Exam 2 Learning Objectives
Exam 2 Learning Objectives BS 161
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by JessicaJ on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BS 161 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Stolzfus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
CARBOHYDRATES, INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM and CELLULAR RESPIRATION Lectures 11-15 (Chapters4, 6 and 7) Learning Objectives Carbohydrates Serve as Fuel and Building Material 1. Identify functional groups in various representations of biological molecules and predict how their properties influence the function of that biological molecule. 2. Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides: simple sugar, building blocks to form larger molecules, contains glucose, make up polysaccharides (linked together due to dehydration reactions), transported in blood capillaries and they are mainly used for storage. Disaccharides: transport sugars and consist of 2 monosaccharides linked together Polysaccharides: building and energy storage compounds, consists of long chains of monosaccharides and lacks an enzyme 3. Describe the formation of a linkage between monosaccharides. a. Recognize and distinguish between typical depictions of monomer and polymer structures. b. Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis reactions. c. Distinguish between the linkages found in starch and cellulose. d. Explain why the difference in the linkage between starch and cellulose is biologically important. 4. Describe the function of common monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides and explain the role of carbohydrate structure on these functions. Monosaccharides: used to store glucose Disaccharides: used to transport glucose Polysaccharides: used to as building materials and for energy storage The carbohydrate structure is great to store energy, due to the carbon-hydrogen bond, which is important in all of these structures. Oxidation/Reduction, Energy, NAD Coenzymes, and ATP 5. Define oxidation and reduction reactions, recognize examples of these reactions, and explain the role of oxidation reduction reactions in energy transfers. Oxidation Reactions: Loss of electrons in a reaction. This causes the overall charge of the compounds to be greater. Reduction Reactions: Gain of electrons in a reaction. This causes the overall charge to be less than it was initially. Example: Rusting~ Oxygen is reduced while the iron is oxidized Their role in energy transfers is to provide energy for further reactions such as producing ATP. Each time one of these reaction occurs it releases energy. 6. Explain the role of NAD coenzymes in metabolic oxidation- reduction reactions. NAD is used to generate more ATP. When glucose is reduced NAD is oxidized and vice versa 7. Describe the structure of ATP and identify the major class of macromolecules to which ATP belongs. ATP contains sugar ribose with the nitrogenous base adenine and a chain of 3 phosphate groups bonded to it. It is a nucleoside triphosphate which are often used to make RNA. 8. Explain the role of ATP in coupled reactions. Responsible for mediating most energy coupling in cells. It couples a synthetic reaction with another reaction that also converts ATP to ADP and gives up extra energy that is required for synthesis 9. Analyze novel metabolic pathways using these basic principles. The Process of Carbohydrate Catabolism 10. Name the three main stages of cellular respiration and state the region of the eukaryotic cell where each stage occurs. Glycolysis- occurs in cytosol, citric acid cycle- in mitochondrial matrix in Ec, and oxidative phosphorylation- inner membrane of mitochondria 11. List inputs and outputs of each pathway/processes: glycolysis, fermentation, pyruvate oxidation, the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis. Chart 12. Describe how the carbon skeleton of glucose changes as it proceeds through glycolysis, fermentation, pyruvate oxidation, and the Krebs cycle. Glycolysis: the ring is opened and then the glucose will be cut into 2 straight chained 3-carbon molecules (glyceraldehyde) Fermentation: 13. Identify key energy transformation steps and changes in potential energy of input and output molecules in each pathway/process: glycolysis, fermentation, pyruvate oxidation, the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis. 14. Identify energy transformations that occur and the type of enzymes that catalyze substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidation or reduction of NAD, and oxidative phosphorylation. 15. Identify where substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidation or reduction of NAD, and oxidative phosphorylation occur in the following pathways/processes: glycolysis, fermentation, pyruvate oxidation, the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis. 16. Explain why ATP is required for the preparatory steps of glycolysis. Because ATP is used to fuel glycolysis without ATP glycolysis wouldn’t have enough energy 17. State the basic function of fermentation. + Regenerate NAD which allows the glycolysis process to continue to breakdown glucose, produce ATP and produce pyruvate for the continuation of the process in anaerobic conditions when no oxygen is available 18. Compare the fate of pyruvate in alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation, and cellular respiration. Alcohol: pyruvate is converted to ethanol Lactic Acid: pyruvate is reduced to NADH which forms lactate Cellular Respiration: broken down into CO an2 H O 2 19. Describe where pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoA, what molecules are produced, and how this process links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle. During Krebs cycle, 2 CoA molecules are produced. This process is linked to glycolysis because glycolysis produces the pyruvate the cycle needs. It is linked to citric acid cycle because Krebs produces NADH which the citric cycle needs and the citric cycle produces NAD and FAD both of which the Krebs cycle needs. 20. List the products of the citric acid cycle. Explain why it is called a cycle. 6NADH + H molecules, 2 FADH molecu2es, 4 CO , and 2 2 ATP molecules. It is a cycle because it can be repeated over and over again once the proper reactants are added. 21. Describe the point at which glucose is completely oxidized during cellular respiration. During the citric acid cycle. The glucose is broken down into CO 2 22. Explain where and how the respiratory electron transport chain creates a proton gradient and explain why this gradient is described as a proton motive force. 23. Explain how energy released by the exergonic movement of electrons down the electron transport chain is captured and coupled to the endergonic production of ATP by chemiosmosis. 24. Explain why ATP synthase is considered a molecular rotary motor. It spins so it can make room for another proton to come through 25. Summarize the net ATP yield from the oxidation of a glucose molecule using the outputs of glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis. 26. Calculate the efficiency of cellular respiration in generating ATP. Metabolism and the Control of Metabolism 27. Explain the role of catabolic and anabolic pathways in cellular metabolism. Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simple compounds. Anabolic consume energy in order to build complicated molecules from simpler ones. 28. Explain how ATP production is controlled by the cell. When ATP levels are too high, the cell no longer needs metabolic energy production to occur. This causes ATP synthesis to slow down. 29. Describe the role that the allosteric enzyme phosphofructokinase plays in this feedback control. Phosphofructokinase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate from ATP to fructose-6- phosphate. In other words, it is the key regulatory enzyme for glycolysis 30. Explain how feedback inhibition prevents a cell from wasting chemical resources. It prevents the cell from synthesizing more product than is needed 31. Describe how localization of enzymes within a cell helps organize and control metabolism. Since the cell is compartmentalized the organization of cellular structures bring order to metabolic pathways. A group of enzymes may be assembled as a multienzyme complex. Some enzymes have fixed locations within the cell. Metabolism is an interplay of thousands of different kinds of cellular molecules. Related Metabolic Processes 32. Distinguish between fermentation and anaerobic respiration. Fermentation: partial degradation of sugars to release energy. A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and produces a characteristic end produce (ethanol or lactic acid). Anaerobic Respiration: use of inorganic molecules other than oxygen to accept electrons at the end of electron transport chains 33. Compare the processes of fermentation and cellular respiration. Fermentation is just the partial degradation of sugars and other organic fuel that occurs without oxygen while cellular respiration uses both aerobic and anaerobic processes 34. Describe how food molecules other than glucose can be oxidized to make ATP. Each NADH and FADH2 is stored energy which contain high energy electrons from food molecules which are carried to an electron transport chain. Plants use photosynthesis to make their own food. Cells harvest the chemical energy stored in organic molecules to regenerate ATP 35. Explain how glycolysis and the citric acid cycle can contribute to anabolic pathways. In glycolysis, there are 3 products formed that are used in anabolism. The pyruvate (1) from glycolysis is used in the citric acid cycle as well as in anaerobic respiration. ATP (2) + provides energy for many cellular functions. NADH + H (3) gives reducing power for other metabolic pathways or additional ATP synthesis. Final Goals Analyze novel metabolic processes using concepts from thermodynamics, enzymatic reactions, and control mechanisms. Trace matter and energy through the central metabolic pathway and integrate this into your mental model of how cells work. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Lectures 16-17, 19 (Chapter 8) Learning Objectives The Process that Feeds the Biosphere 1. Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. Autotrophic: self-feeders the only nutrients they require are water and minerals from soil and CO2. Produce organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment. Heterotrophic: Unable to make their own food. Live on compounds produced by other organisms. (Animals) 2. Describe the structure of a chloroplast, listing all membranes and compartments. It has an envelope of 2 membranes surrounding dense fluid rd (stroma). Suspended in the stroma is a 3 membrane system, made of sacs (thylakoids). This membrane segregates the stroma from the thylakoid space. These chloroplasts are mainly located in the upper epidermis layer in the cells of the mesophyll. 3. Write a summary equation for photosynthesis. 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 +6O2 4. In general terms, explain the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis. The water is split, and electrons are transferred along with hydrogen ions from the water to CO2, which causes it to reduce into sugar. This process required energy because the electrons increase in potential energy as they move from water to sugar. The Pathways of Photosynthesis 5. Describe the two main stages of photosynthesis in general terms. Light-dependent reactions which occur in the thylakoid membrane and uses the light to make ATP and NADPH. Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions) energized electrons (ATP & NADPH) from the light dependent reactions provide energy to the Calvin cycle which constructs carbohydrates from CO m2lecules. 6. Describe the relationship between an action spectrum and an absorption spectrum. The action spectrum profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving the process. The absorption spectrum of chloroplast pigments provide clues to the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths for driving photosynthesis. The action spectrum shows that the chlorophylls in the absorption spectrum are most important because they correlate closest to the action spectrum. 7. Explain why the action spectrum for photosynthesis differs from the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a. 8. List the wavelengths (colors) of light that are most effective for photosynthesis and relate this to absorption spectrum. 9. Explain what happens when a solution of chlorophyll a absorbs photons. Explain what happens when chlorophyll a in an intact chloroplast absorbs photons and why these are different. 10. List the components of a photosystem and describe the function of each component. Thylakoid membrane contains a number of light-harvesting complexes and a reaction center complex, which is a protein complex with 2 special chlorophyll and a molecules and primary electron acceptor. At the center of the photosystem II (PS II) is the chlorophyll which is called P680 (wavelength of light it absorbs best at). At the center of PS I is also a chlorophyll molecule called P700 11. Trace the movement of electrons in noncyclic electron flow. Its drives light driven electrons from water to NADH 12. Trace the movement of electrons in cyclic electron flow. Electrons excited from P700 in PSI are passed from Fd to the cytochrome complex and back to P700 13. Explain the function(s) of noncyclic electron flow. Electron energy can be used to reduce to NADP+ 14. Explain the function(s) of cyclic electron flow. Used to compensate for higher ATP requirements 15. Describe the similarities and differences in chemiosmosis between oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and photophosphorylation in chloroplasts. 16. State the function of each of the three phases of the Calvin cycle. 1. CO2 becomes covalently bonded to RuBP with enzyme carboxylase. 2. Reduction- each molecule of 3-phosphoglycerate gets an additional phosphate group from ATP 3. Regeneration of CO2 acceptor-5 molecules of G3P into 3 molecules of RuBP 17. Describe the role of ATP and NADPH in the Calvin cycle. Uses both to convert inorganic carbon into sugar. This is an anabolic reaction that takes place in the stroma The Pathways of Photosynthesis Trace matter and energy through photosynthesis and connect this into your mental model of cellular respiration. Apply basic metabolic principles to analyze processes that occur during photosynthesis and predict how changes in one part of the process will impact what is happening in the overall process.
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