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Bio II Notes 2/11

by: Rocket

Bio II Notes 2/11 BIO 1144

GPA 4.0

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Notes looking into the movement of water, transpiration, and translocation
Thomas Holder
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Principles of Water + Molecule Movement  Physical processes­ no energy expended  1. Bulk flow​ : movement of molecules in response to pressure/gravity, high to low  2. Diffusion​ : movement of molecules along a concentration gradient from high →  low  concentrations  3. Osmosis​ : diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, water passes  freely through membrane, solutes do not!           Transpiration  ­ the “cost” land plants pay    Ex. Each Individual Corn Plant­ requires apprx. 55 gallons  of water  ­ 2% Normal Maintenance (cell elongation/photosynthesis etc.)  ­ 98% Transpired    Transpiration​ : the loss of water (vapor form) exiting through stomata  of leaves    Photosynthesis    Leaf      Transpiration          ❏ Guard Cell Pair:  Function: Regulate stomatas; controls water loss  Closed→ low in water/ keeps water and oxygen in, CO2 out  Open → guard cells full of water (turgid)/ water and oxygen out, CO2  comes in        ● Mechanisms:  1. Daytime/Sunlight­ CO2 low in leaf  2. Guard cells “pump in” Potassium (ATP expended), changes solute(increase) and water  concentration(decrease)  3. Water from Xylem moves by osmosis into guard cells → “turgid” (swell)  4. Guard cells swell and open stoma  5. “Pump out” potassium (ATP expended), water moves out, guard cells shrink, closed  again    Causes of Water Loss  ­ Ultimately it’s sunlight energy, heating up leaf causing  water to change from into vapor form, which causes  evaporation of water from cells    ­ Water concentration is lowered in mesophyll, which  causes a “pull” of water molecules via osmosis     ­ Loss of water from leaf xylem,  causes “pull” from stem  xylem    ­ Root xylem “pulls” water from soil        * Transpiration Stream: pathway following transpiration steps*        C­A­T Mechanisms:  ­ Once stomata opens, it then becomes a purely physical  process  ­ “Pulling” of water molecules one at a time   C:Cohesion­ keeps water molecules together  A:Adhesion­ water adheres to cellulose in walls  T:Tension­ “pulling” due to water loss via evaporation from mesophyll  * No energy expended­ “pull” all the way down            Translocation    ­ Movement of solutes  +Similarities between transpiration and translocation:  ­ Physical properties of water  +Differences  ­ Trans L (food/solutes)                            ­Trans P (water/minerals)  ­ Bidirectional    ­ Unidirectional  ­ Phloem (short/fat tubes)    ­ Xylem (long/slender tubes)  ­ Must expenditure of ATP by Plant   ­ Sunlight energy (no ATP expenditure by plant)  *Food dissolves in water; moved in a form of sucrose     Source                              →              Sink  Site of excess carbohydrates      Storage site/site where sugar is quickly needed    Pressure Flow Hypothesis   Phloem tissue    ­ Sieve tube members companion cells­ load/unload STMS (ATP expended)    At Source:  1. Companion cells “pump” sucrose into  STM’s (ATP expenditure)  2. As sucrose concentration increases in  STM’s, water potential(pressure) goes  down within STM  3. Adjacent xylem tissue has higher water  potential than STM’s, water moves into  STM’s by osmosis  4. BULK FLOW of Sucrose (higher pressure  to lower pressure)    At Sink:  1. Companion cells must unload sucrose  (ATP expended)  2. Sucrose converted to starch for storage in root cortex  3. Without sucrose, water potential changes, higher water potential in STM  4. Water moves via osmosis from the phloem STM to the adjacent xylem   *ATP spent only on companion cells from loading and unloading   *No energy expended from movement  ­ Bulk Flow (pressure/potential diffs)  ­ Osmosis (water concentration diffs)    Flowers + Sexual Cycle  Flowers only found in angiosperms approx. 300,000 species  ❏  Essential processes of Sexual Reproduction occur within flower  Meiosis/Cytokinesis: diploid to haploid  Syngamy(fertilization) haploid to diploid   


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