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EDSP 3210 Exam 2 Review

by: Savanna Hickfang

EDSP 3210 Exam 2 Review EDSP 3210

Savanna Hickfang

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These notes cover material in module 2 and what will be on the next exam.
Educational aspects of exceptional learners
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Educational Aspects of Exceptional Learners
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savanna Hickfang on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDSP 3210 at University of North Texas taught by izen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Educational aspects of exceptional learners in Education and Teacher Studies at University of North Texas.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
Module 2 Review  Chapter 5 Notes: Learners with intellectual and developmental disabilities Introduction   an intellectual disability (ID) is “a limitation in thinking, while a  developmental disability connotes a limitation that interferes with normal  development of functions.”   "Mental retardation” (MR) is still the term used within the Individuals with  Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and is still the prevailing code for  students with intellectual and developmental disabilities in Texas. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  (AAIDD)  AAIDD is the major professional organization for advocates for people with intellectual disabilities or severe cognitive delay  7 ID definitions have been officially endorsed by AAIDD since the  organization’s formation in 1950.  Two definitions: (a) ID involves problems with adaptive behavior, not just  intellectual functioning and (b) intellectual functioning and adaptive  behavior can be improved IDEA and Texas' Definition of MR  IDEA defines MR as significantly subaverage general intellectual  functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and  manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a  child's educational performance.  Considered to have MR when the student scores at least two standard  deviations below the mean (mean IQ=100). The student must also exhibit  deficits in at least two areas of adaptive behavior, such as:  communication, self­care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of  community resources, self­direction, functional academic skills, work,  leisure, health, and safety.  Normal Curve (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p. 149)  Mild MR/ID IQ 50­70, Moderate MR/ID 35­50, Severe MR/ID IQ  below 20 Causes of Intellectual Disabilities  In more than 50% of the cases of ID, the cause remains unknown  Prenatal causes can be classified as chromosomal disorders,  inborn errors of metabolism, developmental disorders affecting  brain structure, and environmental influences  variety of problems can happen at birth (perinatal) Lack of oxygen  at birth, anoxia, low birth weight, and specific infections have been  discovered to lead to abnormalities within the child  Postnatal; traumatic brain injury, meningitis, and encephalitis Educational Considerations  PPCD is an early intervention program within school districts that  helps students ranging in age from three through six with various  disabilities.  A student can transition to kindergarten at the age of five if the  placement is considered the least restrictive environment  appropriate. Students phase out of PPCD at the age of 6 and are  moved, in many cases, into self­contained classrooms. Placement  is determined by the ARD meeting.  For the child with severe MR, the emphasis is on practical skills  (functional academics) such as: reading the newspaper, learning to  count money, and/or self­help skills. Systematic Instruction  Systematic instruction is “teaching that involves instructional  prompts, consequences for performance, and transfer of stimulus  control”  A verbal prompt would be asking the student “what comes next  A gestural prompt could be asking, “what do we use to eat with?”  and pointing to the fork.  A physical prompt would be one where the teacher would place the  student’s hand on the fork  During systematic instruction, the teacher would provide  consequences for the correct or incorrect response a student may  make.  A student who makes a correct response would be positively  reinforced. Reinforcers can range from verbal praise to tokens that  can be traded in for a desired item or activity  As the student becomes more proficient at the skill, the teacher  should use intermittent reinforcement to maintain the desired  response. Eventually, the teacher wants the student to get to the  point where he/she can emit the response without needing any  reinforcement. Instruction in Real­Life settings   Instruction, for the most part, will begin in the classroom and  then move into real­life situations.  functional academic skills will focus on shopping, recreational  skills, and vocational skills. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior  Interventions and Supports  Students who exhibit challenging behaviors need to have a functional  behavioral assessment (FBA) performed in order for teachers to  understand the antecedent, or trigger, of the behavior  The antecedent (what happens before the behavior)  Behavior (what is happening)  Consequences (what happens immediately following the behavior)  Transition into adulthood   In Texas, when a student qualifying for special education services under  IDEA turns 14, he/she must have a transition plan in place  Self­determination is the ability to make choices regarding one’s own life  When students turn 18, or phase out of special education when they turn  22, they must begin to make the adjustment to living and working within  the community Ch 6 Notes Learners with learning disabilities Introduction   The term learning disabilities (LD) originally proposed by Samuel Kirk in the  1960’s to refer to children who had average to above average intelligence, but  were having a hard time learning Specific Learning disabilities   Often diagnosed as dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalcula   John Lennon had learning disabilities  Definitions of LD   a “specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the  psychological processes involved in understanding or using language,  spoken or written, which disorder may manifest as an inability to listen,  think, speak, read, write, or do mathematical calculations.  perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia,  and developmental aphasia The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities developed an  alternative definition; learning disabilities are intrinsic to the individual and  presumed to be a dysfunction in the central nervous system Identification and Prevalence of Learning Disabilities  states cannot rely solely on a discrepancy between IQ and achievement  scores. States must also permit the use of Response to Intervention (RTI)  when assessing students suspected of have a learning disability   the problem with this is that IQ scores are subject to underestimation since the student with poor reading skills would have difficulty taking the test  RTI is a way for teachers to screen all students in the class for learning  disabilities at the beginning of the school year Causes of Learning Disabilities  Research studies on the brain have indicated that a learning disability  seems to be caused by a dysfunction to the central nervous system  Other causes of LD include genetic, teratogenic (exposure to  environmental toxins), and medical  Geneticists cannot pinpoint a specific gene that causes an individual to  develop a learning disability. Several genes that have been linked to  learning disabilities have been linked to other disabilities, as well  strong correlation between identical twins who both have learning  disabilities in reading, speech and language, and/or math Characteristics of Learning Disabilities  Splintered skills means that children can be reading above grade level, yet are below grade level in math  Some children with learning disabilities will exhibit visual and/or auditory  perceptual disabilities such as trouble solving puzzles,  seeing/remembering visual shapes, difficulty discriminating between two  words that sound alike, and/or following oral directions Educational Considerations   Cognitive Training  o Change thought process o Proving strategies for learning  o Teaching self­initiative   Self­instruction  o Requires individuals to talk aloud and then to themselves as they  solve problems  o Problem definition; planning; strategy use; self­evaluation; self­ reinforcement   Self­monitoring  o Requires individuals to keep track of their own behaviors  o Self­evaluation  o Self­recording   Scaffolded instruction  o Assistance is provided initially when beginning a task. Gradually  reduce assistance until student performing task independently  o Three steps  o Think plan  o Write and say more   Reciprocal Teaching  o Teacher models four strategies  o Predicting; questioning; summarizing; clarifying   Content Enhancement gyp o Modification of the curriculum to make it more salient or prominent   Graphic organizers o Using visual displays to organize info   Mnemonics  o Use of memory­enhancing cures to help the student remember  academic material   Direct Instruction  o Method of teaching academics  o Emphasizes drill and practice  o Immediate feedback to student  o Lessons are sequenced, fast paced  o Lesson are well rehearsed by teacher  o Task analysis critical component   Procedure of breaking down an academic or functional task  into its component parts for instruction  Chapter 7 Learners with Attention Deficit hyperactivity disorder  Introduction   George F. Still, a physician, credited with bringing light to what we now  call Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prevalence, Definition, and Identification of ADHD  Males often diagnosed   7.7% of students ages 4­17 in Texas were diagnosed with ADHD in 2003  Criteria:  o Inattention  o Hyperactivity or impulsivity   Students who have ADHD are served under the Other Health Impairment  (OHI) disability category of IDEA  Students who are suspected to have an educational need for special  education will be administered a Functional Individual Evaluation (FIE),  which will test IQ and adaptive behavior. The FIE is needed in order to  qualify a student for special education services in the state of Texas. It is  administered every three years. Causes of ADHD   Specific regions of the brain such as the left frontal lobe and the basal  ganglia have shown abnormalities through Functional Magnetic  Resonance Imagining  twin studies support a heredity cause of ADHD  environmental factors and medical factors, such as toxins in the  environment and low birth weight, have been proven to cause ADHD Educational Considerations  Breaking the lesson into smaller sections will keep the material short so  that it will be easier for the students to take in the information  Lessons should include modeling, guided practice, and independent  practice  When a student with ADHD is working independently in the classroom it is suggested that he/she be placed in an area that has minimal distractions  A wiggly cushion or therapy balls can provide more feedback and replace  the chair altogether. Review Juanita Article. 


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