Cultural Anthopology Midterm
Cultural Anthopology Midterm Anth 2800
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carly Rothert on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 2800 at University of Toledo taught by Shahna Arps in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Carly!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Cultural Anthropology Study online quizlet.com/_20ye2y 1. adaptation a change in the biological structure or life 14. capitalism an economic system in which people work ways of an individual or population by for wages, land and capital goods are which it becomes better fitted tosurvive privately owned, and capital is invested for and reproduce in its environment profit 2. agriculture a form of food production in which fields 15. cargo system a ritual system common in central and are in permanent cultivation using plows, south america in which wealthy people are animals, and techniques of soil and water required tohold a series of costly control ceremonial offices 3. anthropological a set of propositions about which aspects 16. chronemics the study of the different ways that theory of culture are critical, how they should be cultures understand time and use it to studies, and what the goal of studying communicate them should be 17. code-switching moving seamlessly and appropriately 4. anthropology the scientific and humanistic study of between twodifferent languages human beings encompassing the 18. evolutionary history of humanity, physical cognitive a theoretical position in anthropology that anthropology focuses on the relationship between the variation among humans, the study of mind and society past societies, and the comparative study of current-day human societies and 19. collaborative anthropological work that gives priority to cultures ethnography desires and interests of cultural consultants on the topic, methodology, and 5. applied the application of anthropological written results of fieldwork anthropology knowledge tothe solution of human problems 20. comparative the science of documenting the 6. linguistics relationships between languages and archaelolgy the subdiscipline of anthropology that grouping them intolanguage families focuses on the study of past cultures 21. composite an aggregate of nuclear families linked by a based primarily on their material remains (compound) common spouse 7. artifacts(in communication by clothing, jewelry, family communications tattoos, piercings, and other visible body studies) modifications 22. consangulnity blood ties between people 8. balanced the giving and receiving of goods of 23. conventionality the notion that, in human language, words reciprocity nearly equal value with a clear obligation are only arbitrarily or conventionally connected tothe things for which they of a return gift with a specified time limit stand 9. bilateral descent both maternal and paternal lines are 24. cross-cousin marriage between an individual and the used as a basis for reckoning descent marriage child of his or her mother's brother or 10.biological (or the sub discipline of anthropology that father's sister physical) focuses on the study of people from a 25. anthropology biological perspective, primarily on cultural the study of human thought, behavior, anthropology and lifeways that are learned rather than aspects of humankind that are genetically inherited genetically transmitted and that are typical of groups of people 11.bridewealth goods presented by the groom's kin to the bride's kin tolegitimize a marriage 26. cultural a theoretical position in anthropology that ecology focuses on the adaptive dimensions of 12.call system the form of communication among culture nonhuman primates composed of a limited number of sounds that are tied to 27. cultural the idea that cultures should be analysed specific stimuli in the environment relativism with reference totheir own histories and values rather than according tothe values 13.capital productive resources that are used with of another culture the primary goal of increasing their owners financial wealth 28. culture the learned behaviors and symbols that allow people tolive in groups;the primary means by which humans adapt totheir environment;the ways of life characteristic of a particular human society 29.culture and a theoretical position in anthropology that 46. ethnocentrism judging other cultures from the perspective personality held that cultures could best be understood (ethnocentric) on one's own culture.The notion that one's by examining the patterns of child rearing own culture is more beautiful, rational, and and considering their effect on social nearer toperfection than any other institutions and adult lives 47. ethnography the major research tool of cultural 30.culture shock feelings of alienation and helplessness that anthropology, including both fieldwork result from rapid immersion in a new and among people in a society and the written different culture results of such fieldwork 31.descent the culturally established affiliation between 48. ethnology the attempt tofind general principles or a child and one or both parents laws that govern cultural phenomena 32. through the comparison of cultures descent a group of kin whoare descendants of a group common ancestor extending beyond two 49. ethnoscience a theoretical position in anthropology that generations focuses on recording and examining the ways in which members of a culture use 33.diffusion the spread of cultural elements from one language toclassify and organize their society toanother cognitive world 34.displacement the capacity of all human languages to 50. etic examination of societies using concepts, describe things not happening in the present categories, and rules derived from science; an outsiders perspective 35.division of the pattern of apportioning different tasks to 51. exogamy a rule specifying that a person must marry labor different members of a society outside a particular group 36.dominant the culture with the greatest wealth and 52. extended family based on blood relations extending culture power in a society that consists of many family over three or more generations subcultures 53. firm an institution composed of kin and/or 37.double the tracing of descent through both descent matrilineal and patrilineal links, each of which nonkin that is organized primarily for financial gain is used for different purposes 38.dowry presentation of goods by the bride's kin to 54. foraging fishing, hunting, and collecting vegetable (hunting and food the family of the groom or tothe couple gathering) 39.ecological a theoretical position in anthropology that 55. functionalism a theoretical position in anthropology that functionalism focuses on the relationship between environment and society focuses on finding general laws that identify different elements of society, showing how 40.economics the study of the ways in which the choices they relate toeach other, and people make combine todetermine how demonstrating their role in maintaining their society uses its scarce resources to social order produce and distribute goods and services 56. generalized giving and receiving goods with no 41.economic the norms governing production, reciprocity immediate or specific return expected system distribution, and consumption of goods and 57. globalization the integration of resources, labor, and services within a society capital intoa global network 42.efficiency (in yield per person per hour of labor invested 58. great vowel a change in the pronunciation of english food shift language that took place between 1400 and production) 1600 43.emic examination of societise using concepts, categories, and distinctions that are 59. haptics the analysis and study of touch meaningful tomembers of those societies;an 60. historical a theoretical position in anthropology insiders perspective particularism associated with american anthropologists of the early 20th century that focuses on 44.enculturation the process of learning tobe a member of a providing objective descriptioins of cultures particular group within their historical and environmental 45.endogamy a rule prescribing that a person must marry contexts within a particular group 61.holism (holistic) in antirteprpreyi,ve a theoretical position in anthropology that an appanothcotphoaltogy focuses on using humanistic methods, such considers the as those found in the analysis of literature, to study of culture, analyze cultures and discover the meanings history, language, of culture toit's participants and70.kinesics the stdy of body position, movement, facial essential toa expressions, and gaze complete understanding of a culturally defined relationship established human society on the basis of blood ties or through marriage 62.horticulture production of the totality of kin relations, kin groups, and plants using a terms for classifying kin in a society sim73.kularing pattern of exchange among trading partners nonnmechanized of the South Pacific Islands technology and where the fertility a practice, value, or form of social organization mechanism that evens out wealth within a society of gardens and 75. fields isirate the custom whereby a man marries the maintained widow of a deceased brother thr76.lexicon the total stock of words in a language periods of fallow 77.lineage a group of kin whose members trace descent 63.household a group of people from a known common ancestor united by kinship 78. or other linksin blood relations linked through descent, such as Ego, Ego's mother, Ego's grandmother, and whoshare a residence and Ego's daughter orga9.linguistic the study of language and its relation to producanthropology culture consumption, 80.market an economic system in which goods and and distribution among exchange services are bought and sold at a money price determined primarily by the forces of themselves supply and demand 64.human relationsareafiles an ethnographic 81.marriage the customs, rules and obligations that database that establish a special relationship between includes cultural sexually cohabiting adults between them and descriptions of any children they take responsibility for, and more than 300 societies between the kin of the married couple 82.matrilineage a lineage formed by descent in the female 65.incest taboo a prohibition on line sexual relations between relatives a rule that affiliates a person tokin of both descent sexes related through females only 66.industrialism the process of the 84. mechanization of a rule that permits a person tobe married to production only one spouse at a time 85.morpheme the smallest unit of language that has a 67.informant/respondents/consultant/partner/interlocater a person from whom meaning ant86.morphology a system for creating words from sounds gat87. data negative exchange conducted for the purpose of 68.innovation an objreciprocity material advantage or the desire toget of thinking that is something for nothing based upon but 88.nomadic a form of pastoralism in which the whole is qualitatively different fromism social group (men, women, children) and their animals move in search of pasture existing forms 89. 107. norms shared ideas about the way things ought potlatch a form of redistribution involving tobe done;rules of behavior that reflect competitive feasting practiced among and enforce culture Northwest Coast Native Americans 90. nuclear families organized around the relationship 108. prestige social honor or respect between husband and wife 109. productive material goods, natural resources, or 91. organic analogy the comparison of cultures toliving resources information used tocreate other goods or organisms information 92. parallel-cousin marriage between the children of a 110. productivity yield per person per unit of land marriage parent's same-sex siblings (mother's (food sisters, father's brothers) production) 93. participant the fieldwork technique that involves 111. productivity the idea that humans can combine words observation gathering cultural data by observing (linguistics) and sounds intonew meaningful people's behavior and participating in utterances they have never before heard their lives 112. proxemics the study of the cultural use of 94. pastoralism a food-getting strategy that depends on interpersonal space the care of domesticated herd animals 113. racism the belief that some human populations 95. patrilineage a lineage formed by descent in the male are superior toothers because of line inherited, genetically transmitted 96. patrilineal a rule that affiliates a person tokin of both characteristics descent sexes related through males only 114. reciprocity a mutual give-and-take among people of 97. peasants rural cultivators whoproduce for the equal status subsistence of their households but are 115. redistribution exchange in which goods are collected and alsointegrated intolarger, complex state then distributed tomembers of a group societies 116. sapir-whorf the hypotheses that perceptions and 98. phone smallest identifiable unit of sound made hypothesis understandings of time, space, and matter by humans and used in any language are conditioned by the structure of a 99. phoneme the smallest unit of sound that serves to language distinguish between meanings of words 117. sedentary settled, living in one place within a language 118. semantics the subsystem of a language that relates 100.phonology the sound system of a language words tomeaning 101.plasticity (in the ability of humans tochange their 119. society a group of people whodepend on one anthropology) behavior in response toa wide range of another for survival or well-being as well environmental and social demands as the relationships among such people including their statuses and roles 102.polyandry a rule permitting a woman tohave more than one husband at a time 120. sociolinguistics the study of the relationship between language and culture and the ways 103.polygamy a rule allowing more than one spouse language is used in varying social contexts 104.polygyny a rule permitting a man tohave more 121. sororate the custom whereby when a man's wife than one wife at a time dies, her sister is given tohis as a wife 105.population the number of people inhabiting a unit of 122. subculture a group within a society that shares norms density land (usually given as people per square mile) and values significantly different from those of the dominant culture 106.postmodernism a theoretical position in anthropology that 123. subsistence the pattern of behavior used by a society focuses on issues of power and voice. strategies toobtain food in a particular environment Postmodernists hold that anthropological accounts are partial truths reflecting the 124. swidden (slash a form of cultivation in which a field is backgrounds, training, and social and burn) cleared by felling the trees and burning positions of their authors cultivation the brush 125. symbol something that stands for something else. Central tolanguage and culture 126.symbolic a theoretical position in anthropology that focuses on understanding culture by discovering and analyzing the anthropology symbols that are most important totheir members 127. syntax a system of rules for combining words intomeaningful sentences 128.transhumant a form off pastoralism in which herd animals are moved regularly throughout the year todifferent areas as pastoralism pasture becomes available 129.unilineal descent descent group membership based on links through either the maternal or the paternal line, but not both 130.universal a basic set of principles, conditions, and rules that form the foundation of all languages grammar 131.values shared ideas about what is right, true, and beautiful
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