Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide NFSC 100
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra West on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NFSC 100 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Seong-Ho Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 221 views. For similar materials see Principls Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Nutrition Study Guide: Exam 1 Lecture 1: I. Nutrition: the science of food and their nutrients A. Nutrition’s Role in the Human Body 1. Ingestion 2. Digestion 3. Absorption 4. Transport 5. Metabolism 6. Excretion II. Why is nutrition considered a science? A. The Scientific Method is used to reveal important and unknown information about nutrition: 1. Make observations 2. Develop a hypothesis 3. Test the hypothesis using various study designs 4. Draw conclusions based on the results 5. Compare the conclusion to the original hypothesis. If the hypothesis is proven, it becomes a theory. If it is not proven, revise the hypothesis and follow the steps again. B. New findings must be repeated in order to achieve consistency and accuracy III. Types of Studies Used in Nutrition A. Case Studies 1. Study is focused on the individual 2. There is a possibility that the observations and nutrition are related B. Epidemiological Studies 1. Study is focused on the population 2. There is a relationship between the observations and nutrition C. Intervention Studies 1. Also known as Clinical Studies 2. The study compares an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group is treated and the control group receives a placebo. D. Laboratory Studies 1. Also known as PreClinical Studies 2. The study is mechanism based 3. Experimental animals are used E. Example: Test to see if Vitamin A levels are correlated to eyesight condition IV. Food Labeling A. Background Information 1. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) was a law passed by the US Federal government in 1990. 2. It gave the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) power over food labeling and claims 3. It serves as a guide to help people make “personal best” food choices within their diet B. Food labels must contain: 1. Serving size and servings per container 2. Calories from fat per serving 3. Percent of daily fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron 4. Daily reminder of the amount of recommended nutrients for a 2000 and 2500 calorie diet (refer to the 51020 Rule: below 5% is considered a poor source of that nutrient, 1019% is considered average, and 20% or more is considered an excellent source of that nutrient) C. Make sure to limit: 1. Total Fat (saturated, trans) 2. Cholesterol 3. Sodium 4. Carbohydrates D. Make sure to get enough of: 1. Vitamin A and C 2. Calcium 3. Iron 4. Dietary fiber E. Types of Claims: 1. Nutrient Content Claims describe the amount of nutrients in a given food substance. Examples include items that are fat free, reduced sodium, low cholesterol, etc. 2. Health Claims are FDA approved, and state that the food product may have relationship to a health disease. For example, a box of Cheerios may state that the cereal can help reduce heart disease. 3. Structure/Function Claims are claims that are not FDA approved. Lecture 2: I. Psychological Response Hunger A. What controls hunger? 1. Hypothalamus controls hunger by regulating the intake and release of chemicals between the brain and the rest of the body 2. Response to nerve signals in the body B. What causes hunger? 1. Ghrelin: hormone that derives from stomach; causes your stomach to growl; released from stomach when hungry 2. Leptin: hormone that derives from fat tissue; suppresses hunger to control body fat 3. Neuropeptide Y: a neurotransmitter that derives from hypothalamus; assures that the body has nourishment C. What affects hunger? 1. Environmental factors, such as wanting to go out to eat rather than eating in your house 2. Using food as a reward, stress reliever, or time consumer 3. Habits, such as drinking coffee or alcohol 4. Cravings, especially after seeing/smelling a food 5. Meal makeup; a meal with high water or fiber content is more filling II. Influences on Food Accessibility A. Food Desert: an area that has poor access to foods that are affordable and/or healthy B. Food Insecurity: an individual/family that has poor access to foods that are affordable and/or healthy 1. Example: Inner Baltimore City only has convenient stores, and does not have access to fruits, vegetables, or healthy foods that supermarkets might have C. Food choices are often dependent on demographic factors such as: 1. Income 2. Education 3. Resources III. Nutrition and Disease A. A poor diet can lead to chronic conditions: 1. Diabetes 2. Obesity (⅔ of the American population is obese or overweight!) 3. Heart Disease 4. Hypertension: excessive sodium intake, alcohol intake, and abdominal fat; low potassium intake; major risk factor for stroke or heart attack B. What is a Nutrient? 1. Major Nutrients include macronutrients, such as carbohydrates, lipids (fats), and proteins, and micronutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and water 2. Essential Nutrients are nutrients that the body NEEDS to survive, such as essential amino acids and essential fatty acids 3. Nutrient Dense foods are high in vitamins and minerals, and low in fat and calories (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, etc.) C. Tools for Diet Evaluation 1. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) is the average daily nutrient intake recommendation. 2. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the estimated average daily nutrient intake requirement. Lecture 3: I. Nutrition and Physiology A. Body Organization 1. Organelles 2. Cells 3. Tissues 4. Organs 5. Systems 6. Organisms II. The Cell: Basic Unit of Life A. Nucleus 1. Carries all of the genetic codes 2. Contains DNA 3. Home of the genetic map 4. Performance is affected by nutrients B. Mitochondria 1. “Power house” of the cell 2. Carries ATP C. Ribosomes 1. Synthesize proteins 2. Located both freely in the cytoplasm and on the ER D. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 1. Membrane within the cell 2. Rough ER is in charge of producing protein 3. Smooth ER is in charge of fat metabolism and cholesterol synthesis E. Lysosome 1. Housekeeper of the cell F. Membrane Receptors 1. Proteins on the cell membrane or nuclear membrane that detect signals from the body and from other organelles G. Cytoplasm 1. Fluid and organelles between the nucleus and cell membrane 2. The cell’s “filling” III. Tissue A. A group of cells that work together to perform a function 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscular 4. Nervous IV. Organ A. A group of tissues that work together to perform a function 1. Brain 2. Heart 3. Liver, etc. V. Systems A. Integumentary System 1. Protective layer on the body 2. Controls body temperature 3. Releases salts and urine 4. Examples are skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands 5. Performance is influenced by diet B. Skeletal System 1. Provide support and protection to the body 2. Development and maintenance of this system is largely affected by nutrients 3. Examples are bones, joints, ligaments, and cartilage C. Muscular System 1. Skeletal muscles 2. In charge of the body’s movement 3. Requires high energy and nutrients in order to work efficiently D. Nervous System 1. Controls signals between the brain and body 2. Responsible for sensation 3. Examples are the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors 4. Performance is influenced by diet E. Endocrine System 1. Controls hormones that deal with growth, reproduction, etc. 2. Made up of glands 3. Examples are the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, pancreas, etc. 4. Performance is influenced by diet F. Cardiovascular System 1. Carries nutrients and oxygen throughout the bloodstream 2. Examples are the heart, blood vessels, and blood in general 3. Performance is heavily influenced by diet G. Lymphatic System 1. Keeps internal cells moist 2. Provides blood with fluids 3. Helps fight off pathogens and other foreign materials 4. Examples are lymph nodes, lymph vessels, tonsils, and the spleen 5. Performance is influenced by diet H. Respiratory System 1. Absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide 2. Protects mechanisms 3. Examples are the lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi 4. Performance is influenced by diet I. Digestive System 1. Takes in, breaks down, absorbs, and releases the foods consumed 2. Examples are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines 3. Performance heavily influenced by diet J. Urinary System 1. Releases waste in the form of urine 2. Maintains a balance of acidic levels and basic levels in the blood 3. Maintains a balance of salt and water in the body 4. Examples are the kidneys, bladder, and ducts 5. Performance is influenced by diet K. Reproductive System 1. Controls the production of offspring 2. Examples are gonads and genitals 3. Performance is influenced by diet L. Immune System 1. Generates antibodies 2. Attacks viruses and other invading materials 3. Cleans up debris caused by cell death 4. Allows the body to ward off disease 5. Examples are lymphocytes and phagocytes 4. Performance is influenced by diet The performance of each system and its functions is largely influenced by nutrition. Lecture 4: I. Digestion A. The breakdown of food to the point in which it can be absorbed B. Simultaneously a chemical and physical process II. The Digestive System A. The mouth 1. Mechanical: chewing 2. Chemical: saliva, which permits taste and moistens food so that the body can chew it easily a. Starch amylase small polysaccharides (oligosaccharides) b. Fat digestion begins with the salivary enzyme lipase (triglycerides) c. Triglycerides lipase fatty acids (monoglycerides and diglycerides) B. The Esophagus 1. Mechanical: peristaltic movement 2. Chemical: NONE 3. Carries food from mouth to stomach through a tube of smooth muscles 4. No secretions C. The Stomach 1. Stomach enzymes including Pepsin and HCl are activated when stomach acids uncoil proteins 2. Mechanical: grinding and churning with secretion 3. Food becomes liquid mass 4. Chemical: protein pepsin, HCl polypeptides D. Small Intestine 1. Folds of the small intestine are covered in villi and microvilli, which are responsible for producing enzymes and encouraging absorption 2. The villi contains capillaries, which distribute water soluble nutrients throughout the body, and lymph vessels, which take away lipid materials 3. Glands between folds are responsible for the secretion of mucus 4. Breakdown of carbohydrates (polysaccharides and monosaccharides) a. Polysaccharides pancreatic amylase small polysaccharides b. Maltose maltase glucose + glucose c. Lactose lactase galactose + galactose 5. Breakdown of fats a. Fat bile emulsified fat b. Emulsified fat pancreatic lipase monoglycerides, glycerol, fatty acids 6. Breakdown of proteins a. Polypeptides pancreatic & intestinal proteases dipeptides, tripeptides, and amino acids b. Peptides intestinal dipeptidases & tripeptidase amino acids E. Colon 1. Reabsorbs water and minerals 2. Contains microflora F. Large Intestine 1. This is where bacterial enzymes digest fiber a. Some fiber bacterial enzymes fatty acids and gas b. fiber holds water, controls bowel activity, and carries cholesterol, vitamins, and minerals out of the body G. Rectum and Anus 1. Stores and controls the release of feces III. Chemical Digestion and Absorption of Digestion Products A. Carbohydrates (sugar and starch) 1. Produces glucose, fructose, and galactose, which then enter the blood stream B. Lipids (fats) 1. Produces fatty acids, monoglycerides and free cholesterol 2. Small fatty acids enter the blood stream 3. Larger fatty acids enter the lymphatic system C. Protein 1. Produces amino acids, which actively enter the blood stream IV. Excretory Products A. Feces 1. Includes fiber and other undigested food materials 2. Bile products B. Urine 1. Urea from amino acids 2. Electrolytes (potassium and sodium) 3. Bicarbonate and ammonia Lecture 5: I. Carbohydrates A. The function of carbohydrates is to provide cells with energy, spare protein, add bulk to foods, and provide the body with enough fiber B. The source of carbohydrates is from grains, fruits, and dairy products C. Monosaccharides (simple carbohydrates) 1. Sugars 2. Molecule with 6 carbon atoms, oxygen, and hydrogen 3. Glucose: the body’s main source of fuel 4. Fructose: fruit sugar 5. Galactose a component of the milk sugar lactose D. Disaccharides 1. Sucrose: glucose + fructose 2. Lactose: glucose + galactose 3. Maltose: glucose + glucose E. Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) 1. Starches and fiber 2. Long chains of sugar 3. Glycogen: animal starch; long chains of glucose 4. Starch from plants 5. Fiber from plants; long chains of glucose; includes cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin F. How do carbohydrates in food become glucose in the body? 1. Fiber, starch, and sugars enter the small intestine 2. Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch into disaccharides 3. Enzymes break down disaccharides into monosaccharides 4. Monosaccharides enter the liver 5. The liver creates fructose and glucose from the galactose 6. Fiber does not change and travels straight to the colon II. Glucose and Glycogen Metabolism A. Regulation of blood glucose 1. Blood glucose levels rise after eating, causing an increase in insulin 2. Insulin promotes glycogen to form in the liver and in muscles 3. When glucose levels fall, glucagon is released 4. Glucagon stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose from the liver B. Glucose Metabolism 1. When glucose enters the cell, it is divided into 3carbon fragments called pyruvate. 2. Pyruvate enters the mitochondria, where it is broken down into 2carbon fragments called acetylcoA. 3. This process is anaerobic and produces CO2 and 2 units of ATP 4. The acetylcoA enters the Krebs Cycle and electron transport chain, where it produces CO2, water, and 32 unites of ATP C. Glycogen Metabolism 1. 1/3 of glycogen is stored in the liver, and 2/3 is stored in the muscles 2. Glucagon sparks the breakdown of liver glycogen to glucose so that it can enter the bloodstream 3. Epinephrine sparks the breakdown of muscle glycogen to glucose, so that it can produce ATP in the muscles III. Dietary Problems A. Nutrient Conversion to Fat 1. Extra carbohydrates are turned into fat in the liver 2. The liver releases these fatty acids into the blood stream 3. Fat cells called adipocytes take up these fatty acids and store them in the body B. Inadequate Carbohydrate in the Diet 1. The body will use protein and fat to make glucose if there is an insufficient amount 2. Fat would not be able to be broken down completely for energy, so fats are converted to ketone bodies 3. Ketosis: excessively high levels of ketone bodies accumulated in the blood C. Diabetes 1. Type 1 – IDDM: pancreas stops making insulin; usually starts early in life 2. Type 2 – NIDDM: the insulin is there, but it is not effective (insulin resistance); occurs later in life D. Complications of Diabetes 1. Blindness 2. Kidney disease 3. Heart disease 4. Nerve damage 5. Increased infections 6. Amputations of limbs Lecture 6: I. Lipids A. Functions of Lipids 1. Condenses energy stores 2. Insulates and protects organs 3. Source of calories and essential fatty acids 4. Gives food flavor and tenderness 5. Satiating B. Types of Lipids 1. Triglycerides a. Main form of fat in foods b. Consists of glycerol and 3 fatty acids 2. Phospholipids a. Consists of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and phosphorus b. Soluble in water and fat c. Acts as an emulsifier in cell membranes 3. Sterols a. Large molecules consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen b. Includes cholesterol II. Fatty Acids A. Saturated Fatty Acid 1. Carries the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms B. Unsaturated Fatty Acid 1. Carries less than the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms 2. Includes monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids C. Trans Fatty Acids 1. Unusually shaped fatty acids 2. Occur when polyunsaturated fats are hydrogenated 3. Pro: controls consistency and oxidation of fats 4. Con: increases Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) D. Essential Fatty Acids 1. Humans do not have synthetic enzymes 2. High in fish oils 3. Lower blood pressure 4. Prevent blood clots and irregular heartbeats 5. Reduces inflammation 6. Vital for normal infant growth and development 7. Helps immune system 8. Reduces the risk of cancer E. Omega 3 Fatty Acids 1. Linolenic Acid 2. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) 3. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) 4. Precursors of Omega3 Eicosanoids (reduced inflammation, blood clotting, and tumor growth) 5. Found in fatty fish, flaxseed, almonds, etc. F. Omega 6 Fatty Acids 1. Linoleic Acid 2. Precursors of Omega 6 Eicosanoids (causes inflammation, blood clotting and tumor growth) 3. Found in grains, fats, and oils III. Digestion and Absorption A. Digestion 1. Depends on Preduodenal Lipase, Pancreatic Lipase, and Bile acids 2. Triglycerides lipase free fatty acids monoglycerides B. Absorption 1. Short chain fatty acids 2. Portal vein (blood to liver) 3. Monoglycerides and longer fatty acids get converted to triglycerides and travel via chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein), where they then enter the lymph and blood stream C. Lipoprotein Profile 1. Used to determine the risk of heart disease 2. LDLs: increased risk, less healthy, want low 3. HDLs: decreased risk, more healthy, want high
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