programs Sociocultural: organizational culture; (re)production of social order. Looks at intersection of organizational, national, and ethnic cultures in multinational organizations – Critical: confronting issues; discursive reflection. Confronting the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace through programs designed to shift beliefs about gender and power Ch. 2 What is an Organization? No single right definition There is agreement on elements: o Social collectivity -People as a whole o Coordinated activity -Working together as a group/team o Individual and collective goals -Correspondence between your personal goals and organizational goals o Structure to facilitate interaction -Location of interaction ex: command in military o Embedded in larger organizational environment -Critical; organizations don’t exist on their own; they exist as a response to something; something the organization is part of What is Communication? Shared perceptions, process, transactional, symbolic Org Comm Understanding of context of org Contextual influence of org on communication process You need organization to function in society Communication forms organization Why study Org comm.? Change in organizational processes o Shift from agrarian society to an industrial society Change in organizational structures o Matrix modular organizations Understanding that comm. is a fundamental tool of leadership o Leading change by establishing a vision History of Org Comm 1950s- grew out of research in psychology, sociology, management Theories were developed in attempt to understand new phenomena Goal was to inform on how to best organize, manage (controlled), and succeed Theory Aim of science is theory To explain natural phenomena Akin to stories that help us understand dhow things work General explanations that link together many different behaviors Definition: Set of interrelated constructs, definitions, and propositions that represent a systematic view of phenomena, by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena Variables: differences amongst all these different facts; how much fluid is there? Can I measure how much fluid is there? Back in the Day Worked used to be done differently in an agrarian society until the Industrial Revolution o Thus people had to be generalistic- they had to know how to do all the activities o Variability They used the horses collectively in order to gather stuff together and then use it for something specific Industrial Revolution Move from farming/agriculture society to urbanization and differentiation of labor Assembly line o Reduced communication among workers due to specificity of task The age of machines o Less room for error o Don’t complain/demand more money o Easier to maintain o The line must never stop o To increase productivity in this type of environment- speed up the line to make them work faster (if sped up too much then mistakes are likely to be made) o Interchangeability parts o Bicycles led to Ford getting ideas/technology for the Ford T’s o People started to feel de-humanized because they felt like machines o Created concept of leisure time o Increase of profitability and productivity Machine Metaphor Specialization o People have specific tasks based on skill o Sometimes called division of labor- illustrates one way that org can be seen as machine-like Standardization o Notion of replace ability o People known as cogs o Low amount of skill needed o Easily replaced o Interchangeable Predictability o If something fails, you know the consequences o Identify problem and fix it (very rational/mechanical) Theorists Henry Fayol (1841-1925) o Wanted to control production costs to improve profits o Classical management o Put together principles and elements in how this should be organized o Able to determine that there is a difference between the people doing the work and the people who decide what work needs to be done Max Weber (1864-1920) o Bureaucracy Frederic Taylor o Scientific management (or Taylorism) Classical Management Organization of production in competitive enterprise o Has to control production costs Elements of management o What managers should do o The WHAT of managerial work o Planning, Organizing, Command, Control Principles of management o How managers should do it o HOW o Presented as a checklist o 4 sets- each of which deals with a different aspect of how an org should be managed Elements of Classical Management: Planning Management sets production goals, transformation of materials Involves looking to the future to determine the best way to attain organizational goals Organizing What machines/workers will do Arrangement of human resources (employees) and the evaluation of those employees Command Managers set tasks for workers in order to meet organizational goals Coordination Ensure that there is harmony between machines, workers, and raw materials The separate activities of an organization must be harmonized into a single whole Control Adherence to goals and activities Making sure people are doing what they are supposed to be Involves the comparison between goals and activities to ensure that the organization is functioning in the manner planned Principles of Management 1. Organizational Structure Scalar Chain- strict vertical hierarchy, communication follows specified paths o Organization should be arranged in a strict vertical hierarchy and that comm. should be largely limited to this vertical flow (move up and down the chart) Unity of Command- employees have 1 boss; so they know who to take their orders from/and who not to take their orders from o Keeps productivity high o An employee should receive orders regarding a particular task from only one supervisor Unity of Direction- activities with similar goals placed under single boss o Activities having similar goals should be placed under a single supervisor Division of Labor: limited number of tasks per employee o Set to one task; can’t work on wheels and spokes o Work can best be accomplished if employees are assigned to a limited number of specialized tasks Order: specific place for each employee and task o There should be an appointed place for each employee and task within the organization Span of Control: managers control limited number employees o Managers should not have too many employees due to having to monitor them o Managers will be most effective if they have control of a limited number of employees; generally suggests a limit of 20-30 employees for st 1 level managers and 6 employees for higher- level managers Organizational Chart/hierarchy came from classical management 2.Organizational Power Power: control/who can tell you what to do and you do it; has to be within your ability Centralization- decision making most effective when highly centralized o Power should be centralized o Org will be most effective when central management has control over decision-making and employee activities o Believed that contingency factors such as firm size and the personal characteristics of the managers and employees could influence the optimal level of centralization Authority and responsibility o Authority is derived from hierarchy and personal characteristics o Responsibility must accompany authority Manager in the system it meant that you are responsible if things gets messed up o Does this always happen Discipline- people should obey rules and managers o Notion of insubordination without discipline o No rules- chaos and production wouldn’t be as efficient 3.Organizational Reward Remuneration of Personnel o Suggests money is peoples primary motivation o Remuneration =Getting paid o Employees should be rewarded for their work with appropriate salaries and benefits o Based on the notion that organization members primary motivation is financial and that work performance is dependent on the amount of remuneration they receive Equity- treat people fairly, justly Tenure o Overall reward people with job security and fair pay o You want to keep your workers because its expensive to get new workers and train them o Org should guarantee sufficient time on the job for employees to achieve max. performance o Too much tenure stability could be counterproductive 4.Organizational Attitude Focus on general interest/interest of the company o Subordination of individual interest to general interest o Org can be effective only when the interests of the whole take precedence over the interests of individuals Initiative- managers should value employee effort to work in interest of org Espirit de Corps- all for one, one for all o No dissention among ranks Summary of Fayol Prescriptive theory not descriptive or explanatory Weber German sociologist Same era as Fayol Took a more scholarly approach to management theory o “do these things and your organization will be better” aka prescribed o Does not advocate specific structure Ideal type theory o Focuses on bureaucracy Believed these would come to dominate society because of their technical superiority Wanted to protect organizations Similar to classical management theory, Weber believes Org’s need Clearly defined hierarchy Division of labor Centralization re: decision making Different in specification of “Closed System” Org is insulated from outside forces o Environmental forces Thompson (1967) Technical cores, highly insulated Doctor-patient consultation Insulated by physical room, receptionists, rules re: appointments etc Major Focus: Importance of Rules You probably have some experience with this A rule for every possible contingency Most important: Functioning of Authority System of power, authority, discipline Authority based on either o Traditional- long standing beliefs o Charismatic- personality, ability to attract others Cults, Donald Trump o Rational/Legal-expertise (rational), norms- obedience is given to norms rather than person. This dominates bureaucracies o Norms- process of how expertise should be gained by people Result: impersonal and individuality is discouraged Frederic Taylor PA born, Harvard educated Leader “Efficiency” movement in management How efficiently a job could be done Problems with apprenticeship system and piecework reward system o Both of which were dominant at the time o Piecework system where individual components would differ from one product to another o Wanted to get to a point where everything was standardized Apprenticeship Could lead to unequal skill sets Piecework Consequences of very efficient worker joining org Rate busters, coordination of lower productivity, social pressure to conform 4 tenets There is one best way to do every job o Time and motion studies Proper selection of employees o Some people are good at some things… Training of employees o If you cant train them, fire them Inherent different between management and employees o Management think, laborers labor Scientific methods used to determine best practices o What- measurements, hypotheses o Systematic- variation and measuring; comparisons back and forth Scientifically select people for specific jobs o How? What do you think this theory says about average workers? o Communication in classical approaches What is communication like in organizations prescribed by these theories? o Content o Direction of flow (vertical/downward) o Channel (usually written) o Style (formal) Content Some things are okay to talk about, some not o Emphasis on suppressing individual interests o So, don’t talk about personal stuff o Task oriented communication Overall social communication is discouraged in these classical organizations Communication should only be about work o Task-related comm., innovation-related comm., and maintenance-related comm. o Innovative: comm. about new ideas; discouraged in classical organizations for vast majority of employees o Maintenance: comm. on social topics that maintains human relationships Direction of Communication Vertical communication is most important for classical organizations o Opposed to horizontal, or free flowing Horizontally o Employees at the same level talking to each other Free-flowing o All organizational members are encouraged to talk with all other members Most important route: vertical o Vast majority flows downward in the form of orders, rules, and directives and there is little feedback that moves upwards Likelihood of horizontal and free-flowing increases at higher levels where tasks involve more planning and coordination Horizontal and free-flowing is the exception within classical theories Specifically downward communication o Leaves little opportunity for thinks like… Feedback Potential opportunity for horizontal communication increases as you climb the hierarchy Channel Lots to choose from o F2F, Email, Letter/Memo, Phone, IM other Most common o Logical given emphasis on rules, best practices, etc. which suggest rule books and manuals Written is most prevalent in classical Style Top-down Written Task related Formal o Use of titles to separate management from employee o Differences in vocab o Nonverbal differences Ch. 3 Human Relations approach Dramatic change from classical approaches o Which are characterized by search for efficiency, productivity increases o Through systems of structures Power, compensation, attitude Classical approaches disregarded… History How did this approach begin? Hawthorne studies, 1920s, 1930s Western Electric Hawthorne Plant, Illinois Lead by Elton Mayo, Harvard Research Question: how do changes in environemtn affect the productivity of workers? Consistent with Taylor’s sci-management theory Hawthorne Phases Illumination Relay Assembly Test Room Interview Program Bank Wiring Room Illumination Studies Designed to determine influence of lighting Prior to Mayo involvement 2 groups: Control & Experimental Control: lighting held constant; no difference Experimental: lighting systematically raised and lowered; productivity increase no matter what the lighting Relay Assembly Isolated a group of 6 women who assembled telephone relay systems N=6 (female) o Task: assemble telephone relay systems Manipulation o Incentive plans o Rest pauses o Temperature o Humidity o Work hours o Refreshments Social satisfactions arising out of human association in work were more important determinants of work behavior in general and output in particular than were any of the physical and economic aspects Results: Productivity increased under all of those factors Social satisfaction from human contact most important o Influence of the social group on productivity o Also-attention paid by researchers Interview Program Interview thousands of employees o Found people were interested in talking about… o Cooperation problems more the result of emotionally based attitudes, opposed to objective, situational variables o Problems on the job were mostly due to social situations/emotions Bank Wiring Room Naturalistic observation (non-experimental) Norms emerged Proper level of productivity- systematic soldiering Social pressure was applied to the people who didn’t want to slow down- binging taking a wrench and wacking someone to get them to slow down Hawthorne Findings Productivity changes associated with change in environment o Light, temperature, breaks, etc o But also financial incentives o Consistent with Classical approaches Concluded output increased due to attention Open communication improved attitudes and productivity Findings = If you want people to work well you really have to communicate with them- get to know workers to build relationship Real significance: All of these lead to the theorists that developed human relations Also concluded that output increased due to social factors Assembly room women- bonded Social pressure in Bank Wiring room Management style o Open communication between management and employees during studies Findings Revisited Subsequent statistical analyses suggest inaccurate results o Incentives, management pressure, and worker selection are better explanations Scientific Management Doesn’t change the fact that results were widely influential for a long time Regardless- the result was a focus on open communication The Real Significance The discovery of informal organization and communication structures o Which exist in all organizations Served as a springboard for theorist to human relation approaches Human Relations Theories (40s-60s) Maslow o Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg o Motivation-Hygiene McGregor o Theory X Theory Y Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) Have to fulfill the lowest need before the others o Social relationships at work not satisfying if you don’t make appropriate wage and have unsafe working conditions Triangle Physiological, Safety, Affiliation, Esteem, Self- actualization o Physiological: health, food, sleep o Safety: shelter, removal from danger o Affiliation: social; love, affection, being part of groups o Esteem: prestige and feeling of accomplishment o Self-actualization: achieving one’s full potential Through the provision of jobs that allow an individual to exercise responsibility and creativity in the workplace Mixed empirical support o But, does provide clear examples of human relations principals o Reflects a major shift in organizational communication research and philosophy Herzberg’s Factors Affecting Job Attitude Leading to Dissatisfaction “Hygiene Factors” Company policy Supervision Relationship with Boss Work conditions Salary Relationship with peers Leading to Satisfaction “Motivators” Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Hertzberg looked at needs in a different way o Looked at different factors/needs o Found that theres 2 lists o Things that lead toward dissatisfaction- things that motivate people in a negative way o Things that lead to satisfaction o There are different scales of dissatisfaction As u achieve, you tend to want to do more Work itself- tends to motivate u and leads to satisfaction; if you enjoy your job Theory X, Y (MCGREGOR) MIT Prof o Strong advocate of human relations X&Y represent divergent assumptions managers can hold about organization functioning Theory X Managers Management responsible for all organization, spending o They should direct people motivate them, control them Believe man is indolent, lazy o Lacks ambition o Resistant to change o A dupe Beliefs widely held but incorrect He is inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs Theory X managers assumes that a strong and forceful hand is essential for harnessing the efforts of unmotivated workers Theory Y assumed that workers are highly motivated to satisfy achievement and self-actualization needs and that the job of the manager is to bring out the natural tendencies of these intelligent and motivated workers Theory Y Managers People enjoy responsibly o Are willing to learn new things o Exercise self direction, motivation, control Currently, people you have limited opportunity to use intellect etc. Step Back: Comparison Comparison to classical approach Object to understand social communication in organization; org is maintained through establishing relationship Metaphor: maintenance communication; open comm. and maintaining comm. w workers o Not about task Maslow: motivation Herzberg: explicit motivation McGregor: Manager beliefs, implications Result: Content of Communication o Task accompanied by maintenance communication Maslow- affiliation Herzberg- affiliation v. dissatisfaction Direction: What is strongly encouraged? Informal and up and down/2 way Classical emphasis: formal and written Structure Change: Thinking in a different way; its not just about me and my employees- think about yourself as an equal System IV: situational factors using different styles Participative: team management system 4; using intellective everyone involved- team environment Table 3.2 … ESSAY QUESTION Looking at models Talks about content, direction, channel, style Innovation: using cognitive abilities in order to do something that makes your company better all directions: everyone can talk to anyone More gets done informally Human Resources Approach Classical and Human Relations contributions to theory And adds an emphasis on communication o Cognitive contributions employees make with their thoughts and ideas Commitment What led theorists to this emphasis o Hawthorne Studies-specific problem o Feeling of insufficiency in modeling employee needs to managing organizational goals Misuse of Human Relations Principles High order needs will be satisfied by job decision management style, etc which leads to employee job satisfaction which leads to productivity o Job satisfaction link to productivity is tenuous at best o Caring for employee needs can be faked by wary managers o Employees sense behaviors not matching beliefs The Difference Participation o Relations: participation hoping for satisfaction leads to productivity o Resources: participation hoping for ideas and commitment Human resources requires.. o Fundamental change in communication o Fundamental change in organization and structure Theories Managerial Grid (Blake, Mouton) System IV (Likert) Managerial Grid Training tool Balance concern for production and people Impoverished management (1,1) cares little for either the goals of the org or the people in it and would do the minimum necessary to get by Country club management: (1,9): high concern for people and low concern for production; concentrating on efforts of the establishment of a pleasant workplace with friendly and comfortable human relations Authority-compliance management: (9,1) high concern for production and low concern for people; like those of scientific and classical management- would endeavor to arrange all components of the workplace including people in order to maximize efficiency and attain goals Team management: (9,9) high concern for both; best way to achieve org goals is through the interdependent action of committed taleneted and satisfied individuals Middle of the road management: (5,5) attempts to balance concern for people and production without going too far for either goal “compromise” System IV Theorizes that there are a number of forms an org can take and these various forms are more or less effective in satisfying org and individual goals Organization Form Explication o Differentiated in terms of Communication, motivational factors, decision making, goal setting, control and performance Climate Sys I: exploitive authoritative Characterized by motivation through threats and fear, downward and inaccurate communication, top- level decision making and the giving of orders; includes worst features of classical and scientific management Sys II: benevolent authoritative Motivation through economic and ego rewards, limited communication, decision making at top, goal setting through orders and comments, top-level control- does not incorporate explicit foal of exploiting workers like system I; believes this is best for the workers Sys III: consultative Differs markedly from the others; decisions are made at the top and control still rests at the upper levels but before decisions are made, employees are consulted and their views are taken into consideration- goals are set after discussion and there is a high level of communication moving both up and down Sys IV: participative Provides a sharp contrast to the other systems types; decision making is performed by every organizational member and goals are set by complete work groups; control is exercised at all levels of the organization Sys I: worst systematic and classical has to offer Sys IV: values and encourages and mandates structural attributes o Linking pin (in network terms, centrality) Ch. 4 Prescriptive v. suggestive Prescriptive theories: If you do these things then there will be some result- specifically improvements Concerned with improvement of decision making System Approaches A new metaphor o Dissatisfaction with mechanistic models o Simple Machine Model cannot cope with complexity Two new metaphors: 1. Systems Metaphor Views organizations as complex organisms that must interact with their environment to survive 2. Cultural Metaphor Anthropological approach in understanding organizations as sites of interlinked beliefs, values, behaviors, and artifacts Turn to nature o Organisms, biological o Argued that systems concepts could be applied to a large number of fields in both the natural and social sciences Molecules, cells, complex organisms, species= system components Influential Books Katz and Kahn “The Social psychology of Organizations” 1966 Farace, Monge, and Russell “Communicating and organizing” 1977 Difference from Classical approaches Shift from how people should behave to how to study them Linear, prescriptive, formulaic Important because: Realization that organization’s are very complex and it’s not reasonable to suggest we can prescribe specific behaviors and structures To be “ecologically valid” need to examine organization’s actual behavior in actual context Systems Itinerary Systems Theory Origin Overview of basic concepts Apply to organizations: Components, processes, properties Consideration of theories Communication Networks Weick’s theory of Organizing Systems Theory origin Biology and engineering Van Bertalanffy (theoretical biologist) o Concerned with the extent to which intellectual disciplines were isolated from one another o Argued systems concepts could apply across large number of fields in both natural and social sciences 1968 General Systems Theory Systems theory received extensive attention in the 60s/70s Katz & Kahn Social Psychology of Organizations o They took an open systems approach to organizational behavior Complex open systems approach to organizational behavior Require interaction within the environment Survival System Components In an organization- it’s the people and the departments that make it up The first task of a systems theorist is to identify the relevant components 2. Look at how those parts are arranged and how they work Three concepts characterize system components: hierarchical ordering, interdependence, and permeability UB- example of systematic organization Internal Formal hierarchy o President, provost, dean, department chair Informal Network o Presentations, sports teams, faculty lounge External Community relations, city/state relations, recruiting students/faculty Relationships outside of the university System Concepts Components o Parts Processes o Ways parts interact Components: I. Hierarchical Ordering Arrangement of systems, subsystems Biological example: Human Body Organizational example: UB part of SUNY Definition: A system consists of smaller subsystems and is embedded within larger supersystems Difference in meaning of hierarchy Classical: lines of authority Systems: Small subsystems embedded within larger supersystems II. Interdependence Functioning of component a depends on Biological example: human body- cardio, neurological, digestive systems etc Organizational example: academic departments, libraries, admissions Organization’s relationships with higher-order components o UB’s organization is part of a bigger organization- SUNY o There are larger systems that subsystems can be part of Definition: System components depend on each other for effective functioning III. Permeability An organism needs to have some sort of Boundaries and they need to be selective- o Letting some things in and some things out Variable All systems require some level to survive A system as a whole has to be open to its environment and to the components within the system System as a whole as well as internal components All systems require some degree of permeability Definition: A system is open to its environment, and system components are open to each other o Ex of boundary at UB: a door- you know when to come into specific classrooms and when not to, admissions offices- whose in and whose not System Processes How do hierarchical, interdependence, permeable components function together? Input-Throughput-Output Model (Farace, Monge, Russell) o Linear o Input materials/information from environment, work on these materials through some processes, return transformed output to environment o A system inputs materials/information from the environment through its permeable boundaries o The system works on these inputs with a transformational process aka throughput o Lastly, the system returns the transformed output to the environment Any subsystem that is part of a component- there is going to be a process of how the information gets inside etc. o One subsystem’s output is typically the input for another subsystem Helps us understand how stuff works and could potentially help us predict things Specific Processes Exchange Definition: Input and output processes require exchange between the system and the environment. Throughput processes require exchange among system components Both input and output o Raw materials o Completed products o Both input of materials and information and the output of transformed materials/information require a process of exchange with the environment outside the system o “A process of the input-throughput-output operation that requires interaction with the environment” Directly related to permeability o Some organizations are highly permeable More information is able to go in and out Ex: UB o Some are closed Pharmaceutics companies- they put billions of dollars into the development into medicines and any information leaked could be disastrous to their company CIA, Military, etc.- little information is passed in and out- it mostly stays within the boundary Feedback Definition: System control is maintained through feedback. Corrective (negative) feedback serves to keep a system on a steady course. Growth (positive) feedback serves to transform or change a system Most important for throughput o This is where it becomes a loop Because this phase collaboration, negotiation Facilitates interdependent functioning component Two types of feedback 1. Negative: corrective, deviation-reducing Helps to maintain steady system functioning Ex: supervisor informing waiter about his error so he can change his message to the diners 2. Positive: Growth, deviation-amplifying Serves to change system functioning through growth and development Ex: Restaurant manager notices his customers are highly involved with social media, so he might suggest to his supervisor that they develop an online presence Serves to change the entire system rather than maintain it System Properties Properties that emerge from interaction of components via processes Holism Definition: Because of component interdependence, a system is more than the sum of its parts More than the sum of its parts o Putting them all together we get something more than that o Ex: from a whole-istic point of view how is a neighborhood community greater than the sum of its individuals- they can work together to accomplish different things that one person couldn’t do themselves Specifically in terms of output potential o They have this because of the interdependent nature of their components and the information that flows through feedback and exchange processes Equifinality Definition: because of component interdependence, there are multiple paths to any system outcome Multiple paths to final state Many paths to achieve a goal The complexity of the system allows you to solve problems in multiple ways Ex: How to increase sales of product X o The goal: to improve sales o Different ways to achieve this: different ways to advertise/advertise more, lower the price, etc. Negative Entropy Definition: because of system openness, a system has the ability to avoid deterioration and thrive Open systems have the ability to sustain themselves and grow All organizations have to fight entropy Closed systems will deteriorate (change or die) o Blackberry- dissolution Ex: What must UB do to ensure we will continue to exist- we need to get students: providing a good education, promotion/advertising to sell the university, keep up to date with technology, maintain physical features, constant investment, HAVE TO EXERCISE OUR PERMEABLE BOUNDARIES- ABILTIY TO LISTEN TO PEOPLES NEEDS/DESIRES/WANTS etc. Entropy: measure of extent of equalization o UNLESS there is an effort to fight deterioration- the system will fall apart/die o Act of randomness o Glass of ice water… over time o Open systems sustain themselves o Dependent on active exchange with the environment Requisite Variety Definition: because of system openness, a system should maintain the internal complexity necessary to cope with external complexity Components & processes of a system as diverse as environment ‘Matching complexity’ o Allows organization to deal with information and problems in the environment Organization has to recognize, absorb, and deal with the variations in its environment in order to survive and evolve o Political campaigns Unopposed, urban v. rural Monge and Eisenberg Differentiate between positional tradition of studying comm.. Networks and the relational tradition Positional is formal organizational chart that defines the prescribed flow of communication within an organization o They say that formal chart is often a poor reflection of the actual system of relationships Therefore, the relational tradition considers the actual communication relationships that emerge through the activity of the organizational system Theories Weick’s Theory of Organizing Communications Networks Weick’s Theory of Organizing Illuminate process of organizing, sensemaking Evoluationary theory, information theory (looking at what’s necessary for communication),, general systems theory ‘The resolving of equivocality via interlocked behavior in conditionally related processes’ Weick Org’s exist in physical, informational environments Enactment- people are a part of their environment 1 Stage: Where Wilson hears about the tweet Suggests that different organizational members will imbue information inputs with different meanings creating different information environments You might imbue situations with different meanings depending on your past experiences, goals, and personalities Major goal of organizing: the reduction of equivocality in the information environment Equivocality- uncertainty, reducing equivocality is essential Often equivocality high- need to ‘make sense’ o Organizations in highly competitive/quickly changing business environments/time of crisis- it is high Proposes that organizational members use assembly rules and communication cycles Something with low equivocality is predictable Making sense 1 of 2 things occurs: assembly rules or communication cycles occur Assembly rules- procedures to guide organizational members in set patterns of sensemaking o Particularly useful when the information environment is not equivocal Resumes, market reports, budgets o Good for low equivocality Communication cycles- react to ideas, feedback o When sensemaking is ineffective, retention process is proposed in which rules and cycles are saved for future organizational use o This occurs when uncertainty is high o When you get information you don’t know how to make sense of o When you rule out that everything that used to work for you wont help in this situation you use communication cycles Retention: the process in which effective rules and cycles are saved for future organization use Causal map: Ecological change (something happened in the environment ex: a company deciding to buy their company) enactment process occurs (this is when the people in the organization become aware of the ecological change ex: Wilson receiving the tweet) Selection process (how do we deal with this? Can we use assembly rules? If not then communication cycles to figure out a plan of what to do) Retention: if the plan worked out really well then they will RETAIN it (things that are retained go into the assembly rules to use in future situations) Using input-throughput-process Using hierarchical ordering, interdependence, permeability (Wilson is the permeability boundary because he looked at the tweet and decided to tell others in the company about it) etc. Weick’s model Emphasizes- environment, permeability, interdependence o Requisitie variety o Sense making processes depend on equivocality (how complex a particular thing is)) LOOK AT TABLE 4.1 Communication Networks Research approach to studying communication systems Studies relations among participants o The relation is the unit of analysis o Means to map and analyze networks of relations What types of relationships could there be Social- Friendship, Task (professional -LinkedIn) Economic-Bank transactions (how money flows) Electronic- SMS (IM), cell phone usage, computer network, email etc. (how things happen via these things) Put together a map of who is connected to who Prescribed Network Big bossassistant to big boss—> etc On paper it talks about how task-relation ought to work Emergent Network Looks at information that might be collected from these individuals Puts linkages in between the people Who interacts with who Linkages have directions- worker 2 interacts with worker 3 Find out who has the most connections with people Connectivity Matrix Puts in a 1 if that person is connected or not Another way of looking at Emergent Network Numeric way instead of arrows Measure of how central a person is More linkages= person is a source of information Network Data Collection Self Report Who do you know Helpful to limit responses to a finite group Log files (electronic tracking) Send/receive logs from email servers Differences/Benefits Network Properties Network consists of a system of links among components (individuals, work groups, organizations) There are a number of ways we can characterize networks as a whole It looks at: Content: what flows in the linkages in the network Mode: Medium- telephone, emails, IM, etc Density: A highly dense network has many interconnections among network members. A less dense network is more loosely interconnected Measure of connectivity, Max: n(n-1)/2 ex: 6 people, max is 6*5/2 = 15 Level of analysis: Intraorganizational networks look at connections among individuals within a given organization whereas interorganizational networks consider links among many organizations Internal, external Basic measure of centrality in a network is Degree of Centrality Network Links Through each of these linkages we can look at properties- Strength- Frequency, Endurance Might be one where there is a great deal of communication flowing between two people, one that has endured over a long period of time, or one in which the exchange is deemed important by participants Symmetry- Refers to whether the two nodes involved in the link have the same kind of relationship with each other Coworkers: symmetrical Boss to worker: asymmetrical Multiplexity- number of kinds of content that flow through a particular link Two organizations that share material resources, information, and personnel would have this Talk to boss about task related stuff but not social content Network Roles Definition: the ways in which individuals are connected with each other Each node within a network can be described in a variety of ways Isolates- doesn’t talk to anyone/lacks links Dyads Group members-individuals Bridge- someone who communicates with individuals outside of the group Liaison- someone who talks to people who have radically different connections within the network Different from prescribed network Network Analysis Usage examples Study affects of relocations (when u move an office- only about 30% of linkages are maintained; org has to reform), downsizing, telecommuting Predictive paths of information flow--if you wanted to spread a rumor in an organization about something to do with the head of the boss- who would you go to spread it the fastest? You would go to the person with the most linkages/connections- or it could depend on content if its task oriented or social then that would affect who you would go to also Leadership style within workgroups o Commitment and responsibility exchange Average workers in a unit v. cohort members Prescriptive Views of culture During late 20 century, concept of culture took business and academic community by storm o Metaphor of culture resonated o Cultural metaphor opened up new areas of research o Culture became part of everyday talk Deal and Kennedy’s Strong Cultures They argue that business success can be enhanced through the development of a strong culture Put together ideas about really good organizations about strong cultures – their strong culture made them a better organization All of the organizations they looked at had these things in common Business success can be enhanced through development of “strong” culture Values o Beliefs and visions that members hold for the organization o UB example- education is good for society Heroes o Individuals who exemplify an organization’s values o USA example- soldiers? Rites and rituals o Ceremonies through which an organization celebrates its values o Everyone participates and knows the value of it o UB example- Commencement/Graduation to celebrate accomplishments Cultural network o Communication system through which cultural values are instituted and reinforced- Formal and information, reinforcement tool People know how they interact within organization They know the rules of how to interact There are actual tools to reinforce this Ex of a tool: UB linked- all the organizations we can become involved in Peter and Waterman’s “Excellent Culture” They were attempting to identify aspects of organizational culture that were prevalent in high performing companies Books not widely embraced by academics o Provide prescriptions for managerial practice rather than descriptions of organizational life Values prescribed are ones that make positive contributions to organizations However fall short in 2 respects o Naïve to assume there is single cultural formula o Treat culture as a “thing” that an organization “has” o This is risky because when we objectify culture we de-emphasize the complex processes through which organizational culture is created and sustained Themes for Excellent Organizations: Table 4.2 1. A bias for action Excellent organizations react quickly and do not spend excess time planning and analyzing 2. Close relations to the customer Gear decisions and actions to the needs of customers 3. Autonomy and entrepreneurship Encourage employees to take risks in the development of new ideas 4. Productivity through people Encourage positive and respectful relationships among management and employees 5. Hands-on, value-driven Have employees and managers who share the same core value of productivity and performance 6. Stick to the knitting Stay focused on what they do best and avoid racial diversification 7. Simple form, lean staff Avoid complex structures and divisions of labor 8. Simultaneous loose-tight properties Exhibit both unity of purpose and the diversity necessary for innovation Alternative Approaches to Culture Interpretive approach- requires consideration of the way individuals make sense of their world through their communicative behaviors Distinction between prescriptive approaches to culture and approaches taken by cultural scholars o Culture is complicated o Culture is emergent o Culture is not unitary o Culture is often ambiguous Organizational Cultures are complicated “Markers” used to investigate culture o Rites- these differentiate among cultures o Ceremonies o Values o Belief systems o Metaphors o Stories o Communication rules- o Hallway talk- can be a lens for viewing culture Organizational Cultures are emergent Cultures are socially created through the interaction of organizational members Communication is “constitutive of culture” not merely transmitted Communication processes conceptualized as “performances” o Interactional- they require the participation of multiple organizational members o Contextual- they are embedded in organizational situations and history o Episodic-they are distinct events in organizational life o Improvisational- there are no scripts that guide the members Organizational Cultures are not unitary There are a number of sites where culture might develop o Vertical slice-Division o Horizontal slice- particular hierarchical level o Networks of personal contacts-subcultures might emerge around these or o Demographic similarity These cultural sites serve as breeding grounds for the emergence of shared meaning Organizational Cultures are often ambiguous Not always clear picture of organization’s culture o Tough to pin down.. in flux o Fragmentation perspective Important when noting rapidly changing organizations Cultural Approach considers: Organizations as emergent networks of values, norms, stories, behaviors, and artifacts System Approach looks at: Organizations as complex interactions of system components and processes Critical Approach emphasizes: Organizational power and aspire to the emancipation of marginalized voices within the organizational context Possible Test Questions 1. A typical problem that line managers face on a daily basis is absenteeism. It is difficult to meet productivity goals when employees skip coming to work. This was as true 100 years ago as it is today. Based on your knowledge of Classical, Human Relations and Human Resources theory and the implications of communication content, direction, channels and style for these three approaches, describe what you would observe in a manager attempting to address this problem guided by each of these theories. Specifically, what are the behaviors of the manager and the behaviors of the employees for each theory related to the absenteeism problem? Divide your answer into three parts: Classical observations, Human Relations observations and Human Resources observations. Be sure your answer is readable. Use both sides of this page for your answer. 2. Emily's clothing store is in disarray. She has tried to run a "democratic" organization with no one in charge of anyone else, assuming that a loose structure would convince everyone to work together in harmony. To put it bluntly, it's not working. Choose four of Fayol's principles of management that you think would be most helpful to get Emily's store back on track. Describe these principles in the abstract and in terms of how they could be instituted at Emily's store? Why do you think these particular principles are helpful? 3. Wilson just received a tweet that the company where he works is being bought by their chief competitor. Describe how Weick’s Model of Organizing would be used to explain how Wilson and his co-workers makes sense of this change in their workplace.
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