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Human Anatomy and Physiology II: Exam II Study Guide

by: Tia Spears

Human Anatomy and Physiology II: Exam II Study Guide Biol 2120

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 2120 > Human Anatomy and Physiology II Exam II Study Guide
Tia Spears
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These notes cover the materials for Exam II
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tia Spears on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Exam II The Heart 1. Describe coronary circulation. What and where are the major coronary arteries and veins?  Coronary circulation is the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself.  Major arteries: Right and left coronary (in atrioventricular groove), marginal, circumflex, and anterior interventricular arteries.  Major veins: Small cardiac, anterior cardiac, and great cardiac veins 2. Describe the valves in the heart. Where are they located and what are their names and functions (i.e. when do they open and close)?  Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart.  Atrioventricular (AV) valves o Prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract o Tricuspid valve (right) o Mitral valve (left)  Chordae tendineae anchor AV valve cusps to papillary muscles  Semilunar (SL) valves o Prevent backflow into the ventricles when ventricles relax o Aortic semilunar valve o Pulmonary semilunar valve 3. Describe the microscopic anatomy of a heart cell.  Cardiac muscle cells are striated, short, fat, branched, and interconnected  Connective tissue matrix (endomysium) connects to the fibrous skeleton  T tubules are wide but less numerous; SR is simpler than in skeletal muscle  Numerous large mitochondria (25–35% of cell volume)  Intercalated discs: junctions between cells anchor cardiac cells  Gap junctions allow ions to pass; electrically couple adjacent cells  Desmosomes prevent cells from separating during contraction  Heart muscle behaves as a functional syncytium 4. In detail describe the electrical events of how a cardiac muscle cell contracts.  Depolarization of the heart is rhythmic and spontaneous  About 1% of cardiac cells have automaticity— (are self-excitable)  Gap junctions ensure the heart contracts as a unit  Long absolute refractory period (250 ms)  Depolarization opens voltage-gated fast Na+ channels in the sarcolemma  Reversal of membrane potential from –90 mV to +30 mV  Depolarization wave in T tubules causes the SR to release Ca2+  Depolarization wave also opens slow Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemma  Ca2+ surge prolongs the depolarization phase (plateau)  Ca2+ influx triggers opening of Ca2+-sensitive channels in the SR, which liberates bursts of Ca2+  E-C coupling occurs as Ca2+ binds to troponin and sliding of the filaments begins  Duration of the AP and the contractile phase is much greater in cardiac muscle than in skeletal muscle  Repolarization results from inactivation of Ca2+ channels and opening of voltage-gated K+ channels 5. Describe the sequence of excitation in the conduction system of the heart. What role do the pacemaker cells play and how do they generate APs?  Sinoatrial (SA) node (pacemaker) o Generates impulses about 75 times/minute (sinus rhythm) o Depolarizes faster than any other part of the myocardium  Atrioventricular (AV) node o Smaller diameter fibers; fewer gap junctions o Delays impulses approximately 0.1 second o Depolarizes 50 times per minute in absence of SA node input  Atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His) o Only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles  Right and left bundle branches o Two pathways in the interventricular septum that carry the impulses toward the apex of the heart  Purkinje fibers o Complete the pathway into the apex and ventricular walls o AV bundle and Purkinje fibers depolarize only 30 times per minute in absence of AV node input 6. Where are the cardiac centers in the brain? How is the heartbeat modified by the autonomic nervous system?  Cardiac centers are located in the medulla oblongata  Cardioacceleratory center innervates SA and AV nodes, heart muscle, and coronary arteries through sympathetic neurons. Cardioinhibitory center inhibits SA and AV nodes through parasympathetic fibers in the vagus nerves 7. What is an electrocardiogram? What are the three waves associated with an electrocardiogram and their corresponding electrical events?  Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): a composite of all the action potentials generated by nodal and contractile cells at a given time  Three waves: 1. P wave: depolarization of SA node 2. QRS complex: ventricular depolarization 3. T wave: ventricular repolarization 8. What are sounds that the heart makes? What events are these sounds associated with?  Two sounds (lub-dup) associated with closing of heart valves  First sound (lub) occurs as AV valves close and signifies beginning of systole (contraction). Second sound (dub) occurs when SL valves close at the beginning of ventricular diastole (relaxation). 9. What is the cardiac cycle? Detail the events of the cardiac cycle.  Cardiac cycle: all events associated with blood flow through the heart during one complete heartbeat  Events: 1. Ventricular filling—takes place in mid-to-late diastole  AV valves are open  80% of blood passively flows into ventricles  Atrial systole occurs, delivering the remaining 20%  End diastolic volume (EDV): volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole 2. Ventricular systole  Atria relax and ventricles begin to contract  Rising ventricular pressure results in closing of AV valves  Isovolumetric contraction phase (all valves are closed)  In ejection phase, ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in the large arteries, forcing the SL valves open  End systolic volume (ESV): volume of blood remaining in each ventricle 3. Isovolumetric relaxation occurs in early diastole  Ventricles relax  Backflow of blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk closes SL valves and causes dicrotic notch (brief rise in aortic pressure) 10. What is cardiac output? What are the variables involved in calculating CO and SV? What are three main factors that affect SV?  Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute.  CO = heart rate (HR) x stroke volume (SV) o HR = number of beats per minute o SV = volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat  SV = EDV – ESV o EDV stands for end diastolic volume in the ventricles, the amount of blood collecting in the ventricle during diastole o ESV stands for end systolic volume, blood remaining in ventricle after contraction  Three main factors affect SV: o Preload o Contractility o Afterload 11. Describe homeostatic imbalances of the heart.  Defects in the intrinsic conduction system may result in 1. Arrhythmias: irregular heart rhythms 2. Uncoordinated atrial and ventricular contractions 3. Fibrillation: rapid, irregular contractions; useless for pumping blood  Defective SA node may result in 1. Ectopic focus: abnormal pacemaker takes over 2. If AV node takes over, there will be a junctional rhythm (40–60 bpm)  Defective AV node may result in 1. Partial or total heart block 2. Few or no impulses from SA node reach the ventricles  Tachycardia: abnormally fast heart rate (>100 bpm) 1. If persistent, may lead to fibrillation  Bradycardia: heart rate slower than 60 bpm 1. May result in grossly inadequate blood circulation 2. May be desirable result of endurance training 12. Briefly discuss the embryology of the heart and congenital heart defects.  Embryology of the heart o Embryonic heart chambers  Sinus venous  Atrium  Ventricle  Bulbus cordis o Fetal heart structures that bypass pulmonary circulation o Foramen ovale connects the two atria o Ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary trunk and the aorta  Congenital heart defects o Lead to mixing of systemic and pulmonary blood o Involve narrowed valves or vessels that increase the workload on the heart 13. What happens to the heart as we age? What is congestive heart failure?  As the heart ages, Sclerosis and of valve flaps thicken, cardiac reserve decline, fibrosis of cardiac muscle, and Atherosclerosis.  Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a progressive condition where the CO is so low that blood circulation is inadequate to meet tissue needs. Blood Vessels 1. What are the three types of blood vessels and their general functions?  Three types of blood vessels: o Arteries  convey blood from heart to capillaries o Capillaries  microscopic porous blood vessels  exchange substances between blood and tissues o Veins  drain blood from capillaries  transport it back to heart 2. Differentiate between the tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa.  Tunics o Tunica intima  innermost layer of vessel  has endothelial component (simple squamous epithelium)  facing lumen  has subendothelial layer of areolar connective tissue o Tunica media  middle layer of vessel  circularly arranged layers of smooth muscle cells with elastic fibers  contraction causing vasoconstriction  narrowing of vessel lumen  relaxation causing vasodilation  widening of vessel lumen o Tunica externa  outermost layer of vessel  areolar connective tissue with elastic and collagen fibers  helps anchor vessel to other structures  may contain vasa vasorum  small arteries required to supply very large vessels 3. Describe the following vessel types based on structure and function a. Companion vessels o arteries and veins supplying same body region o tend to lie next to one another b. Arteries o have thick tunica media and narrower lumen o have more elastic and collagen fibers o can spring back to shape o more resistant to changes in blood pressure c. Veins o have thicker tunica externa and larger lumen o less elastic and collagen fibers o wall collapsed if no blood in it d. Capillaries o contain only tunica intima o composed of endothelium and basement membrane o lack subendothelial layer o allow for rapid gas and nutrient exchange 4. What are the three different types of arteries? Describe them.  Three basic types: o elastic arteries  Largest arteries with diameters from 2.5 to 1 cm  Conduct blood from heart to smaller muscular arteries  Have large proportion of elastic fibers o muscular arteries  Medium arteries with diameters from 1 cm to 3 mm  Distribute blood to specific body regions  Have greater amounts of muscle, less elastic tissue  better able to vasoconstrict and vasodilate  less able to stretch  Have elastic tissue in two layers  internal elastic lamina between tunica intima and tunica media  external elastic lamina between tunica media and tunica externa o arterioles  Smallest arteries with diameters 3 mm to 10 micrometers  Have fewer layers of smooth muscle  Larger arterioles  with three tunics  Smaller arterioles  with thin endothelium and single layer smooth muscle  Smooth muscle usually somewhat constricted  called vasomotor tone  regulated by vasomotor center in brainstem  Regulate systemic blood pressure and blood flow 5. What are the three different types of capillaries? Describe them.  Three structural types: 1. Continuous capillaries  Abundant in the skin and muscles  Continuous capillaries of the brain 2. Fenestrated capillaries  Some endothelial cells contain pores (fenestrations)  More permeable than continuous capillaries  Function in absorption or filtrate formation (small intestines, endocrine glands, and kidneys) 3. Sinusoidal capillaries (sinusoids)  Fewer tight junctions, larger intercellular clefts, large lumens  Usually fenestrated  Allow large molecules and blood cells to pass between the blood and surrounding tissues  Found in the liver, bone marrow, spleen 6. What are capillary beds? What are the two types of vessels associated with capillary beds? Describe how blood flows through capillary beds.  Capillary beds are interwoven networks of capillaries form the microcirculation between arterioles and venules.  Consist of two types of vessels 1. Vascular shunt (metarteriole—thoroughfare channel):  Directly connects the terminal arteriole and a postcapillary venule 2. True capillaries  10 to 100 exchange vessels per capillary bed  Branch off the metarteriole or terminal arteriole  Blood flows through capillary beds by the precapillary sphincters regulating blood flow into true capillaries. Then they are regulated by local chemical conditions and vasomotor nerves. 7. How does capillary exchange work? Where does water enter and exit the capillary? How do solutes and gases move into and out of capillaries?  Capillary Exchange: o Capillaries are very narrow and tiny RBCs must go through single file o Walls of capillaries are very thin to facilitate diffusion of nutrients, gases, and wastes  Water exits a capillary near the arterial end and enters a capillary near the venous end. o Solutes diffuse into and out of a capillary according to their concentration gradient o Oxygen and nutrients diffuse out of capillaries o Carbon dioxide and wastes diffuse into the capillary  Small solutes diffuse via endothelial cells or intercellular clefts. Larger solutes pass through fenestrations or gaps in sinusoids. 8. What is vesicular transport into/out of capillaries? When does this type of transport occur?  Vesicular transport: o Occurs when endothelial cells use pinocytosis  fuse fluid-filled vesicles with plasma membrane  transport their contents from blood to interstitial fluid (or reverse)  certain hormones and fatty acids transported by this method 9. What is bulk flow? What are the two types of bulk flow and how are they different from each other?  Bulk flow is the movement of large amounts of fluids and dissolved substances.  Bulk flow types: o Filtration  movement of fluid out of blood through openings in capillaries  fluid and small solutes flowing easily  larger solutes blocked  occurs on arterial end of capillary o Reabsorption  movement of fluid back into blood  on venous end 10. Compare hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure. Why are these two different types of pressure important in understanding bulk flow into/out of capillaries via net filtration pressure?  Hydrostatic pressure o Physical force exerted by fluid on a structure (e.g. a blood vessel) o E.g., blood hydrostatic pressure (HPb)  force exerted per unit area by blood on wall  promotes filtration from capillary o E.g., interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (HBif)  force of interstitial fluid on external blood vessel  close to 0 in most tissues  Colloid osmotic pressure o Pull of water into tissue by tissue’s protein concentration (colloid)  Osmotic pressure is the “pull” of water into an area by osmosis due to higher relative concentration of solutes. o E.g., blood colloid osmotic pressure (COPb)  draws fluid into blood due to blood proteins  promotes reabsorption, opposing hydrostatic pressure o E.g., interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (COPif)  force drawing fluid into interstitial fluid  few proteins present, so relatively low (0 to 5 mm Hg) 11. Differentiate between the simple pathway and alternative pathways of blood flow. What are the four different types of alternative pathways?  Simple pathway (a) o Type of blood vessel arrangement o One major artery delivering blood to organ or region  branches into smaller arteries to become arterioles  each arteriole feeding into single capillary bed  drained by venule  merge to one major vein o E.g., blood transportation to the spleen o End arteries  arteries that provide only one pathway for blood to organ  Alternative pathway (b) o Multiple alternative pathways possible o Differ in number of arteries, capillary beds, or veins  Four different types of alternative pathways: o Arterial anastomosis  two or more arteries converging to supply same region  e.g., superior and inferior epigastric arteries supplying abdominal wall, heart, brain, jointd o Venous anastomosis  two or more veins draining same body region  more common in veins  e.g., basilic, brachial, and cephalic veins draining the upper limb o Arteriovenous anastomosis  transports blood from artery directly to a vein  e.g., in fingers, toes, palms, ears  allow areas to be bypassed if body hypothermic o Portal system  blood flowing through two capillary beds  beds separated by a portal vein  portal vein delivering blood to another organ first  e.g., hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system  e.g., hepatic portal system 12. Define the following terms a. Blood flow o Volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period -Measured as ml/min -Equivalent to cardiac output (CO) for entire vascular system -Relatively constant when at rest -Varies widely through individual organs, based on needs b. Blood pressure o Force per unit area exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by the blood -Expressed in mm Hg -Measured as systemic arterial BP in large arteries near the heart -The pressure gradient provides the driving force that keeps blood moving from higher to lower pressure areas c. Resistance; also what factors affect resistance? o Opposition to flow o Measure of the amount of friction blood encounters o Generally encountered in the peripheral systemic circulation o Three important sources of resistance -Blood viscosity -Total blood vessel length -Blood vessel diameter 13. How does the blood (hydrostatic) pressure gradient and resistance affect blood flow?  Blood flow (F) is directly proportional to the blood (hydrostatic) pressure gradient o  Blood flow is inversely proportional to peripheral resistance (R) o  R is more important in influencing local blood flow because it is easily changed by altering blood vessel diameter 14. What factors aid in venous return?  Muscular “pump”: contraction of skeletal muscles “milk” blood toward the heart and valves prevent backflow  Respiratory “pump”: pressure changes created during breathing move blood toward the heart by squeezing abdominal veins as thoracic veins expand  Vasoconstriction of veins under sympathetic control (BE SURE TO LOOK OVER CHARTS WITHIN THE POWERPOINTS) Lymphatic System 1. What are the three components of the lymphatic system? What is the function of the lymphatic system?  Consists of three parts 1. A network of lymphatic vessels (lymphatics) 2. Lymph 3. Lymphatic tissues and organs  Returns interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins back to the blood  Once interstitial fluid enters lymphatics, it is called lymph  Together with lymphoid organs and tissues, provide the structural basis of the immune system 2. Which way does lymph flow? What are the four types of lymphatic vessels? Compare in detail the four types of lymphatic vessels based on structure and function.  Lymph flows toward the heart.  Lymph vessels (lymphatics) include: o Lymphatic capillaries  resemble blood capillaries in that they branch extensively throughout the body and their walls are only one cell thick, but they are far more permeable than blood capillaries  “dead-end” in the extracellular fluid surrounding body cells  Flow of lymph is regulated by internal pressures from breathing and from skeletal muscle contraction o Lymphatic collecting vessels  Similar to veins, except  Have thinner walls, with more internal valves  Anastomose more frequently  Collecting vessels in the skin travel with superficial veins  Deep vessels travel with arteries o Lymphatic trunks  Formed by the union of the largest collecting ducts  Paired lumbar  Paired bronchomediastinal  Paired subclavian  Paired jugular trunks  A single intestinal trunk o Lymphatic ducts  Lymph is delivered into one of two large ducts  Right lymphatic duct drains the right upper arm and the right side of the head and thorax  Thoracic duct arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body  Each empties lymph into venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins on its own side of the body 3. What are the different types of cells associated with the lymphatic system? What are their basic functions?  Lymphocytes the main warriors of the immune system  Two main varieties: o T cells (T lymphocytes) o B cells (B lymphocytes)  T cells and B cells protect against antigens o Anything the body perceives as foreign  Bacteria and their toxins; viruses  Mismatched RBCs or cancer cells o T cells  Manage the immune response  Attack and destroy foreign cells o B cells  Produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies  Other Lymphoid Cells o Macrophages phagocytize foreign substances and help activate T cells o Dendritic cells capture antigens and deliver them to lymph nodes o Reticular cells produce stroma that supports other cells in lymphoid organs 4. Differentiate between loose lymphatic tissue and lymphatic follicles.  Lymphatic tissue o Diffuse lymphatic tissue comprises scattered reticular tissue elements in every body organ  Lymphatic follicles o Lymphatic follicles (nodules) are solid, spherical bodies of tightly packed reticular elements and cells o Germinal center composed of dendritic and B cells o May form part of larger lymphoid organs 5. What are lymph nodes? Where are lymph nodes located? What two functions do lymph nodes perform?  Lymph nodes: o Principal lymphoid organs of the body o Embedded in connective tissue, in clusters along lymphatic vessels o Near the body surface in inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body  Functions o Filter lymph—macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris o Immune system—lymphocytes are activated and mount an attack against antigens 6. Describe the structure of a lymph node. What are the two histologically distinctive regions of a lymph node? What cells are associated with these structures?  Bean shaped  External fibrous capsule  Trabeculae extend inward and divide the node into compartments  Two histologically distinct regions  Cortex  Medulla  Cortex contains follicles with germinal centers, heavy with dividing B cells  Dendritic cells nearly encapsulate the follicles  Deep cortex houses T cells in transit  T cells circulate continuously among the blood, lymph nodes, and lymphatic stream  Medullary cords extend inward from the cortex and contain B cells, T cells, and plasma cells  Lymph sinuses contain macrophages 7. How does lymph flow through a lymph node?  Lymph o Enters via afferent lymphatic vessels o Travels through large subcapsular sinus and smaller sinuses o Exits the node at the hilus via efferent vessels  Fewer efferent vessels, causing flow of lymph to stagnate, allowing lymphocytes and macrophages time to carry out functions 8. Discuss the structure and function of the spleen.  Spleen: o Largest lymphoid organ o Served by splenic artery and vein, which enter and exit at the hilus o Functions:  Site of lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response  Cleanses the blood of aged cells and platelets and debris o Structures:  Two distinct areas  White pulp around central arteries o Mostly lymphocytes on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions  Red pulp in venous sinuses and splenic cords o Rich in macrophages for disposal of worn-out RBCs and bloodborne pathogens 9. Discuss the structure and function of the thymus.  Differs from other lymphoid organs in important ways o It functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation o It does not directly fight antigens  The stroma of the thymus consists of star-shaped epithelial cells (not reticular fibers)  These thymocytes provide the environment in which T lymphocytes become immunocompetent  Thymic lobes contain an outer cortex and inner medulla  Cortex contains densely packed lymphocytes and scattered macrophages  Medulla contains fewer lymphocytes and thymic (Hassall’s) corpuscles involved in regulatory T cell development 10. Discuss the structure and function of tonsils.  Simplest lymphoid organs  Form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the pharynx o Palatine tonsils—at posterior end of the oral cavity o Lingual tonsils—grouped at the base of the tongue o Pharyngeal tonsil—in posterior wall of the nasopharynx o Tubal tonsils—surrounding the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx  Contain follicles with germinal centers  Are not fully encapsulated  Epithelial tissue overlying tonsil masses invaginates, forming tonsillar crypts  Crypts trap and destroy bacteria and particulate matter 11. What does MALT stand for? What kind of tissues are examples of MALT?  (MALT) Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue, including o Peyer’s patches, tonsils, and the appendix (digestive tract) o Lymphoid nodules in the walls of the bronchi (respiratory tract)  Protects the digestive and respiratory systems from foreign matter 12. Briefly describe how the lymphatic system works with the circulatory system?  One function of the lymphatic system is to return all of the filtered extracellular fluid picked up by lymphatic capillaries to the blood o As extracellular fluid accumulates around cells, increasing pressure forces it through the flap-like openings between the cells of the lymphatic capillary walls o Acting like one-way doors, these valves allow substances to enter, but not leave o The lymphatic system transports lymph back to the circulatory system  The importance of the lymphatic system in returning fluid to the bloodstream is illustrated by elephantiasis o This condition is caused by a parasitic roundworm that infects, scars, and blocks lymphatic vessels, preventing them from transporting the extracellular fluid back to the bloodstream


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