EDSP 3210 Exam 2 Review
EDSP 3210 Exam 2 Review EDSP 3210
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Module 2 Review Chapter 5 Notes: Learners with intellectual and developmental disabilities Introduction an intellectual disability (ID) is “a limitation in thinking, while a developmental disability connotes a limitation that interferes with normal development of functions.” "Mental retardation” (MR) is still the term used within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) and is still the prevailing code for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities in Texas. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) AAIDD is the major professional organization for advocates for people with intellectual disabilities or severe cognitive delay 7 ID definitions have been officially endorsed by AAIDD since the organization’s formation in 1950. Two definitions: (a) ID involves problems with adaptive behavior, not just intellectual functioning and (b) intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior can be improved IDEA and Texas' Definition of MR IDEA defines MR as significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Considered to have MR when the student scores at least two standard deviations below the mean (mean IQ=100). The student must also exhibit deficits in at least two areas of adaptive behavior, such as: communication, selfcare, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, selfdirection, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, and safety. Normal Curve (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p. 149) Mild MR/ID IQ 5070, Moderate MR/ID 3550, Severe MR/ID IQ below 20 Causes of Intellectual Disabilities In more than 50% of the cases of ID, the cause remains unknown Prenatal causes can be classified as chromosomal disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, developmental disorders affecting brain structure, and environmental influences variety of problems can happen at birth (perinatal) Lack of oxygen at birth, anoxia, low birth weight, and specific infections have been discovered to lead to abnormalities within the child Postnatal; traumatic brain injury, meningitis, and encephalitis Educational Considerations PPCD is an early intervention program within school districts that helps students ranging in age from three through six with various disabilities. A student can transition to kindergarten at the age of five if the placement is considered the least restrictive environment appropriate. Students phase out of PPCD at the age of 6 and are moved, in many cases, into selfcontained classrooms. Placement is determined by the ARD meeting. For the child with severe MR, the emphasis is on practical skills (functional academics) such as: reading the newspaper, learning to count money, and/or selfhelp skills. Systematic Instruction Systematic instruction is “teaching that involves instructional prompts, consequences for performance, and transfer of stimulus control” A verbal prompt would be asking the student “what comes next A gestural prompt could be asking, “what do we use to eat with?” and pointing to the fork. A physical prompt would be one where the teacher would place the student’s hand on the fork During systematic instruction, the teacher would provide consequences for the correct or incorrect response a student may make. A student who makes a correct response would be positively reinforced. Reinforcers can range from verbal praise to tokens that can be traded in for a desired item or activity As the student becomes more proficient at the skill, the teacher should use intermittent reinforcement to maintain the desired response. Eventually, the teacher wants the student to get to the point where he/she can emit the response without needing any reinforcement. Instruction in RealLife settings Instruction, for the most part, will begin in the classroom and then move into reallife situations. functional academic skills will focus on shopping, recreational skills, and vocational skills. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Students who exhibit challenging behaviors need to have a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) performed in order for teachers to understand the antecedent, or trigger, of the behavior The antecedent (what happens before the behavior) Behavior (what is happening) Consequences (what happens immediately following the behavior) Transition into adulthood In Texas, when a student qualifying for special education services under IDEA turns 14, he/she must have a transition plan in place Selfdetermination is the ability to make choices regarding one’s own life When students turn 18, or phase out of special education when they turn 22, they must begin to make the adjustment to living and working within the community Ch 6 Notes Learners with learning disabilities Introduction The term learning disabilities (LD) originally proposed by Samuel Kirk in the 1960’s to refer to children who had average to above average intelligence, but were having a hard time learning Specific Learning disabilities Often diagnosed as dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalcula John Lennon had learning disabilities Definitions of LD a “specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest as an inability to listen, think, speak, read, write, or do mathematical calculations. perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities developed an alternative definition; learning disabilities are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be a dysfunction in the central nervous system Identification and Prevalence of Learning Disabilities states cannot rely solely on a discrepancy between IQ and achievement scores. States must also permit the use of Response to Intervention (RTI) when assessing students suspected of have a learning disability the problem with this is that IQ scores are subject to underestimation since the student with poor reading skills would have difficulty taking the test RTI is a way for teachers to screen all students in the class for learning disabilities at the beginning of the school year Causes of Learning Disabilities Research studies on the brain have indicated that a learning disability seems to be caused by a dysfunction to the central nervous system Other causes of LD include genetic, teratogenic (exposure to environmental toxins), and medical Geneticists cannot pinpoint a specific gene that causes an individual to develop a learning disability. Several genes that have been linked to learning disabilities have been linked to other disabilities, as well strong correlation between identical twins who both have learning disabilities in reading, speech and language, and/or math Characteristics of Learning Disabilities Splintered skills means that children can be reading above grade level, yet are below grade level in math Some children with learning disabilities will exhibit visual and/or auditory perceptual disabilities such as trouble solving puzzles, seeing/remembering visual shapes, difficulty discriminating between two words that sound alike, and/or following oral directions Educational Considerations Cognitive Training o Change thought process o Proving strategies for learning o Teaching selfinitiative Selfinstruction o Requires individuals to talk aloud and then to themselves as they solve problems o Problem definition; planning; strategy use; selfevaluation; self reinforcement Selfmonitoring o Requires individuals to keep track of their own behaviors o Selfevaluation o Selfrecording Scaffolded instruction o Assistance is provided initially when beginning a task. Gradually reduce assistance until student performing task independently o Three steps o Think plan o Write and say more Reciprocal Teaching o Teacher models four strategies o Predicting; questioning; summarizing; clarifying Content Enhancement gyp o Modification of the curriculum to make it more salient or prominent Graphic organizers o Using visual displays to organize info Mnemonics o Use of memoryenhancing cures to help the student remember academic material Direct Instruction o Method of teaching academics o Emphasizes drill and practice o Immediate feedback to student o Lessons are sequenced, fast paced o Lesson are well rehearsed by teacher o Task analysis critical component Procedure of breaking down an academic or functional task into its component parts for instruction Chapter 7 Learners with Attention Deficit hyperactivity disorder Introduction George F. Still, a physician, credited with bringing light to what we now call Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prevalence, Definition, and Identification of ADHD Males often diagnosed 7.7% of students ages 417 in Texas were diagnosed with ADHD in 2003 Criteria: o Inattention o Hyperactivity or impulsivity Students who have ADHD are served under the Other Health Impairment (OHI) disability category of IDEA Students who are suspected to have an educational need for special education will be administered a Functional Individual Evaluation (FIE), which will test IQ and adaptive behavior. The FIE is needed in order to qualify a student for special education services in the state of Texas. It is administered every three years. Causes of ADHD Specific regions of the brain such as the left frontal lobe and the basal ganglia have shown abnormalities through Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining twin studies support a heredity cause of ADHD environmental factors and medical factors, such as toxins in the environment and low birth weight, have been proven to cause ADHD Educational Considerations Breaking the lesson into smaller sections will keep the material short so that it will be easier for the students to take in the information Lessons should include modeling, guided practice, and independent practice When a student with ADHD is working independently in the classroom it is suggested that he/she be placed in an area that has minimal distractions A wiggly cushion or therapy balls can provide more feedback and replace the chair altogether. Review Juanita Article.
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