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Ch. 4 Review Questions

by: kya fernandez

Ch. 4 Review Questions 105

Marketplace > University of Miami > Geography > 105 > Ch 4 Review Questions
kya fernandez
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Questions posted by professor on blackboard and responses from lectures/ textbook material
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by kya fernandez on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 105 at University of Miami taught by Boswell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Geography in Geography at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 4 Review: “Diversity Amid Globalization” 1. In terms of its level of urbanization (percent of population living in cities), where does Latin America rank among the world’s developing (Third World) countries? ­ 3/4 of the regions 542 million people live in cities, making it the most urbanized region of the developing world 2. During the past 40 years, about what percentage of the Brazilian Amazon has been deforested (most of which has taken place along the Arc of Deforestation)? ­ Close to 20% of the Brazilian Amazon has been deforested in the last 40 years 3. Coffee is the second most valuable commodity exported from Latin America (after oil) and recently environmentalists and nongovernmental groups have promoted coffee certified as Fair Trade. What is Fair Traded coffee? ­ Fair Traded coffee means that the growers (often smallholders) receive a higher price for their crop (at least 10% above market price). The use of organic methods lower costs; therefore, fair trade certification increases earnings. 4. The smog that occurs in the basin in which Mexico City is aggravated by a thermal (temperature) inversion. What is a temperature inversion and why does it intensify Mexico City’s smog problems? ­ Thermal (Temperature) inversion is when a layer of warm air traps a layer of cold air near the surface that is filled with exhaust, industrial smoke, garbage, and fecal matter. It intensifies Mexico City’s smog problems because smog was already a problem because of high elevation and immense size. 5. During the 20th Century, Mexico City sank about 30 feet, causing massive problems for buildings located here. What has been the primary cause of this sinking? ­ The metropolis grows and pumps more water from its aquifer, so subsidence worsens. 6. Why is the city of Curitiba known as the “green city” of Brazil? ­ Some relatively simple yet innovative planning decision has been made. More than 2 million people inhabit this industrial and commercial center, yet it is significantly less polluted than other similar sized cities. Because the city was vulnerable to flooding, city planners built drainage canals and set aside the remaining natural draining areas as parks. They did this well before growth would have made this policy difficult. 7. What has caused the Andes mountains to be the highest in South America? - The subduction of the Nasca plate under the South American plate 8. What are Altiplanos of South America? - An elevated plateau straddling the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes 9. There are 3 major shields located in South America. What are shields and where are the 3 located in South America? ­ Guiana Shield – Guyana ­ Brazilian Shield – Much of Brazil, Amazon Basin in North to Plata Basin in South ­ Andes Shield – Northwestern Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego Shields are humid lowlands interspersed with large upland plateaus 10.What are the 3 major river basins located in South America? ­ Amazon ­ Plata ­ Orinoco 11.Why is the Itaipu Dam important for Paraguay and southern Brazil? ­ It blocks the flow of the Parana River on the border between Paraguay and Brazil. The power station generates all of Paraguay’s electricity needs and much of southern Brazil’s power 12.What is the concept of Altitudinal Zonation in Latin America? ­ The relationship between cooler temperatures at higher elevations and changes in vegetation. 13.What is the El Nino weather phenomenon in South America? ­ A warm Pacific current arrives along the normally cold coastal waters of Ecuador and Peru in December. This produces torrential rains and can result in floods or storms that kill many people 14.The retreat of Andean glaciers and increase of incidences of dengue fever durin the past 50 years are both indicative of what climatic phenomenon? - Global Warming 15. You should know the characteristics of the Latin American City Model on page 143. A. What is the CBD? - Commercial and geographic heart of a city B. What is the Zone of Maturity? - In the inner city and contains the elite housing outside the elite sector C. What is the Zone of In Situ Accretion? - Area where lower income people live D. What are Squatter Settlements? - People that live in the slums E. What is the Zone of Gentrification? - Wealthier people rent property in lower income communities F. What is the Spine? - Newer commercial and business strip that extends from the core to newer parts of the city G. What is a Disamenity? - Poorest parts of cities that in extreme are not connected to regular cities services and are controlled by gangs and drug lords. 16.What is the informal sector of an economy? ­ The economic sector that relies on self-employed, low-wage jobs that are virtually unregulated and untaxed 17.What does the word latifundia mean? ­ Large estates of land used for farming. Usually passed down from one generation to another (stays in the family). 18.What is shifting cultivation? Also, check page 600 in your textbook to better understand this term. ­ Minifundia or shifting cultivation is the process of cutting, burning, and planting is moved to another small plot not far away 19.What is the concept of agrarian reform in Latin America? - Peasants demanding that land be redistributed 20.You should know that the 1960s and 1970s were the two decades of the highest of population growth in Latin America’s history. This unprecedented growth was due to two factors. What were these two factors? ­ High fertility rates ­ Increasing life expectancy 21.Spain and Portugal have become increasingly popular as destinations for emigrants from Latin America. What are some of the reasons for this? (I will have to help you with answering this question during the review for your second exam because this is not covered in the current edition of your textbook.) - Because most people want to visit ancestral roots 22.Today, the largest number of immigrants to the United States come from what country? - Mexico 23.What are remittances and why are they important in Latin America? ­ Remittances are monies sent back home that help sustain family members. They are important in Latin America because they help the poor feed families and survive 24. What is the concept of immigrant transnationalism? ­ The ability to straddle livelihoods between two countries. Immigrants maintain contact with loved ones while working and living in another country 25.What was the demographic collapse that characterized Latin America after the arrival of Columbus in 1492? ­ Cultural change and human loss resulting from the cataclysmic encounter between European and Indian worlds 26.At the time that Columbus arrived in Latin America, how did the size of the American Indian population in the Americas compare to that of Western Europe? ­ Americas had 54 million inhabitants and Western Europe had 42 million. 27.What was the so-called Columbian Exchange that took place in the Americas and the Eastern Hemisphere? ­ The contact period between the Old World and the New World as an immense biological swap. Europeans benefited and Natives suffered. 28.What are Telenovelas? ­ Popular nightly soap operas. They are a mainstay of Latin American television 29.What is NAFTA and what is the controversy surrounding it? ­ NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement. Took effect in 1994 as a free trade area that would gradually eliminate tariffs and ease the movement of goods among the member countries (US, MXCO, CNDA) Increased intraregional trade, but considerable controversy rages about who are the beneficiaries and who are the losers. It also stimulates trade and overall growth, but brought dislocation and change to the economic andscape of the countries involved. 30.What is FARC in Colombia and what has been its impact? ­ FARC – Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia. Controlled large territories of their countries. Gained wealth and might through the drug trade in 80s and 90s. 31.In Latin America, what are the paramilitary groups? ­ Well armed vigilante groups that seeks to “cleanse” areas of insurgency sympathizers 32.Which country in Latin America is most associated with the production of cocaine. - Columbia 33.What was the cause of the Zapatista rebellion in southern Mexico during the 1990s and 2000s? ­ A reaction to globalization. Began the same day that NAFTA took effect. Although supporters are mostly interested in local issues, such as land and basic services, their movement reflects a general concern about how increased foreign trade and investment hurt rural peasants. 34.What is the so-called Washington Consensus economic policy (also called neoliberalism) that is being practiced by many governments in Latin America? ­ Being imposed on countries with less capital. They would take loans and the IMF would say they need to find ways to pay them back, few limitations on exports and imports and stress privatization of services 35.What are the maquiladoras of Mexico? - The Mexican assembly plants that line the border with the US. 36.What does the phrase “primary export dependency” mean in Latin America and why is it cause for concern? ­ Natural resources create its wealth. Bananas, coffee, cacao, grains, tin, rubber, copper, wool, and petroleum are current primary exports. There is a concern that Latin America will become too reliant on these exports because of a recent boom in primary export commodities. 37.What are flex-fuel cars and what is ethanol? Why do you think Brazil has been one of the leaders in the move to develop the use of ethanol and flex fuel cars? ­ Flex-fuel cars run on ethanol and gasoline. Ethanol is the same type of alcohol that is used in beverages, used as gasoline. Sugar cane used for fuel, along with government policy. 38.What is dependency theory and how has it been used in Latin America? ­ Expansion of European capitalism created the regions underdevelopment. For the developed “cores” of the world to prosper, the “peripheries” became dependent and impoverished. Dependent economies, such as those in Latin America, were export oriented and vulnerable to fluctuations in the global market. 39.What is dollarization and what three countries in Latin America have fully dollarized their economies? ­ A process by which a country adopts – in whole or in part – the US dollar as its official currency. El Salvador, Ecuador, Panama 40.What are some of the advantages of dollarizing a country’s economy in Latin America? ­ It tends to reduce inflation, eliminate fears of currency devaluation, and reduce the cost of trade by eliminating currency conversion costs. 41.Why were the 1980s called the “lost decade” for Latin America? (I will have to help you with answering this question during the review for your second exam because this is not covered in the current edition of your textbook.) ­ Was a result of defaulted loans


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