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FSHN 150 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Mikaila Arao

FSHN 150 Exam 1 Study Guide FSHN 150

Mikaila Arao

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exam 1 study guide
Survey of Human Nutrition
John Wilson
Study Guide
FSHN 150
50 ?




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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mikaila Arao on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FSHN 150 at Colorado State University taught by John Wilson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Survey of Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
T est Review From Class 02/19/2016 ▯ ▯ ▯ Unrefined foods: hasn’t ben processed yet  Still contains most of the natural vitamins and minerals ▯ Refined foods: processed  Most fiber, minerals, and vitamins have been removed ▯ ▯ Anthropological perspective  Omnivores  Ate many different kinds of foods  Efficiency to store fat  Eat every 4-6 hours ▯ Appetite: is a learned behavior  Triggered by smell, sight, and taste ▯ Hunger: is a biological behavior ▯ Satiety: no longer a desire to ear, satisfied  Controlled by the hypothalamus, meal size, hormones ▯ ▯ 6 Classes of Nutrients  Macro o Carbs (CHO) o Fats (lipids) o Protein (amino acids)  Micro o Vitamins o Minerals o Water  3 characteristics of essential nutrients… (scurvy example) o 1 biological function of the nutrient must be identified  binding of molecule stops o omission of the nutrient from the diet must lead to a decline in certain biological functions  bleeding of gums o replacing the omitted nutrient in the diet will restore normal functions  vitamin C supplement  sub groups of nutrients o energy yielding  CHO  Protein  Lipids o Nutrients for growth/ regulate body processes  Minerals  Water  Proteins  Lipids  Vitamins  11 essential nutrients that your body makes with the help of food ▯ ▯ Carbohydrates (CHO)  Made up of C,H,O  Body’s major fuel source!!!!!!  Simple CHO o Monosaccharides  Common sugars  Glucose, fructose, galactose o Disaccharides  Sucrose (glucose + fructose)  Lactose (glucose + galactose)  Maltose ( glucose + glucose)  Complex CHO o Polysaccharides  Glycogen  Molecules released and go into blood to be used as energy  Starch (amylopectin and amylose)  Found in any plant product only  Amylose (straight chain of starch)  Doesn’t cause glycogen spike  Amylopectin ( more complex)  Causes glycogen spike due to the complex structure  Enzymes have more places to grab onto than with a straight lined amylose molecule  All starch has fiber unless its bee removed  4 kcal/g  dietary fiber  4 kcal/g ▯ ▯ Lipids  Made up of C,H,O  Fats and oils o Triglicerides  Helps us store fat  Stored through the glycerol molecule  Water loving head and 2 fat loving tails o Phospholipids o Sterols (cholesterols)  Saturated fatty acids o No double bonds (hence saturated)  Unsaturated fatty acids (essential fatty acids) o Monounsaturated  1 double bonds o polyunsaturated  more than one double bond  9 kcal/ g ▯ ▯ Vitamins  Vital to life  Needed in small amounts  Fat soluble : A,E,D,K o Can be stored for a long time o Found in dairy, nuts, seeds, oils, and breakfast cereals o Only 5 foods with vitamin D o Daily basis  Water soluble: (9; B vitamins and C vitamins) o Yields no energy o Mostly found in fruits and veggies ▯ ▯ Minerals  Inorganic substances  Needed in small amounts  Yields no energy  16 essential minerals o major minerals (dairy fruit) o trace minerals  meats, poultry, fish, nuts  electrolytes: minerals that function based on their electrical charge when dissolved in water o sodium, potassium, and chloride ▯ Water  Vital to life  Solvent, lubricant, medium for transport, and temperature regulator  Makes up majority of our body  Yields no energy  Only can last few days without water ▯ ▯ Other important food components  Phytochemicals: chemical compound occurs naturally in plants o Fruits and veggie groups o Helps reduce risk of diseases and infections o Can be consumed through supplement but better through foods ▯ ▯ Adequate Intakes  Helps to set RDA  Better than RDAs because o RDAs only work if there is enough information about human needs BUT…  There is inadequate information about nutrients  AIs are a standard based on the dietary intakes of people that appear to be maintaining nutritional health ▯ ▯ Nutrient Claims  Good Source: a serving of the food contains 10% -19% of the daily value for a particular nutrient (if 5% of less than it’s a low source)  High Source: a serving of the food contains 20% or more of the daily value for a particular nutrient ▯  Fiber o Good source = 2.5 – 4.9 g per serving o High source = 5g or more per serving o Found in bran and germ of plant  Part that is taken out o Soluble  Dissolves readily in water  Delays gastric emptying  Makes it easier to poop  Slows glucose absorption  Don’t have glucose spike  Not as hungry all the time  Fermented by bacteria and help break it down and than it can dissolve in water  Decreases heart disease  Decreases hemorrhoids o Insoluble  Doesn’t dissolve readily in water  Not fermented by bacteria  Doesn’t break down feces  Harder to pass  Decreases intestinal time  increases feces bulk  Glucose is absorbed quicker  Causes glucose spike ▯ ▯ ▯ Digestive System  Mouth o Digestion o Chewing (mastication)  break down of food to make smaller particles o Tongue  Taste  Aids in chewing o Triggers rest of GI tract to prepare for digestion o Salivary glands  Produces saliva  Functions as a solvent  food can be further separated  Lubricates  Enzymes  Salivary amylase: starch digesting enzyme  Lipase: fat digesting enzyme  Mucus (part of saliva)  Eases the process of swallowing  Esophagus o Connects mouth to stomach o Epiglottis  At the end of the esophagus  Prevents you from choking  Stops food from going into trachea  Breathing automatically stops o Peristalsis  GI muscle contractions  Helps food move down the esophagus  Allows you to eat and drink upside down o Lower esophageal sphincter (at the end of the esophagus, beginning of the stomach)  No control  Prevent backflow of food acid from stomach to esophagus o NO DIGESTION OR ABSORPTION  Stomach o About 4 cup capacity for adults, 1 cup for infants o Very little digestion o Very little absorption o Holds food for about 2-4 hours o Connects to small intestine o HCL acid (1.5 acidity), gastric juice, and enzymes  Breaks down food into chyme o The inside of the stomach is protected by a mucus lining from acid o Pyloric sphincter (base of stomach)  Controls rate at which chyme is released into small intestine  Small Intestine o 3 parts  duodenum (most digestion here)  jejunum (most digestion here)  ileum o most digestion and absorption in small intestine (95%) o not coated with mucus  otherwise digestion and absorption would be limited  bicarbonate released from pancreas to neutralize acid o chyme moved through SI by peristalsis contraction o digestive juices  breakdown of CHO, protein, and fat  as well as preparation of vitamins and minerals for absorption o mucosa (lining of SI)  folds that contain villi  villi are finger like projections that help trap food to enhance absorption  folds increase surface area to maximize absorption o nutrient absorption  Passive Diffusion: moves from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration  Ex. Fats, water, some minerals  Facilitated Diffusion: needs a carrier  but NO energy  Ex. Fructose  Active transport: needs a carrier AND requires energy  Ex. Some sugars; glucose and amino acids  Large Intestine (colon) o Little digestion occurs o No villi or enzymes present o Indigestive food stuff o Absorption  Water  Some minerals  Vitamins ( vitamin K made in LI) o Contains bacteria  Fiber o Ileocecal sphincter  End of SI and top of LI  No control o Anal sphincter  End of LI  Controllable o Mouth – anal  24-72 hour process ▯ ▯ Sites of Digestion and Absorption  CHO o Digestion: mouth, SI Absorption: SI  Protein o Digestion: stomach, SI o Absorption: SI  Fat o Digestion: SI o Absorption: SI  Vit/Min o Digestion: Si o Absorption: SI,LI  Water o Digestion: none o Absorption: All, very little LI ▯ ▯ Hepatic Portal Circulation  everything goes directly to liver through this portal from the small intestine except fat  CHO protein minerals water soluble vitamins goes to liver  Fat goes into lymphatic system  Fat is not water soluble ▯ ▯ Gluconeogenesis  Making new glucose from amino acids  Part of ketosis  Cannot convert fat to glucose BUT…  We can convert protein to glucose through gluconeogenesis ▯ ▯ Hyperglycemia  High blood sugar  Insulin is released from pancreas for glucose to go into cells  Insulin lowers blood sugar ▯ Hypoglycemia  Low blood sugar  Glucagon o Secreted from pancreas  High blood sugar + glucagon = high blood sugar ▯


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