Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide Psyc 1101-021
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nihar Desai on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101-021 at Georgia State University taught by Mr.Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 15 Psychology Study Guide mum Psychology the scienti c study of behavior and mental processes Let39s consider the three key terms in this de nition science behavior and mental processes As a science psychology uses systematic methods to observe human behavior and draw conclusions The goals of psychological science are to describe predict and explain behavior In addition psychologists are often interested in controlling or changing behavior and they use scienti c methods to examine interventions that might help for example reduce violence or promote happiness Behavior everything we do that can be directly observed two people kissing a baby crying a college student riding a motorcycle to campus Mental processes are the thoughts feelings and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly Four attitudes critical thinking curiosity skepticism and objectivity Critical thinking the process of thinking deeply and actively asking questions and evaluating the evidence Empirical method involves gaining knowledge by observing events collecting data and reasoning logically Sigmund Freud 18561939 Freud believed that most of human behavior is caused by dark unpleasant unconscious impulses pressing for expression Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 Structuralism because of its focus on identifying the elemental parts or structures of the human mind The method they used in the study of mental structures was introspection literally looking insidequot For this type of research a person sat in a laboratory and was asked to think to introspect about what was going on mentally as various events took place William James Functionalism probed the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual39s adaptation to the environment Natural selection an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and importantly produce offspring Approaches to PsychologL Biological approach is a focus on the body especially the brain and nervous system For example researchers might investigate the way your heart races when you are afraid or how your hands sweat when you tell a lie Neuroscience the scienti c study of the structure function development genetics and biochemistry of the nervous system Neuroscience emphasizes that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior thought and emotion Behavioral approach the scienti c study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants It focuses on an organism39s visible behaviors not thoughts or feelings The psychologists who adopt this approach are called behaviorists Skinner 1938 emphasized that psychology should be about what people do their actions and behaviors and should not concern itself with things that cannot be seen such as thoughts feelings and goals He believed that rewards and punishments determine our behavior For example a child might behave in a wellmannered fashion because her parents have rewarded this behavior We do the things we do say behaviorists because of the environmental conditions we have experienced and continue to experience Psychodynamic approach emphasizes unconscious thought the con ict between biological drives such as the drive for sex and society39s demands and early childhood family experiences Sigmund Freud the founding father of the psychodynamic approach theorized that early relationships with parents shape an individual39s personality Humanistic approach emphasizes a person39s positive qualities the capacity for positive growth and the freedom to choose one39s destiny Cognitive approach emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing how we direct our attention perceive remember think and solve problems For example cognitive psychologists want to know how we solve math problems why we remember some things for only a short time but others for a lifetime and how we can use our imaginations to plan for the future Evolutionary approach an approach to psychology centered on evolutionary ideas such as adaptation reproduction and natural selection as the basis for explaining speci c human behaviors Sociocultural approach examines the in uences of social and cultural environments on behavior Scienti c Method 1 Observing some phenomenon Variable anything that can change 0 Theory a broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations Theories seek to explain why certain things are as they are or why they have happened 1 Formulating hypotheses and predictions Hypothesis a testable prediction that derives logically from a theory 1 Testing through empirical research 0 Operational de nition provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study 1 Drawing conclusions 1 Evaluating conclusions Chapter 2 The Nervous System Nervous system the body39s electrochemical communication circuitry o Plasticity denotes the brain39s special capacity for change 0 Afferent nerves or sensory nerves carry information to the brain and spinal cord 0 Efferent nerves or motor nerves carry information out of the brain and spinal cord that is they carry the nervous system39s output 0 Neural networks interconnected groups of nerve cells that integrate sensory input and motor output iii2mm Nervous System I I Spinal Candi Humn hilamnua Peripheral Mamas System Brain Himzlbrain Earabellum FINE Hedulla mis ti ain Ee mla fnnnarijnn Fa aebraim Umhicggrstem Thalamus i Easalgan giia A Hypntl39lalamus Eerebralmrtex branch arusaslg re the itiizidyia E Central nervous system CNS is the brain and spinal cord More than 99 percent of all our nerve cells are located in the CNS Peripheral nervous system PNS the network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body somatic nervous system consists of sensory nerves afferent whose function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature and motor nerves efferent whose function is to tell muscles what to do Autonomic nervous system is to take messages to and from the body39s internal organs monitoring such processes as breathing heart rate and digestion sympathetic nervous system arouses the body to mobilize it for action and thus is involved in the experience of stress the second part the parasympathetic nervous system calms the body Neurons Neurons the nerve cells that handle the informationprocessing funcUon Glial cells provide support nutritional bene ts and other functions in the nervous system Structure of Neurons Eel l taunts quot landlines Vandaillness Diremiam cf fur Ff nswe quotmpuss V f 135553 3quotquot A Er l Merl W J 39va I Jimn 7 l39rljr39sfn sheath Eurr uncllng the sister 7 Sending Namm HEEEi39H iI I Hemm Cell body contains the nucleus which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance Dendrites treelike bers projecting from a neuron receive information and orient it toward the neuron39s cell body Axon the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body toward other cells Myelin sheath consisting of a layer of cells containing fat encases and insulates most axons Allornothing principle Once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity called its threshold it res and moves all the way down the axon without losing any of its intensity Synapses and Neurotransmitters Synapses tiny spaces between neurons the gap between neurons is referred to as a synaptic gap Most synapses lie between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron Before an impulse can cross the synaptic gap it must be converted into a chemical signal Neurotransmitters stored in very tiny synaptic vesicles sacs within the terminal buttons are chemical substances Each axon branches out into numerous bers that end in structures called terminal buttons Acetylcholine ACh usually stimulates the ring of neurons and is involved in the action of muscles learning and memory GABA gamma aminobutyric acid is found throughout the central nervous system It is believed to be the neurotransmitter in as many as onethird of the brain39s synapses Glutamate has a key role in exciting many neurons to re and is especially involved in learning and memory Norepinephrine inhibits the ring of neurons in the central nervous system but it excites the heart muscle intestines and urogenital tract Dopamine helps to control voluntary movement and affects sleep mood attention learning and the ability to recognize rewards in the environment Serotonin is involved in the regulation of sleep mood attention and learning In regulating states of sleep and wakefulness it teams with acetylcholine and norepinephrine Endorphins are natural opiates that mainly stimulate the ring of neurons Endorphins shield the body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure Oxytocin is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding o Agonist is a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter39s effects For example the drug morphine mimics the actions of endorphins by stimulating receptors in the brain and spinal cord associated with pleasure and pain 0 Antagonist is a drug that blocks a neurotransmitter39s effects For example drugs used to treat schizophrenia interfere with the activity of dopamine Structures of the Brain Eerehrall cortex Halonmus Hiellays inForrnation bemeen lower and higher brain enters Extensive wrinkie 2 user layer of tise f orebraint goeeans I39iEgiher rain MHEIE39ZE ns such as thinking EEEITIJiI Trgi and consciousness sc Hyenathalamus A Gouerns eating drinking an sex plays a roEe in emotion and suress F39itLIitarja39 gland ca 1 u 139 39 7 1 Haitipuller formation EiFFuse oo leotio39n of neuirons Envohaeol in arousal and stereotyped patterns sushi as walking mm ala 39 1 Meidui39lllaqgreenl lrwohxeoml in fear anol thae EENEFHE breadtingi and oliser rnirsaII39on of objects I 397 reflexes necessary for organism39s 7 quoti L r sunr39nral Implied in If Eerebellmm v Rendero7 strusrmre ineohJeol in Pam 3 motor coordination Iifsr i39exrlrrssleep and Spinall cor Elil39ilJU sal Hindbrain located at the skull39s rear is the lowest portion of the brain Medulla begins where the spinal cord enters the skull This structure controls many vital functions such as breathing and heart rate It also regulates our re exes Cerebellum extends from the rear of the hindbrain just above the medulla It consists of two rounded structures thought to play important roles in motor coordination arms legs Pons is a bridge in the hindbrain that connects the cerebellum and the brain stem It contains several clusters of bers involved in sleep and arousal Brain stem determine alertness and regulate basic survival functions such as breathing heartbeat and blood pressure Midbrain located between the hindbrain and forebrain is an area in which many nerve ber systems ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower portions of the brain The midbrain relays information between the brain and the eyes and ears use the neurotransmitters serotonin dopamine and norepinephrine Forebrain the brain39s largest division and its most forward part forebrain39s most important structures are the limbic system thalamus basal ganglia hypothalamus and cerebral cortex 0 Limbic system a loosely connected network of structures under the cerebral cortex is important in both memory and emotion o Amygdala an almondshaped structure located inside the brain toward the base In fact there is an amygdala on each side of the brain The amygdala is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism39s survival such as appropriate food mates and social rivals o Hippocampus has a special role in the storage of memories Thalamus a forebrain structure that sits at the top of the brain stem in the central core of the brain Serves as an essential relay station Basal Ganglia Above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex lie large clusters Works with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements Basal ganglia enable people to engage in habitual behaviors such as riding a bicycle and typing a text message Hypothalamus a small forebrain structure just below the thalamus monitors three pleasurable activities eating drinking and sex as well as emotion stress and reward The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral cortex is part of the forebrain and is the most recently developed part of the brain in the evolutionary scheme The word cortex means bark as in the bark of a tree in Latin and the cerebral cortex is in fact the outer layer of the brain It is in the cerebral cortex that the most complex mental functions such as thinking and planning take place Neocortex is the outermost part of the cerebral cortex Motor cortex the rear of the frontal lobes processes information about voluntary movement Somatosensory cortex processes information about body sensations It is located at the front of the parietal lobes Lobes Lain325 f the Brailln Funetl rial Regina Wilher IhE Lire5 Parietal lube 5mm amateur cane5 MGIDF art23 ABEenemy ass3 iaticun carter 2 Squot I r Mater EEEGEIEI tl r a S 1 U uh an g t 5 fa cortex L I r I 7 131 9 I l quot i 5 3 a V Ivnn I V v A l l 39II a De nite 39 I r E l sualccrte 39J V A J IDEEJ ht1 39 q a If quot 39iia39isual egotistian II IIII39EEJZI ne Madman assetiatinn HIEZ uzlrmrjr cortex llm atly Enidden from vivanu i l l Temporal IEibE l 1 Occipital lobes located at the back of the head respond to visual stimuli Processing of information about such aspects of visual stimuli as their color shape and motion 2 Temporal lobes the part of the cerebral cortex just above the ears are involved in hearing language processing and memory 3 Frontal lobes the portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead are involved in personality intelligence and the control of voluntary muscles 4 Parietal lobes located at the top and toward the rear of the head are involved in registering spatial location attention and motor control The Endocrine Meeting Endocrine system consists of a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into the bloodstream Glands are organs or tissues in the body that create chemicals that control many bodily functions Hormones chemical messengers produced by the endocrine glands The bloodstream carries hormones to all parts of the body and the membrane of every cell has receptors for one or more hormones o Pituitary gland a peasized gland just beneath the hypothalamus controls growth and regulates other glands o Adrenal glands located at the top of each kidney regulate mood energy level and the ability to cope with stress Pancreas located under the stomach is a dualpurpose gland that performs both digestive and endocrine functions Ovaries located in the pelvis on either sides of the uterus in women and testes located in the scrotum in men are the sexrelated endocrine glands that produce hormones related to sexual development and reproduction Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception Sensation the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment and transforming those energies into neural energy Perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense 0 Receptor cells in our eyes record that is sense a sleek silver object in the sky but they do not quotseequot a jet plane Sensation is about the biological processing that occurs between our sensory systems and the environment while perception is our experience of those processes in action Bottomup and Topdown Processing Bottomup processing sensory receptors register information about the external environment and send it up to the brain for interpretation Begins from external world Topdown processing starts with cognitive processing in the brain In topdown processing we begin with some sense of what is happening the product of our experiences and apply that framework to incoming information from the world TeeElem Preeeeeingl th at the brain 39in terprete a 5 ll39lf39l uei c Th in ki rug 3 learnt the m u 5i 1 alreate5 a perceptual experienee in the min d rs ear Takingfn the mundis quot 1 if E tt 39ir39 ller Fire nee yang Sensory Receptors and the Brain Sensory receptors specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory afferent nerves and the brain Types of Energy Photoreception detection of light perceived as sight Mechanoreception detection of pressure vibration and movement perceived as touch hearing and equilibrium Chemoreception detection of chemical stimuli perceived as smell and taste Thresholds Weber39s law discovered by German physiologist E H Weber is the principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion to be perceived as different For example we add 1 candle to 20 candles and notice a difference in the brightness of the candles we add 1 candle to 120 candles and do not notice a difference but we would notice the difference if we added 6 candles to 120 candles Absolute threshold minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect In other words the absolute threshold is the dimmest light the faintest sound or the softest touch a person can still see hear or feel Difference threshold the degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the difference is detected Subliminal perception refers to the detection of information below the level of conscious awareness Signal detection theory focuses on decision making about stimuli under conditions of uncertainty Selective attention which involves focusing on a speci c aspect of experience while ignoring others Sustained attention is focused and extended engagement with an object task event or other aspect of the environment Executive attention involves action planning allocating attention to goals error detection and compensation monitoring progress on tasks and dealing with novel or dif cult circumstances The Visual System 0 Lightis a form of electromagnetic energy that can be described in terms of wavelengths o The wavelength of light is the distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next Wavelengths of visible light range from about 400 to 700 nanometers a nanometer is 1 billionth of a meter and is abbreviated nm The wavelength of light that is re ected from a stimulus determines its hue or color The Structure of the Eye Eclera Retina Sclera is the white outer part of the eye that helps to maintain the shape of the eye and to protect it from injury 0 Iris is the colored part of the eye which might be light blue in one individual and dark brown in another 0 Pupil which appears black is the opening in the center of the iris the pupil acts like the aperture of a camera opening to let in more light when it is needed and closing to let in less light when there is too much Cornea a clear membrane just in front of the eye 0 Lens a transparent and somewhat exible disklike structure lled with a gelatinlike material function of both of these structures is to bend the light falling on the surface of the eye just enough to focus it at the back The curved surface of the cornea does most of this bending while the lens netunes things 0 Retina which is the lightsensitive surface that records electromagnetic energy and converts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain Rods are the receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light but they are not very useful for color vision Rods function well under low illumination they are hard at work at night Cones are the receptors that we use for color perception Like rods cones are lightsensitive However they require a larger amount of light to respond than the rods do so they operate best in daylight or under high illumination Optic nerve which carries the visual information to the brain for further processing The Auditory System Enter ear E iiddlle ear 2 r w a Semicircullar canals Pinna Auditory nerve Ecuund if Eardmm 3 squot1iauciitcurf canal Inner ear The Outer Ear Pinna the funnelshaped is the outer visible part of the ear The pinna collects sounds and channels them into the interior of the ear The Middle Ear Middle ear channels and ampli es the sound through the eardrum hammer anvil and stirrup to the inner ear Eardrum separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound It is the rst structure that sound touches in the middle ear o The hammer anvil and stirrup are an intricately connected chain of very small bones When they vibrate they transmit sound waves to the uid lled inner ear The muscles that operate these tiny bones take the vibration of the eardrum and transmit it to the oval Window the opening of the innereac Inner Ear Inner Ear converts sound waves into neural impulses and send them on to the brain Stirrup transmits sound waves to the cochlea Cochlea a tubular uid lled structure that is coiled up like a snail Theo es Place theory states that each frequency produces vibrations at a particular place on the basilar membrane 0 Frequency theory gets at these other in uences by stating that the perception of a sound39s frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve res Higherfrequency sounds cause the auditory nerve to re more often than do lowerfrequency sounds Volley principle which states that a cluster of nerve cells can re neural impulses in rapid succession producing a volley of impulses Chapter 5 Types of Learning Learning a systematic relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience Behaviorism a theory of learning that focuses on observable behaviors Associative learning occurs when we make a connection or an association between two events Conditioning the process of learning these associations There are two types of conditioning Classical and operant both of which have been studied by behaviorists Classical conditioning organisms learn the association between two stimuli For example lightning is associated with thunder and regularly precedes it Operant conditioning organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence such as a reward As a result of this association organisms learn to increase behaviors that are followed by rewards and to decrease behaviors that are followed by punishment For example children are likely to repeat their good manners if their parents reward them with candy after they have shown good manners learning that takes place when a person observes and imitates another39s behavior is called observational learning Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response panic Unconditioned stimulus US is a stimulus that produces a response without prior learning Unconditioned response UR is an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the US Unconditioned responses are involuntary they happen in response to a stimulus without conscious e o Conditioned stimulus CS is a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response CR is the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after CS US pairing Bani nre Gcisncllnnlng U55 UH Neutral imulus Nci response FUD1 IIIjg 53quot Mates Eel his 33quot WHITEn ll 1 It a 7 ilk l I L I 39 J 3 annel Iltl l i rig A er GEN EliItEzinnlln NELrlJ aillitimukus us MR 5 25 Eell Facial D g i saildates 35quot 3 53993 lmy5395 ya quotit a Iii u jail 39 u all Etch f 12 Iquot Generalization in classical conditioning is the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response For example once you learn the association between a given CS say ashing police lights behind your car and a particular US the dread associated with being pulled over you do not have to learn it all over again when a similar stimulus presents itself a police car with its siren moaning as it cruises directly behind your car Discrimination the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others Schreurs amp others 2013 To produce discrimination Pavlov gave food to the dog only after ringing the bell and not after other sounds In this way the dog learned to distinguish between the bell and other sounds Extinction which in classical conditioning is the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent After conditioning the dog to salivate at the sound of a bell Pavlov rang the bell repeatedly in a single session and did not give the dog anyfood Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning is a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior39s occurrence Skinner Shaping refers to rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior For example shaping can be used to train a rat to press a bar to obtain food Reinforcement Reinforcement the process by which a stimulus or event a reinforcer following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again Positive reinforcement the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the presentation of something that increases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated For example if someone you meet smiles at you after you say Hello how are youquot and you keep talking the smile has reinforced your talking Negative reinforcement the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the removal of something For example if your father nagged you to clean out the garage and kept nagging until you cleaned out the garage your response cleaning out the garage removed the unpleasant stimulus your dad39s nagging Fesirt39we Reinfercemmt l l 39I39bu turn in er tem Tun tum irm Emmi Teacher mperl mtanEEt em times I39bu mat yuur skis 39Tlhe skis Tun was skis the lie iimE will Quilting 39I39bu albu hmml m Great IlrIILEil begrisk pleat l39uu ie berrateil messthe IIMHDII39I again elf a l riend39s the lie1d time 3mm get interim Re mi emememt Ellienine Hanmed 39ll39iziu mmin 39u 39 1the lEI39ldE 39llj39FI39EEE a button en the skinhead if a Eriend39s mt Teacher late Tine turn in humlurk Elf time FEEFEE step znminghjmen the Thumymr skis the nextiime m gel skiing Tine delherateiljr mess the again the nexttime sung is en Schedules xedratio schedule reinforces a behavior after a set number of behaviors For example if you are playing the slot machines in Atlantic City and if the machines are on a xedratio schedule you might get 5 back every 20th time you put money in the machine It would not take long to gure out that if you watched someone else play the machine 18 or 19 times not get any money back and then walk away you should step up insert your coin and get back 5 The business world often uses xedratio schedules to increase production For instance a factory might require a line worker to produce a certain number of items in order to get paid a particular amount variableratio schedule a system in which behaviors are rewarded an average number of times but on an unpredictable basis For example a slot machine might pay off at an average of every 20th time but the gambler does not know when this payoff will be xedinterval schedule reinforces the rst behavior after a xed amount of time has passed If you take a class that has four scheduled exams you might procrastinate most of the semester and cram just before each test variableinterval schedule is a timetable in which a behavior is reinforced after a variable amount of time has elapsed Pop quizzes occur on a variableinterval schedule Punishment Punishment is a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur For instance a child plays with a matchbox and gets burned when she lights one of the matches the child consequently is less likely to play with matches in the future positive punishment a behavior decreases when it is followed by the presentation of a stimulus Examples of positive punishment include spanking a misbehaving child and scolding a spouse who forgot to call when she was running late at the of ce negative punishment a behavior decreases when a stimulus is removed Negative punishment means taking away something pleasant to reduce a behavior limi wa igmrfx r i1rqu f 339 H
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