Org Behavior Exam 2 Study Guide
Org Behavior Exam 2 Study Guide MGT 3813
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Whitney Smith on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 3813 at Mississippi State University taught by Emily Marett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Motivation Theories 1 Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation a Intrinsic Motivation i More powerful You would do it for free ii Self motivation iii Hobbies interests volunteer work whatever you do for fun b Extrinsic Motivation i Forced Someone tells you to do something ii Paybenefits grade requirements 2 Maslow s hierarchy of needs vs ERG assumptionsweaknessesproscons a Maslow s i Classic hierarchy ii Assumes needs are in pyramid order Assumes you only have one need at a t1me iii Sel f Safety Security Physiological b ERG Theory Existent Relatedness Growth Theory i Not in any order ii Can have more than one need at a time iii EX I ste n C e Physuologlcal NeedsSafety Growth Self Actualization Related ness SocialLove iv What is frustration regression hypothesis MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 V If you are frustratedunsuccessful in meeting a need may regress to focus on another need McClelland s theory of needs a b C Need for achievement drive to excel to succeed Need for power need to in uence control over others Need for affiliation need for friends and interpersonal relationships Cognitive evaluation theory how do rewards impact intrinsic motivation 8 b c d If I pay you to do something you are intrinsically motivated to do your intrinsic motivation gets lowered You lose control You are not the boss Focus more on the reward than your intrinsic joy Self concordance a b c d Goal s a b C Self concordance the degree to which a person s reasons for pursuing a goal are consistent with the person s interests and core values You are intrinsically motivated to do the job Happier on the job even if the project fails Feels good to do something you believe in Employee whose value system matches the organizations etting theory This theory states that specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance i Specific goals are more effective than general goals e g Do your best ii More difficult goals lead to higher levels of job performance 1 You literally try harder 2 Focus harder less mistakes 3 Creative solutions Feedback leads to higher performance because feedback helps guide behavior 1 Self generated feedback more powerful motivator than feedback from external sources a We are more motivated when we decide to do it b motivated when someone tries to tell us what to do Works best if you are committed to the task task is simple you ve done it before and you are independent Three factors that determine whether or not this theory holds true i Goal commitment 1 Goal commitment whether the individual believes heshe can achieve the goal and whether the individual wants to achieve it 2 Most likely to have high commitment when the goals are made public a We respond to peer pressure Task characteristics iii ii MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 1 Goals increase performance for simple well learned and independent tasks straightforward 2 This theory isn t effective for complex tasks novel tasks or tasks that depend on other members of a team iii Culture this theory assumes that iv Employees are independent low on power distance V Employees seek challenging goals low uncertainty avoidance vi And that performance is important high in need for achievement d gt ltgt gt This theory is backed up by TONS of research 7 Classical conditioning Pavlov a Modifying behavior by pairing a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit an unconditioned response Pavlov s dogs c Natural production of saliva unconditioned response in response to the presentation of meat unconditioned stimulus d Ringing a bell conditioned stimulus while presenting the meat unconditioned stimulus e Ringing a bell results in production of saliva even when no meat present f Works best for animals 8 Operant conditioning a Process of modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors Positive reinforcement reward Negative reinforcement withhold something negative Punishment withhold a reward or apply something negative Extinction a strategy to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it i Extinction is a non response Ignoring behavior 1 Riskiest 9 Social learning theory a Social Learning Theory i We can learn by vicariously observing the behavior of others ii I can watch someone else be punished or rewarded and learn iii Bobo Doll 1 Child saw kid show violence on TV and then did violence himself Trying to see if violence in cartoons could shape child behavior 10 Expectancy theory GOOD ESSAY a 990quot ll iwi u l lu i lual i Drga iaa nml Personal b Will my effort achieve the goal Self efficacy c Will I get the reward that is promised to me d Do I even want the reward ll Equity theory GOOD ESSAY 8 b C MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 A theory that states that individuals compare job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities Four comparisons i Self inside 1 An employee s experiences in a different position within the organization 2 My current position compared to a different position in the same company ii Self outside 1 An employee s experiences in a position outside the organization 2 My current position compared to the same job I held at another company iii Other inside 1 Another individual inside the org 2 Compare your position to someone else you know in the same position at the same company a Example Susan Lack and Emily Marett iv Other outside 1 Another individual outside the org 2 Compare yourself to someone in the same job at a different company a Example Emily Marett vs teacher at Ole Miss How you would react if you see inequity i Change their inputs Change your effort level ii Change their outcomes Asking for a raise Change perceptions of self I work hard so I deserve more Rationalization iv Change perceptions of others Switch the rationalization on others v Leave the field gQuit MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Applying Motivation Concepts in the Workplace 1 Job characteristics model a Skill variety the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities b Task identity the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work c Task significance the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people d Autonomy the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to carry it out e Feedback the degree to which the employee receives direct and clear information about the effectiveness of hisher performance 2 Job rotation a The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another 3 Job enlargement a Increasing the number and variety of tasks that an individual performs 4 Job enrichment a Increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning and execution of the work 5 Structural vs felt empowerment what s the difference a Structural Empowerment i Access to information ii Authority iii Change of duties b Felt Empowerment i Psychological perception ii Mostly in your head iii Boss includes you in decisions iv Boss listens to you 6 Flexible hours vs job sharing vs telecommuting pros and cons of each a Flextime i You control start and finish time ii Example Work 9 6 versus 8 5 b Job sharing i An arrangement which allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40 hrs per week job ii Allows the organization to draw on the talents of two individuals for one position c Telecommuting i Working from home at least two days a week 7 Participative management vs Representative participation a Participative Management i A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision making authority with their immediate supervisors 8 9 MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 ii Open door management iii Highest Autonomy b Representative Participation i A system in which workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees ii Most common iii Easier Variable pay programs a Variable pay programs i A pay plan that bases a portion of an employee s pay on some individual or organizational measure of performance b Piece rate pay i Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed c Merit based pay i A pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings d Profit sharing plans i Shares a portion of any organization profits with employees e Gainsharing i Employees receive compensation for achieving gains in productivity Things to consider with pay for performance programs objective measurable achievable avoiding unintended consequences a The performance measures must be obtainable b The performance measures must be specific and objective c Are you rewarding the behavior you want in the organization d Think about eXpectancy theory If any element is missing it all falls apart MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Measuring Performance 1 Uses of performance appraisal a Administrative uses include i Determining compensation pay for performance distributing raises ii Promotion iii Termination iv Downsizinglayoffs b Development uses include i Identifying training needs ii Development planning iii Coaching iv Career planning 2 Determining what to assess in your performance evaluation three Ps a Productivity what was done b Personal traits how it was done conduct c Proficiency skill knowledge ability 3 Pros and cons of different rating instruments e g graphic rating scale vs BARS a Behaviorally anchored rating scale BARS emphasis is on behavior not attitudes or assumptions about motivation i More objective since emphasis is on behavior ii Time consuming to develop b Graphic rating scale very common easy to use 4 What is graphic rating scale behaviorally anchored rating scale weighted checklist mixed standard a Graphic rating scale very common easy to use b Behaviorally anchored rating scale BARS emphasis is on behavior not attitudes or assumptions about motivation i More objective since emphasis is on behavior ii Time consuming to develop c Weighted checklists Same process but points are multiplied by weights can give more emphasis to items that you consider more important 5 Pros and cons of ranking list and forced distribution bell curve what s the difference a Forced Ranking i Advantages l Motivates people to perform at higher level 2 Enables you to systematically remove poor performers ii Disadvantages l De motivating once you ve removed the poor performers 2 If used for many years eventually you ll be removing good performers Creates an extremely competitive culture May create survivor guilt 5 Not perceived as fair 55 MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 b Forced distribution requires the evaluator to place a certain number of employees into several categories 6 360 degree performance evaluation what is it When should you use it Proscons a Input from varied sources more accurate and diverse feedback on performance b Good because performance varies across different contexts i And people behave differently with different constituents c Problemsdrawbacks i Lengthy time consuming process ii Tons of paperwork iii Evaluators could use as a chance to get even with someone iv How do you determine who participates 7 Perceptual errors that in uence ratings and how to overcome them a Halo effect rater allows a single positive trait to in uence their overall evaluation of their performance i Best way to minimize 1 Use critical incident approach 2 BARS b Horns effect rater allows a single negative trait to in uence their overall evaluation of their performance i Best way to minimize 1 Use critical incident approach 2 BARS c Attribution error errors from how we assign causation for an individual s behavior i How to overcome ii Keep a log of behavior iii Critical incident approach iv Increase the frequency of evaluations d Recency errors performance is evaluated based on the most recent behavior instead of the entire year i How to overcome ii Keep a log of behavior iii Critical incident approach iv Increase the frequency of evaluations e Leniency errors most employees receive favorable ratings even when it is not warranted i How to overcome use personnel comparison methods forced ranking etc f Strictness errors opposite of leniency errors i How to overcome use personnel comparison methods forced ranking etc g Central tendency errors rater avoids the extremes of the performance scale and ranks everyone as average i Use personnel comparison methods MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 ii D0 forced distribution iii Bell curve Similar to Financial ManagementSystems Curve h Make you less accurate 0f the reView
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