Overview of all the theories reviewed in class - Helpful tool for the theory exam
Overview of all the theories reviewed in class - Helpful tool for the theory exam 207
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Suzi Greenberg on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 207 at Arizona State University taught by Chema Salinas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communication Inquiry in Journalism and Mass Communications at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Paradigm - (SCALE: Objective =1-2-3-4-5=Interpretive) THEORIES Symbolic Interactionism (p. 54) George H. Mead & Herbert Blumer - 4 - Socio-cultural Theory about the creation of self and socialization into community Core Principles o 1) Meaning (Construction of social reality) o 2) Language (Source of meaning) o 3) Thinking (Process of taking the role of the other – seeing yourself through another’s eyes) Key Terms & Concepts o Sense of self is a result of interactions with others I – Subjective self; spontaneous driving force of all that is novel, unpredictable, and unorganized). - - Elusive Me – The objective self; image of self when one takes the role of the other; looking glass self. - - An object - - “I” of this moment is present in the “me” of the next moment. Responsive “I” – The self created by the way we respond to others. Looking glass self = the way others respond to us VS Identity of “I” = the way we respond to others. How we meet the obligation to care for each other shapes our “I” Applications o Creating Reality Erving Goffman – Social interaction = a dramaturgical performance = we’re all involved in a constant negotiation w/others to publicly define our identity and the nature of the situation. “The impression of reality fostered by a performance is a delicate, fragile thing that can be shattered by minor mishaps.” o Meaning-ful Research Participant observation o Generalized Other How others treat us defines our sense of self and identity. If treated like a nonentity, which results in sudden unexplained death = symbolic manslaughter. If bullied, ridiculed, and isolated results in a mass shooting = symbolic destruction. o Naming Name calling can be devastating = labels force us to view ourselves in a warped mirror. Those images not easily dismissed. o Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 1 implication of the looking glass self = each of us has a significant impact on how others view themselves. The tendency for our expectations to evoke responses that confirm what we originally anticipated. o Symbol Manipulation The use of symbols that are rooted in the peoples experiences, their traditions, prejudices, habits, attitudes, and everything else that makes up their life, to unite in action and evoke sympathy from outsiders. Critique o Meets 4 of 6 criteria; Clarification of values, understanding of people, & community of agreement. o Lacks clarity and says little about power or emotion. Relational Dialectics (p. 136) Leslie Baxter & Barbara Montgomery - 5 - Phenomenological Dynamic knot of contradictions in personal relationships; an unceasing interplay between contrary or opposing tendencies. 3 Dialects in 2 contexts o Internal Dialectics (within the relationship) Integration-Separation = Connection-Autonomy Stability-Change = Certainty-Uncertainty Expression-Nonexpression = Openness-Closedness o External Dialectics (between couple & community) Integration-Separation = Inclusion-Seculsion Stability-Change = Conventionality-Uniqueness Expression-Nonexpression = Revelation-Concealment Quality relationships are constituted through dialogue; aesthetic accomplishment – fleeting moments of unity. Key Terms o Segmentation: A compartmentalizing tactic by which partners isolate different aspects of their relationship. o Spiraling Inversion: Switching back and forth between two contrasting voices, responding first to one pull, then the other. Critique o Meets 5 of 6 criteria; Understanding of people, community of agreement, clarification of values, reform of society, & qualitative research. o Lacks aesthetic appeal. Dramatism (p. 293) Kenneth Burke - 4 - Rhetorical A technique of analysis of language & thought as basically modes of action rather than as means of conveying information. Insisted that anything freely said for a reason is a rhetorical act – an actor choosing to perform a dramatic action for a purpose. Life is not like a drama; life is drama. Dramatistic Pentad o A tool critics can use to discern the motives of a speaker or writer by labeling 5 key aspects: Act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. Burke believed that getting rid of guilt is the ultimate motive for public rhetoric. Key Terms & Concepts o God-Term: The word a speaker uses to which all other positive words are subservient. o Devil-Term: The term that sums up all that a speaker regards as bad, wrong, or evil. o Identification: The common ground between speaker and audience; how the speaker convinces the audience to embrace his/her viewpoint. Old Rhetoric = Persuasion / New Rhetoric = Identification Persuasion is the communicator’s attempt to get the audience to accept their view of reality as true. o For Burke, “the ultimate motivation of all public speaking is to purge ourselves of an ever-present, all-inclusive sense of guilt” Guilt – tension, anxiety, embarrassment, shame, disgust, & other noxious feelings The root of all rhetoric Applications o To gain a deeper understanding of public discourse & other forms of symbolic action o Discover a speaker’s motivation by examining the words he/she uses Equally useful for public speeches (I.e.: Politicians speech to citizens) and acts (I.e.: Occupy Wall Street demonstrations) Critique o Lacks clarity Narrative Paradigm (p. 303) Walter Fisher - 4 - Rhetorical The foundation on which a complete rhetoric needs to be built. This structure would provide a comprehensive explanation of the creation, composition, adaptation, presentation, & reception of symbolic messages. A good story is a powerful means of persuasion. Essence of human nature – “homo-narrans” - Story telling human beings. All communication is a story. Stories are shaped by history, culture, and character. Narrative beings who experience life as a series of ongoing narratives, as conflicts, characters, beginnings, middles, and ends. Key Terms & Concepts o Narration: Symbolic actions – words and/or deeds – that have sequence and meaning for those who live, create, or interpret them. o Paradigm: Conceptual framework; calls people to view events through a common lens. o Narrative Rationality: A way to evaluate the worth of stories based on the twin standards of: Narrative Coherence: Internal consistency with characters acting in a reliable fashion; the story hangs together. Narrative Fidelity: Congruence between values embedded in a message and what listeners regard as truthful and humane; the story strikes a responsive chord. o Called for a paradigm shift FROM - Rational World: People are rational. Decisions based on arguments. Type of speaking situation determines course of argument. Rationality determined by extent of knowledge & proficiency in argument. World as logical puzzles; solutions through rational analysis. Values are emotional nonsense. Aesthetic proof irrelevant. Privileges experts as qualified and capable. TO – Narrative: People are storytellers. Decisions based on good reasons. History, biography, culture, & character determine good reasons. Rationality determined by coherence & fidelity of stories. World as set of stories (chosen); create and recreate our lives. Values are “the stuff” or content of stories. Aesthetic proof pivotal. Privileges most (w/common sense) as qualified and capable. Cultural Approach to Organizations (p. 244) Clifford Geertz & Michael Pacanowsky - 5 - Socio- cultural/Semiotic “Man is an animal suspended in webs of significance that he himself has spun” – Geertz o Field research – interpretive approach The process of communication “creates and constitutes the taken-for- granted reality of the world.” – Pacanowski o Symbolic approach. Concerned with the process of spinning the webs. Key Terms & Concepts o Culture as a root metaphor o Corporate culture as… Surrounding environment that constrains a company’s freedom of action. A quality or property An image, character, or climate Controlled by corporation A puzzle Not something an organization has; a culture is something an organization is o Participant observation Thick descriptions: intertwined layers of common meaning that underlie what people say & do. - - Tracing strands of the cultural web - - Tracking evolving meanings o Corporate stories: tales that carry management ideology and reinforce corporate policy. o Personal stories: tales told by employees that put them in a favorable light. o Collegial stories: positive or negative anecdotes about others in the organization; descriptions of how things “really work.” o Shared interpretations naturally emerging from all members of a group, not consciously engineered by leaders. Managers may create a new vision, but it’s the employees’ interpretations of that vision that creates the culture. Critiqued by scientists Critical Theory of Communication in Organizations (p. 267) Stanley Deetz - 5 - Critical/Phenomenological Raises important questions about the unfair exercise & abuse of power by revealing the often hidden but pervasive control that organizations have over individuals (& society). Corporate colonization and control of everyday life o Political & economic institution - - Replacing other institutions o Ownership of media outlets Stories reflect a pro-business bias o Marketplace / capitalism dominates other indices / measures of quality o Managerialism, discursive closure, and the corporate colonization of everyday life perpetuated by the naïve notion that communication is merely the transmission of information. o Language = the principal medium through which social reality is produced and reproduced. o Deetz’s critique – “Is what’s good for the corporation / organization good for the country / citizens?” Key Terms & Concepts o Corporate Colonization: Encroachment of modern corporations into every area of life outside the workplace o Managerialism: A systematic logic, set of routine practices, and ideology that values control over all other concerns. o Consent: The process by which employees actively, though unknowingly, accomplish managerial interests in a faulty attempt to fulfill their own. o PARC Model (Politically attentive relational constructionism): A collaborative view of communication based in stakeholder conflict. Balance organizational financial interests with societal / human interests Social structure grows from the bottom instead of being reinforced from the top. Democratic principles o Expands on French & Raven’s 5 types of social power: Reward (+/-), Coercive (-), Referent (+), Expert (+), and Legitimate (-) by addressing hidden power structures. o “Pro-people” vs. “Pro-profit” Critique o Not realistic o Unwilling to account for organizational constraints and need to be profitable. o Limitations: Idealism: Inherent right to participate. Biased. Political Realism: Theoretically radical to managerialism. Difficult to implement. Cultural Studies (p. 339) Stuart Hall - 5 - Critical Social constructionism with ideological twist. Study of media, power, and cultural dimensions. Neo-Marxist critique o Determinism & hegemony Manufacture consent o Semiotics / meaning making o Discourse = bridges societal power & mass media communication; semiotics & economic determinism. o Arbitrary distinctions to real, physical effects = discursive formations to ideologies. o “How the media created unified support of the invasion of Iraq when the public was previously split on the issue” How the media affects public opinion. The media function to maintain the dominance of the powerful & to exploit the poor & powerless. o Questions scientific focus of mainstream communication research on media influence. o Influenced by a Marxist interpretation of society (Marxism: analyzes class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation.) The vast majority of information we receive is produced and distributed by corporations. o Prevents many stories from being told o Reflects the interests of Western multinational corporations. o Ultimate issue – Not what information is presented, but whose information it is. Key Terms o Ideology: The mental frameworks different classes and social groups deploy in order to make sense of the way society works. Media gives ideological spin through use of connotative language o Hegemony: The subtle sway of society’s haves over its have nots. Critique o Doesn’t offer solutions to problems exposed. o What is vs. what ought to be Muted Group Theory (p. 457) Cheris Kramarae - 5 - Critical/Phenomenological Attempts to explain why certain groups in society are “muted” – meaning they are either devalued or silenced. Cheris Kramarae VS. Deborah Tannen o Deborah Tannen – Biological Determinism: Objective. Nature. Sex – Biologically determined – Male/Female. Two-Culture hypothesis assuming that talk between men and women is cross-cultural. Genderlect: Distinct cultural dialect. Men: Focus on achieving status & independence. Women: Focus on achieving intimacy & connection. o Cheris Kramarae – Differential Socialization: Interpretive. Nurture. Gender – Learned. Varies. Masculinity/Femininity. Key Terms & Concepts o Language is a man-made construction – aids in defining, depreciating, and excluding women Formulated by the dominant group – Men Women & other subordinate groups – unequal contributions to language Words & Norms for their use favor dominant group Favors the male experience / doesn’t consider women’s unique experiences o Sexual harassment: Unwanted sexual advances or sexual requirements for progression. Major achievement of feminist communication scholarship because it gave a name to a female experience previously unnamed. o KEY QUESTION: “Can women say what they want, when and where they want to say it, or must they ‘re-encode their thoughts’ to conform to the standards established by other groups in society?” o Public vs. Private distinction Men = public // Women = private o Power & the division of labor o Male system of perception + male power / political dominance = Men name experiences o Men = Gatekeepers Mainstream = Male-stream Women absent in historical depictions Taking of husband’s name o Workplace – value system structured by men, thus language reflecting male values. Critique o Stands up to criteria of good critical scholarship o Question of men’s motives = problematic - - Intentional control of women or resulting from communication style differences Expectancy Violations Theory (p. 81) Judee Burgoon - 1 - Socio-psychological Seeks to show a link among unexpected behavior & attraction, credibility, influence, & involvement. Violation from someone we view positively = A positive interpretation = OK to violate Violation from someone we view negatively = Stiffening our resistance = Better to stick to social norms Key Terms & Concepts o Proxemics – Study of people’s use of space Intimate = 0 – 18 inches Personal = 18 inches – 4 feet Social = 4 – 12 feet Public = 12 – 25 feet o Soft Determinism: Links rather than cause and effect. o 3 Core Concepts Expectancy: What is predicted not desired. Violation Valence: Behavior, not person. + or -. 1 , interpret meaning of behavior, then asses valence (socially recognized/ambiguous) Communicator Reward Valence: Ambiguous meaning of action. The sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter plus the potential to reward or punish in the future. Critique o Advances a reasonable explanation, relatively simple, has testable hypotheses, and offers practical advice. o Needs more reliable predictions o Fares better than other theories based on proxemics. Social Penetration Theory (p. 96) Irwin Altman & Dalmas Taylor - 1 - Socio-psychological Explains how relational closeness is developed. The process of increasing disclosure & intimacy in a relationship. A social exchange theory based on economic model of relationships (Reward – cost = Relational outcome) Key Terms & Concepts o Personality Structure: Onion-like layers of beliefs and feelings about self, others, and the world. o Breadth: The range of areas in an individual’s life over which disclosures take place (How many topics) o Depth: The degree of disclosure in a specific area of an individual’s life (How many details per topic?) o Minimax principle: Rewards – cost o Relational Satisfaction: Comparison Level (CL) – Benchmarks o Relationship Stability: Comparison Level of AlternativeCL al) – Better option outside of this relationship. NOT an indication of satisfaction! Critique o Onion: fixed boundaries vs. shifting o Reward-Cost prevents addressing compassion, altruism, fairness, etc. o Relational transformation from “me” to “we” not addressed Uncertainty Reduction Theory (p. 108) Charles Berger - 1 - Socio-psychological The assumption that when 2 people meet, their primary concern is one of uncertainty reduction or increasing predictability about the behavior of both themselves & others in the interaction. Key Terms & Concepts o Desire to reduce uncertainty increase when: We know we’ll see the other person again They have something we want They act in a strange way o As predictability decreases, uncertainty increases. o The attribution theory explains how we draw inferences about people based on observed behavior. o 2 types of uncertainty Cognitive Behavioral 8 Axioms; Verbal communication, nonverbal warmth, information seeking, self-disclosure, reciprocity, similarity, liking, & shared networks. o As verbal communication increases, uncertainty decreases. o As nonverbal warmth increase, uncertainty decreases. o High uncertainty leads to increased information seeking. o Increased uncertainty causes decrease in intimacy. o Increased uncertainty produces increased reciprocity. o Similarities decrease uncertainty o Increased uncertainty produces decrease in liking. o Shared communication networks decrease uncertainty. An intercultural shift – from uncertainty to anxiety/uncertainty o Anxiety/Uncertainty management theory Uncertainty (cognitive) + Anxiety (affective, an emotion) Goal = Effective communication. NOT relational closeness & satisfaction Multiple causes Thresholds Mindfulness Critique o Makes testable predictions o Straightforward, easily understood o Reliance on “uncertainty” questionable Communication Privacy Management (p. 151) Sandra Petronio - 4 - Socio-cultural/Cybernetic A description of a privacy management system consisting of 3 main parts: Privacy ownership, privacy control, and privacy turbulence. Key Terms & Concepts o Rules based theory – articulation of the internalized rules that appear to guide peoples’ decisions. Interpretation guides – not ironclad laws! o 5 Principles 1) Ownership and control of private information 2) Rules for concealing and revealing 3) Disclosure creates a confidant and co-owner 4) Coordinating mutual privacy boundaries Co-Owners need to negotiate agreeable privacy rules about telling others. Boundary ownership - Who should decide? Shareholder – Fully committed to handling as original owner wishes. Deliberate confidant – seeks out private info. Reluctant confidant – did not seek out nor want the private info. Boundary Linkage – Who else gets to know? Boundary permeability – info flow (slow/little fast/a lot) 5) Boundary turbulence – relationships at risk The result of mutual privacy boundaries not being managed according to the rules. Fuzzy boundaries – not clearly set Intentional Breach – knows not to share but does anyway (to hurt someone?) Mistakes – Errors in judgement. Not being mindful of surroundings when private info is discussed or out for others to potentially see o Privacy boundaries: A metaphor to show how people think of the borders between private and public information. Critique o 5 of 6 criteria met; Understanding of people, qualitative research, community of agreement, clarification of values, & reform of society. o Lacks aesthetic appeal
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