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History of Western Art 2001 Final Exam study guide

by: Alisa

History of Western Art 2001 Final Exam study guide HISTART 2001

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These notes cover the material for the final exam for this class. This includes artwork from the The Good Shepherd, Story of Jonah, and Orants (400 CE) until Lamentation by Giotto (1300 CE). These ...
History of Art 2001
Robert Calhoun & Rebecca Howard
Study Guide
Art History, Art, Western Art, Study Guide, final exam, history, byzantine art
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisa on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HISTART 2001 at a university taught by Robert Calhoun & Rebecca Howard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
FORMAT: • 2 slide IDs (10 minutes each) • 1 comparison (25 minutes) • labeling (5 minutes) • 5 terms with examples (10 minutes) • long essay (30 minutes) Culture: ROMAN 400 CE Period: Early Christian/ Late Antique The Good Shepherd, Story of Jonah, and Orants ­­from Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus  (Rome, Italy) ­­400 CE ­­Roman, Early Christian/Late Antique ● similarities in posture with the  Sleeping Satyr statue (Hellenistic Greek)  and Endymion Sarcophagus (Mid­Imperial  Roman) Old Saint Peter’s basilica plan ­­Rome, Italy 400 CE ­­Roman, Early Christian/Late Antique **St. Peter’s relics are in the crypt (under the altar) **Christian Basilica: nave (where congregation sits,  300’), narthex, transept, side aisles, apse, chancel  **c arch (Triumphal Arch), altar. Early christ. basilicas  were timber­roofed and lit by clerestory windows apacity= 3­4,000 **atrium added later ­ based on old Roman Basilicas **other church plan= Central plan  church (Ex. Santa Costanza, Rome) Christ as Good Shepherd  ­­glass mosaic from Mausoleum of Galla Placidia  (Ravenna, Italy) ­­ 400 CE Roman, Early Christian/ Late Antique ­like the Santa Maria Maggiore mosaics in Rome  (the style here is still rooted in the Classical  tradition) ­­angles make tesserae catch light differently Suicide of Judas and Crucifixion  ­­ivory plaque from a box (first known  representation of the Crucifixion in art) 400 CE ­Plebian Roman, Early Christian/Late Antique   Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence ­­glass mosaic from Mausoleum of Galla Placidia  (Ravenna, Italy) ­­ 400 CE Roman, Early Christian/Late Antique Culture: BYZANTINE 600 CE Period: EARLY/MID BYZANTINE Justinian as World Conqueror (Barberini Ivory) ­­ ivory 600 CE ­­Byzantine, early/middle byzantine **high relief Hagia Sophia ­­Anthemius of Tralles & Isodorus of Milletus  (architects) ­­Constantinople (Istanbul) ­­brick exterior with marble and mosaic interior 600 CE ­­Byzantine, early/middle byzantine **very complex, use of four huge pendentives  allowed for such a large dome with so much  clerestory A. What does Procopius focus on when he describes Hagia Sophia? Consider materials, spaces, visual effects, and the way that he describes them. B. How does Procopius characterize his experience of the structure? What kind of an impact does it have on him? Mosaics of Justinian & Theodora and attendants ­­from apse of San Vitale (Ravenna, Italy) 600 CE ­­Byzantine, early/middle byzantine Virgin (Theotokos) and Child enthroned ­­mosaic from apse of Hagia Sophia  (Constantinople/Istanbul) showing Virgin Mary and  baby Jesus 600 CE ­­Byzantine, early/middle byzantine Christ Blessing (Christ Pantokrator) ­­from Monastery of Saint Catherine (Mount Sinai,  Egypt) ­encaustic on wood 600 CE ­­Byzantine, early/middle byzantine **face seems symmetrical but one side os gentle  and peaceful while the other is dark and wrathful  (showing NT vs. OT God?) A. What special term do we use for this kind of religious image? Explain the historical significance of objects such as this and why they were considered to be controversial. B. Discuss what this particular artwork represents and how people would have interacted with it at the time. Culture: EARLY MEDIEVAL Periods: Anglo­Saxon 600 CE Purse cover from Sutton Hoo ship burial ­­gold, garnet, and glass 600 CE Early Medieval, Anglo­Saxon **cloisonne, very elegant, use of animal style  highlights Culture: EARLY MEDIEVAL  Period: Hiberno­Saxon 800 CE Chi­Rho­Iota (XPI) page from Book of Kells ­­ink, tempera, gold/silver leaf ­­800 CE Early Medieval, Hiberno­Saxon *historiated letter­ an enlarged introductory letter  that contains pictorial scenes or figures related to  the text ­ extremely intricate A. Briefly discuss the process and location of the creation of works such as this. Additionally, how was the viewer intended to engage with this particular piece? Culture: EARLY MEDIEVAL  Period: Carolingian 800 CE Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne ­­Odo of Metz (architect) ­­Aachen, Germany ­­800 CE Early Medieval, Carolingian Saint Matthew, from Coronation Gospels ­­800 CE Aachen, Germany Early Medieval, Carolingian ­­use of perspective, natural setting in the  background, very naturalistic folds in the drapery  and modeling of his face. ­­gold ink purple­dyed vellum (royal color) Schematic plan for a monastery ­­St. Gall, Switzerland ­­800 CE Early Medieval, Carolingian Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning Figures ­­Lindau Gospels cover ­­800 CE Early Medieval, Carolingian A. Using relevant vocabulary, describe the function of this work. Why did it have so many jewels (what did they symbolize)? B. Describe at least two styles that influence this work. Culture: EARLY MEDIEVAL  Period: Ottonian 1000 CE Bishop Bernward’s doors with relief panels ­­from St. Michael’s (Hildesheim, Germany) ­­1000 CE Early Medieval, Ottonian Gero Crucifix  ­­ Cologne Cathedral (Germany) ­­ 1000 CE Early Medieval, Ottonian Culture: ROMANESQUE Period: ROMANESQUE 1000 CE Saint­Sernin (Saint Saturninus) (exterior and interior views) ­­ (Toulouse, France) ­­1000 CE Romanesque, Romanesque A. How does Durandus explain the physical materials of the Church? Contrarily, in what abstract ways does Durandus effectively discuss the Church? B. What metaphor(s) did you find particularly effective? Why? Restored view of Cluny III ­­Cluny, France ­­ 1000 CE Romanesque, Romanesque Tympanum with Last Judgment ­Autun, France ­1000 CE ­Giselbertus ­ west portal of Saint­Lazare, stone ­graphic and terrifying depiction of the Last  Judgment ­Romanesque, Romanesque Reliquary statue of Sainte­Foy (Saint Faith) ­1000 CE, France ­gold, silver gilt, jewels, & cameos over wooden  core ­Romanesque, Romanesque • Based on your knowledge of the subject, would you consider the veneration of the reliquary of Sainte Foy idolatry? Why or why not? Do you believe there is a “gray” area? • Which “miracle” story did you most enjoy? In your opinion, what aspects of the accounts were most interesting? Bayeux Tapestry ­from Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, France ­1000 CE ­wool embroidery on linen **continuous narrative of the Battle of Hastings **embroidery ­Romanesque, Romanesque Culture: GOTHIC Period: Early Gothic 1150 CE East End (ambulatory, radiating chapels, lux nova) ­Saint­Denis, France ­1150 CE ­Gothic, Early Gothic • What are some of the reasons that the abbey church of Saint-Denis is special to the French royalty? • How does he describe the “new light” (lux nova) of the abbey church and what is its function? • What are some of the ways he describes the decoration of the church (consider the descriptions of the altar panel, pulpit, and liturgical vessels, for example)? What might be the purpose(s) of such lavishly decorated items? Chartres Cathedral ­Chartres, France (before 1194, early gothic) ­1150 CE A. Royal Portal, west facade B. relic of Mary’s cloth C. Virgin and Child and Angels window Culture: GOTHIC Period: High Gothic 1200 CE Chartres Cathedral (after 1194, high gothic) ­1200 CE High Gothic A. Structure (ribbed groin vaulting,  buttressing, tripartite elevation, lux nova) a. left tower is high  gothic B. St. Theodore (jamb statue, south  transept) a. S­curve Beau Dieu, Amiens Cathedral ­France, 1200 CE High Gothic A. What does this image show? B. What message does it portray about Christ? How does its location affect this message? St. Maurice, Magdeburg Cathedral ­Germany 1200 CE High Gothic Annunciation and Visitation (Reims Cathedral)  ­Reims, France  ­1200 CE High Gothic Upper Chapel, Sainte­Chapelle ­Paris, France ­1200 CE High Gothic Virgin and Child (Virgin of Paris) from Notre­Dame ­Paris, France 1200 CE ­S­curve “Annunciation” in the Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux **1300 CE but is High Gothic b/c it’s primarily in  the courtly style Culture: Gothic Period: Late Gothic 1300 CE Rottgen Madonna ­Rhineland, Germany 1300 CE Late Gothic ­virgin with Dead Christ Pieta (italian)­­ pity, or compassion ­christ is shown dead and virgin is shown grieving  and miserable; instead of threatening and scaring  people into piety, they were supposed to be moved Culture: Late Medieval/ Early Ren. Period: Late Medieval/ Early Ren. 1300 CE Saint Francis Altarpiece ­artist: Bonaventura Berlinghieri ­1300 CE Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints  ­from Maesta altarpiece ­artist: Duccio ­1300 CE Lamentation  ­from Scrovegni Chapel (Padua, Italy) ­artist: Giotto ­1300 CE A. What revolutionary changes in figural style and composition do we see in this work? Discuss how this work is characteristic of developments in the period’s artistic style. ● **Italy 1400- period has byzantine influences, later becomes very naturalistic (emphasis on perspective/space/weight/observation of detail-- things from greek/roman/high gothic periods) ● --shows perspective/distance B. Explain what kind of response this work was intended to evoke from the viewer. In what ways does it accomplish this? ● meant to evoke sadness and move people into joining the church. shows christ as helpless rather than wrathful/powerful, embodies sacrifice. people are meant to mourn with the angels ARTISTS: ● Anthemius of Tralles & Isodorus of Milletus (architects): Hagia Sophia ● Odo of Metz: Palatine Chapel ● Giselbertus: Tympanum with Last Judgment ● Bonaventura Berlinghieri: Saint Francis Altarpiece ● Duccio: Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints ● Giotto: Lamentation TIMELINE: 400 CE 1. Roman (Early Christian/ Late Antique) a. the good shepherd, story of jonah, and orants  (rome) b. old saint peter’s basilica plan (rome) c. christ as good shepherd (ravenna) d. martyrdom of st. lawrence (ravenna) e. suicide of judas and crucifixion  600 CE 1. Byzantine (Early/Mid Byzantine) a. justinian as world conqueror  b. hagia sophia (istanbul, Anthemius & Isodorus) c. mosaics of justinian/ theodora/ attendants  (ravenna) d. virgin theotokos and child enthroned (istanbul) e. christ pantokrator (mt. Sinai, egypt) 2. Early Medieval (Anglo­Saxon) a. purse cover from Sutton Hoo ship burial  800 CE 1. Early Medieval (Hiberno­Saxon) a. chi­rho­iota page from book of Kells  2. Early Medieval (Carolingian) a. palatine chapel (Aachen, Germany Odo of  Metz) b. st. matthew, from coronation gospels c. schematic plan for a monastery (st. gall,  Switzerland) d. crucifixion with angels and mourning figures 1. Early Medieval (Ottonian) 1000 CE a. bishop bernward’s doors with relief panels  (hildesheim, Germany) b. gero crucifix (cologne cathedral, germany) 2. Romanesque (Romanesque) a. Saint­sernin (toulouse, france) b. restored view of Cluny III (cluny, france) c. tympanum with last judgment (Giselbertus,  Autun, fr.) d. reliquary statue of St. Foy  e. Bayeux Tapestry (Bayeux, France) 1150 CE 1. Gothic (Early Gothic) a. east end (st. denis, france) b. chartres cathedral (chartres, france) 1200 CE 1. Gothic (High Gothic) a. chartres cathedral (chartres, france) b. beau dieu (amiens cathedral, france) c. st. maurice (madgeburg cathedral, germany) d. annunciation and visitation (reims cathedral,  france) e. upper chapel, sainte­chapelle (paris, france) f. virgin and child, notre dame (paris, france) g. annunciation in the hours of jeanne d’evreux  1300 CE 1. Gothic (Late Gothic) a. rottgen madonna (rhineland, germany) 2. Late Medieval/Early Renaissance Italy (per. same) a. saint francis altarpiece (bonaventura  berlinghieri) b. virgin and child enthroned w/ saints (Duccio,  Maesta altarpiece) c. lamentation (scrovegni chapel, padau, italy;  Giotto) ESSAY 1. Describe the progression of the depiction of Christ through time, through 4 works that come  from different periods. Describe Christ’s iconographic representation (consider his placement,  size, pose, etc.) in depth, and how style, technique (fresco, mosaic, stone), and location contribute to the impact on the viewer. What messages about Christ (which of his characteristics and roles)  were emphasized in different time periods? ● Christ is first shown as loving and kind, and compared to a “good sheperd”. in Christ as  Good Shepherd mosaic, he is seen as very graceful and loving, surrounded by his flock of sheep. Both his size and pose are naturalistic; this makes him appear very peaceful and the mosaic very  pastoral. ○ Christ as Good Shepherd (Roman, Early Christian/Late Antique;  Ravenna, Italy 400 CE) ● In Suicide of Judas and Crucifixion, Christ is depicted as youthful and idealized, with a  strong body and peaceful face. as he is crucified, this depiction is very unrealistic. depictions of  the crucifixion will become more naturalistic. ○ Suicide of Judas and Crucifixion (Roman, Early Christian/Late Antique;  400 CE) ● In the Byzantine era, another side of Christ is depicted. In addition to the loving and  peaceful Christ from the earlier piece, he is also depicted as powerful and wrathful. In Christ  Pantokrator, he is the only subject of the piece and is posed to be blessing the viewer. however,  while one side of his face is still gentle and compassionate, the other is shown as dark and  wrathful, so that one can envision the angry God of the Old Testament.  ○ Christ Pantokrator (Byzantine, Early/Mid Byz.; Mt. Sinai,  600 CE) ● In the early medieval culture, Christ is depicted as very naturalistic. he is no longer  idealized as he was in roman pieces and also appears to be older, more like the christ that is  described by the bible. the depictions of his crucifixion are very realistic as his body is posed and  proportioned more realistically than they were in older pieces such as the Suicide of Judas and  Crucifixion in which he is young and idealized. ○ Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning Figures (Lindau Gospels cover,  Carolingian 800 CE) ○ Gero Crucifix (Early Medieval, Ottonian; Cologne, Germany 1000 CE) ● In the Romanesque era, depictions of Christ were powerful and threatening, much larger  than life and very cold. This was meant to scare people into joining the church. In the Tympanum  with the Last Judgment, Christ is much larger than all the other figures, even though he’s seated  and others are standing. His colossal figure oversees the ruthless judgment of souls, sending  them to heaven or hell. he is no longer the compassionate and loving saviour that was depicted in earlier pieces. ○ Christ in the Tympanum with the Last Judgment (Romanesque, 1000  CE) ● Finally, in the Gothic culture, Christ  is depicted very naturalistically and emotionally. The  Rottgen Madonna shows Virgin Mary mourning over Christ’s broken body. Lamentation from the  Late Medieval/Early Renaissance period also shows an emotional scene of mourning where  angels and saints surround Christ’s body. These later depictions are meant to move people into  joining the church. ○ Rottgen Madonna (Gothic, Late Gothic; Rhineland, Germany 1300 CE) ○ Lamentation (Late Medieval/Early Renaissance; Padau, Italy 1300 CE) 2. Discuss different representations of the Virgin Mary, from the Byzantine era to the Early  Renaissance. Include the different messages and roles the artworks attribute to Mary after  discussing her representation (pose, size, etc.), as well as the style, technique, and location (if  location is known) of the artworks. Make sure to include artworks from different periods (though it is fine to choose artworks from the Early, High, and Late Gothic periods as different examples). THEMES • borrowing from the past, using things to new ends • power of images, idolatry and iconoclasm • supporting power and authority with religion (divine right to rule) • growth of Christianity and how this affects art & architecture • changing stylistic features & drawing from previous styles • conveying emotion, humanizing the divine • moving away from naturalism OR striving towards naturalism • communicating with the viewer, affecting the viewer’s reaction, techniques for incorporating and emotionally involving the viewer • role of materials (including “non­physical” materials like light) in causing a certain reaction/experience • ways of connecting with the divine (intercessors, icons, architecture bridging the gap between earth and heaven CHRISTIAN VOCAB • monotheism­ belief in one god • Messiah­ jesus • apostles­ followers of jesus • typology­ when old testament events are used to foreshadow new testament events • relic­ some piece of clothing/bone from a saint; kept in a reliquary • orant­ pose with raised arms, preaching  • martyr­ someone who died for their faith • Eucharist­ bread and wine that symbolizes christ’s body and blood • intercessor­ interpretation of the Virgin as the Intercessor to salvation • Virgin Theotokos­ Birth­giver of god • Christ Pantokrator­ Christ Ruler of All • icon­ image of a saint or person of worship • iconoclasm­ destruction of icons • iconoclast­ destroyer of icons • iconophile/iconodule­ someone trying to preserve icons • ambulatory­ a covered walkway; especially the passageway around the apse and choir of a central  plan church • cloister­ a covered walk in a convent, monastery, college, or cathedral, typically with a wall on one side  and a colonnade open to a quadrangle on the other. • monastery­ place of religious study • scriptorium­ writing room in monastery • abbey, abbot, abbess­ person in charge of the monastery • laity­ lay people, as distinct from the clergy. • Westwork­  the monumental, west­facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque  church • pilgrimage­ religious journey • radiating chapels­ in medieval churches, chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto the  ambulatory and transept • theophany­ the appearance of a deity to a human or other being.  • mandorla­ almond shaped nimbus surrounding Christ and/or other sacred figures • Maiestas Domini­ Christ in Majesty • reliquary­ place containing relics • pietà­ a painted/sculpted representation of the Virgin Mary mourning over the body of Christ • altarpiece­ a panel, painted or sculpted, situated above and behind an altar • catacomb­ underground networks of rock­cut galleries and chambers designed as cemeteries • mausoleum­a large/stately building housing tombs STRUCTURAL VOCAB: • pendentives­ triangular shaped supports used to support a dome (ex. Hagia sophia) • voussoirs­ wedge­shaped stone block used in the construction of a true arch; central voussoir is the  Keystone • pier­ a vertical, freestanding, support • transverse arch­ an arch separating one vaulted bay from the next • engaged columns­ columns attached to the wall • groin vault­ cross vault STYLES/TECHNIQUES VOCAB: • animal style­ use of metal interlacing in anglo­saxon pieces • Carolingian­ pertaining to the empire of Charlemagne and his successors  • Italo­Byzantine Style­ characterized by a strict formality, a linear flatness, a shallow space, and an  emphasis on the spiritual.  • cloisonné­ a decorative metalwork technique employing cells made out of metal and filled with  • repoussé­ (of metalwork) hammered into relief from the reverse side. • fresco (buon & secco)­ painting on lime plaster, either dry (fresco secco) or wet (buon fresco) • continuous narrative­ narrative in which the characters show up multiple times at different phases of the  story (Ex. bayeux tapestry) • embroidery­ sewing colored threads onto a finished ground form.  • Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeux Tapestry) ­ fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman­French army of Duke William II of  Normandy and an English army under the Anglo­Saxon King Harold II, beginning the Norman  conquest of England. • repoussoir figures­ means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by placement of a large figure  or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the  picture. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major  force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the 17th­century. • “S” Curve­ a traditional art concept in Ancient Greek sculpture and Roman sculpture where the figure's  body and posture is depicted like a sinuous or serpentine "S". kinda like more emphasized contrapposto • grisaille­ a monochrome painting done mainly in neutral grays to simulate sculpture • opus modernum­ modern work BOOK VOCAB: • codex­ format of a book; bound sheets of vellum (calfskin) or parchment (lambskin) • illuminated manuscript­ elaborately decorated book, more for pictures than words • carpet page­ in early medieval manuscripts, a decorative page resembling a textile • author portrait­ page in a book with a portrait of one of the four evangelists • historiated letter­ huge first letter of a word that’s decorated  GOTHIC VOCAB: • Abbot Suger­ Suger was a French abbot, statesman, historian and one of the earliest patrons of Gothic architecture • pointed arch­ from Gothic era, used to more efficiently transfer weight vertically • flying buttresses­ exterior masonry structure to oppose the lateral thrust of an arch/vault, from Gothic era • lux nova­ “new light”­ abbot suger’s term for the light that enters a gothic church through stained glass  windows • lancet windows­ tall narrow window ending in a pointed arch • rose window­ circular stained glass window • oculus windows (pl. oculi)­ round central opening of a dome; small round window in a gothic cathedral • triforium­ in a gothic cathedral, the blind arcaded gallery below the clerestory; occasionally, the arcades are filled with stained glass • came­ a lead strip in a stained glass window that joins separate pcs of colored glass • Gothic Courtly Style­ elegant and sophisticated • Rayonnant Style­ the “radiant” style of gothic architecture, dominant in the second half of the 13th  century and associated w/ the french royal court of Louis IX OTHER ● basilica church parts (nave, narthex, transcept, side aisles, apse, chancel arch, altar) + ● Romanesque portal: voussoirs, archivolts, jambs, trumeau, tympanum, lintel  READINGS: ● Procopius, Buildings of Justinian ● Durandus, Of a Church and its Parts ● Bernard of Angers, The Book of Sainte Foy ● Abbot Suger of St. Denis: Patron of the Arts


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