FSHN 150 Exam 1 Study Guide
FSHN 150 Exam 1 Study Guide FSHN 150
Popular in Survey of Human Nutrition
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mikaila Arao on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FSHN 150 at Colorado State University taught by John Wilson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Survey of Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Colorado State University.
Reviews for FSHN 150 Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/18/16
T est Review From Class 02/19/2016 ▯ ▯ ▯ Unrefined foods: hasn’t ben processed yet Still contains most of the natural vitamins and minerals ▯ Refined foods: processed Most fiber, minerals, and vitamins have been removed ▯ ▯ Anthropological perspective Omnivores Ate many different kinds of foods Efficiency to store fat Eat every 4-6 hours ▯ Appetite: is a learned behavior Triggered by smell, sight, and taste ▯ Hunger: is a biological behavior ▯ Satiety: no longer a desire to ear, satisfied Controlled by the hypothalamus, meal size, hormones ▯ ▯ 6 Classes of Nutrients Macro o Carbs (CHO) o Fats (lipids) o Protein (amino acids) Micro o Vitamins o Minerals o Water 3 characteristics of essential nutrients… (scurvy example) o 1 biological function of the nutrient must be identified binding of molecule stops o omission of the nutrient from the diet must lead to a decline in certain biological functions bleeding of gums o replacing the omitted nutrient in the diet will restore normal functions vitamin C supplement sub groups of nutrients o energy yielding CHO Protein Lipids o Nutrients for growth/ regulate body processes Minerals Water Proteins Lipids Vitamins 11 essential nutrients that your body makes with the help of food ▯ ▯ Carbohydrates (CHO) Made up of C,H,O Body’s major fuel source!!!!!! Simple CHO o Monosaccharides Common sugars Glucose, fructose, galactose o Disaccharides Sucrose (glucose + fructose) Lactose (glucose + galactose) Maltose ( glucose + glucose) Complex CHO o Polysaccharides Glycogen Molecules released and go into blood to be used as energy Starch (amylopectin and amylose) Found in any plant product only Amylose (straight chain of starch) Doesn’t cause glycogen spike Amylopectin ( more complex) Causes glycogen spike due to the complex structure Enzymes have more places to grab onto than with a straight lined amylose molecule All starch has fiber unless its bee removed 4 kcal/g dietary fiber 4 kcal/g ▯ ▯ Lipids Made up of C,H,O Fats and oils o Triglicerides Helps us store fat Stored through the glycerol molecule Water loving head and 2 fat loving tails o Phospholipids o Sterols (cholesterols) Saturated fatty acids o No double bonds (hence saturated) Unsaturated fatty acids (essential fatty acids) o Monounsaturated 1 double bonds o polyunsaturated more than one double bond 9 kcal/ g ▯ ▯ Vitamins Vital to life Needed in small amounts Fat soluble : A,E,D,K o Can be stored for a long time o Found in dairy, nuts, seeds, oils, and breakfast cereals o Only 5 foods with vitamin D o Daily basis Water soluble: (9; B vitamins and C vitamins) o Yields no energy o Mostly found in fruits and veggies ▯ ▯ Minerals Inorganic substances Needed in small amounts Yields no energy 16 essential minerals o major minerals (dairy fruit) o trace minerals meats, poultry, fish, nuts electrolytes: minerals that function based on their electrical charge when dissolved in water o sodium, potassium, and chloride ▯ Water Vital to life Solvent, lubricant, medium for transport, and temperature regulator Makes up majority of our body Yields no energy Only can last few days without water ▯ ▯ Other important food components Phytochemicals: chemical compound occurs naturally in plants o Fruits and veggie groups o Helps reduce risk of diseases and infections o Can be consumed through supplement but better through foods ▯ ▯ Adequate Intakes Helps to set RDA Better than RDAs because o RDAs only work if there is enough information about human needs BUT… There is inadequate information about nutrients AIs are a standard based on the dietary intakes of people that appear to be maintaining nutritional health ▯ ▯ Nutrient Claims Good Source: a serving of the food contains 10% -19% of the daily value for a particular nutrient (if 5% of less than it’s a low source) High Source: a serving of the food contains 20% or more of the daily value for a particular nutrient ▯ Fiber o Good source = 2.5 – 4.9 g per serving o High source = 5g or more per serving o Found in bran and germ of plant Part that is taken out o Soluble Dissolves readily in water Delays gastric emptying Makes it easier to poop Slows glucose absorption Don’t have glucose spike Not as hungry all the time Fermented by bacteria and help break it down and than it can dissolve in water Decreases heart disease Decreases hemorrhoids o Insoluble Doesn’t dissolve readily in water Not fermented by bacteria Doesn’t break down feces Harder to pass Decreases intestinal time increases feces bulk Glucose is absorbed quicker Causes glucose spike ▯ ▯ ▯ Digestive System Mouth o Digestion o Chewing (mastication) break down of food to make smaller particles o Tongue Taste Aids in chewing o Triggers rest of GI tract to prepare for digestion o Salivary glands Produces saliva Functions as a solvent food can be further separated Lubricates Enzymes Salivary amylase: starch digesting enzyme Lipase: fat digesting enzyme Mucus (part of saliva) Eases the process of swallowing Esophagus o Connects mouth to stomach o Epiglottis At the end of the esophagus Prevents you from choking Stops food from going into trachea Breathing automatically stops o Peristalsis GI muscle contractions Helps food move down the esophagus Allows you to eat and drink upside down o Lower esophageal sphincter (at the end of the esophagus, beginning of the stomach) No control Prevent backflow of food acid from stomach to esophagus o NO DIGESTION OR ABSORPTION Stomach o About 4 cup capacity for adults, 1 cup for infants o Very little digestion o Very little absorption o Holds food for about 2-4 hours o Connects to small intestine o HCL acid (1.5 acidity), gastric juice, and enzymes Breaks down food into chyme o The inside of the stomach is protected by a mucus lining from acid o Pyloric sphincter (base of stomach) Controls rate at which chyme is released into small intestine Small Intestine o 3 parts duodenum (most digestion here) jejunum (most digestion here) ileum o most digestion and absorption in small intestine (95%) o not coated with mucus otherwise digestion and absorption would be limited bicarbonate released from pancreas to neutralize acid o chyme moved through SI by peristalsis contraction o digestive juices breakdown of CHO, protein, and fat as well as preparation of vitamins and minerals for absorption o mucosa (lining of SI) folds that contain villi villi are finger like projections that help trap food to enhance absorption folds increase surface area to maximize absorption o nutrient absorption Passive Diffusion: moves from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration Ex. Fats, water, some minerals Facilitated Diffusion: needs a carrier but NO energy Ex. Fructose Active transport: needs a carrier AND requires energy Ex. Some sugars; glucose and amino acids Large Intestine (colon) o Little digestion occurs o No villi or enzymes present o Indigestive food stuff o Absorption Water Some minerals Vitamins ( vitamin K made in LI) o Contains bacteria Fiber o Ileocecal sphincter End of SI and top of LI No control o Anal sphincter End of LI Controllable o Mouth – anal 24-72 hour process ▯ ▯ Sites of Digestion and Absorption CHO o Digestion: mouth, SI Absorption: SI Protein o Digestion: stomach, SI o Absorption: SI Fat o Digestion: SI o Absorption: SI Vit/Min o Digestion: Si o Absorption: SI,LI Water o Digestion: none o Absorption: All, very little LI ▯ ▯ Hepatic Portal Circulation everything goes directly to liver through this portal from the small intestine except fat CHO protein minerals water soluble vitamins goes to liver Fat goes into lymphatic system Fat is not water soluble ▯ ▯ Gluconeogenesis Making new glucose from amino acids Part of ketosis Cannot convert fat to glucose BUT… We can convert protein to glucose through gluconeogenesis ▯ ▯ Hyperglycemia High blood sugar Insulin is released from pancreas for glucose to go into cells Insulin lowers blood sugar ▯ Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar Glucagon o Secreted from pancreas High blood sugar + glucagon = high blood sugar ▯
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'