ARCH 2300 Quiz 1 study guide
ARCH 2300 Quiz 1 study guide ARCH 2300
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisa on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Aimee Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 265 views. For similar materials see Outlines of the Built Environment in Architecture at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
● “essential components of architecture” = mass and space ● “primary task of architecture” = shaping of exterior space ○ everything works together, nothing by itself ○ architects must understand what relationships are present and how placement of their buildings can enhance these relationships ● hierarchically important locations: ○ termination of a linear sequence of axis ○ centerpiece of symmetrical organization (think paradise garden) ○ focus of a centralized/radial organization ○ being offset above/below or in the foreground of a composition ● 5 Partis: ○ 1. persian rug/ paradise garden ■ borderwall, 2 axes, 4 quadrants, hierarchy in center ■ ex. Taj Mahal, Timgad, Villa Rotunda ○ 2. vitruvian man leonardo da vinci 1500 ■ shows human form in perfect circle/square ● 2 centers naval (circle, heavenly), groin (square, profane) ■ tick marks/ scale at bottom of V. man shows da Vinci thought we were mathematical but not perfect (adding a grid doesn’t work) ■ ex. Tempietto 1502 ● paradigm of renaissance architecture ○ 3. datumobject ■ datum (repetitive) is organizing an unique object ■ ex. Salvation Army, Le Corbusier, Paris 1930 ○ 4. golden rectangle ■ golden section shows up in many natural things (Ex. shells) ■ ex. Ozenfant Studio ○ 5. metaphor ■ suggesting an analogy to another object (leaves lots of room for interpretation) ■ ex. Cathedrals, TSA terminal ● Stonehenge 27501500BC: ○ 4 phases ■ 1. chalk bank and heel stone ■ 2. chalkbank extended, bluestones added ■ 3. trilithons added in U shape within bluestones ■ 4. sarsen stones added all around ■ heel stone, sarsen, bluestones, trilithons, trabeated (post&lintel) ● Rome ○ geographic landmarks: tiber river, seven hills ○ every classical roman city had a cardo or decumanus but rome doesn’t b/c the hilly terrain doesn’t allow for it ○ Romans were good at: ■ 1. developing technology (ex. aquaduct, concrete) ■ 2. building public spaces (ex. colosseum, pantheon, forum) ■ 3. exploiting the arch (arch-->vault → crossvault → dome) ● used arch and trabeated architecture everywhere Additive forms created by adding stuff arcade rows of arches (santa costanza) asymmetry *much more common than symmetry axis centerline that divides something (x, y, or z) axis mundi vertical axis, links earth to sky axonometric 3D objects represented on 2D paper. vertical lines remain vertical, parallel remain parallel. quick way to show 3D, “exploded axonometric” can be used to show detail cardo north/south axis in classical roman town cella centralized may grow complex but will still make reference to the central point clerestory lighting that comes from high above (Ex. used in santa costanza) courtyard figural voided space in a city, lined by one building (not a piazza) datum neutral object or system which acts as a background or means of organization due to its regularity and continuity decumanus east/west axis in classical roman town elevation/facade no cut, showing an exterior face of a building; shows materiality figural object solid object with all clear boundaries figural void missing at least one boundary; absence of mass; ex. the oval figure/ground very simple architectural plan: solids= shaded; voids= white figure object; can be either solid or void (“figureal object” or “figural void”) ground the context background, surroundings, etc. forum most public space in classical roman city (temple/marketplace/theater/etc.) golden rectangle rectangle that embodies relationships of the golden section golden section mathematical relationship between parts and whole hierarchy articulation of the significance of a form by its size, placement, or shape relative to others linear buildings clarify differences from one side of the line to the other. bending a line no longer describes a boundary but defines a space (ex. baker dormitory) metaphor suggesting an analogy to another object (leaves lots of room for interpretation) modulor a scaling device by Le Corbusier; depicts relationships between human form and architectural size nolli map map where private spaces= shaded; public spaces= white palazzo a building w/ a courtyard in the center genius loci “spirit of the place” paradigm an ideal model of something paradise garden/persian rug parti that has border, 2 axes, 4 quadrants, hierarchy in the center parti “point of departure for formal organization”; starting point of design; simple/clear/abstract diagram pediment triangular cap entryway that signifies a place of worship perspective 3D object represented on 2D paper. drawn as we see things; inaccurate *vanishing pts where parallel lines converge microcosm small iteration representing a larger whole (ex. pantheon sun) piazza figural voided space in a city, lined by multiple buildings (italian version of “forum”) piloti columns that lift a building off the ground so landscape can continue under the building (this doesn’t usually work since there’s no sunlight so there are roof gardens instead) plan horizontal cut through a building/landscape. most important for designers, not clients *usually cut 3’4’ above the ground so as to include doors+windows platonic solid elemental 3D forms generated when 2D forms have been extended, rotated, or reflected around their centers/axes point/line/plane/volume (pythagorean progression) all related by one simple act of transformation; point/volume organizes space about a center; line/plane defines edges/perimeters) precedent something that comes before which serves as justification or influence on later designs program functional requirements of a building renaissance revival of classics roof garden landscape continued on the roof of a building lateral thrust tendency of the base of a dome/arch to kick outwards. Romans reduced this by using compression rings to build their domes allows for an opening (oculus) scale size of one thing in proportion to another section vertical cut through building/landscape; shows height/structure/interior/facades stoa subtractive form that is created through the subtraction of pieces symmetry balanced distribution of equivalent forms and spaces about a center/axis tripartite organization that is divided into 3 portions heel stone very important stone, aligned w/ the sunrise of summer solstice when looking from the inside of the circle at stonehenge trilithons largest of stonehenge stones; arranged in horseshoe within bluestones trabeated/post and lintel structure of 2 vertical and 1 horizontal stone (weaker than arches) poche substance between 2 surfaces of a wall that could be carved into niche a recess carved into the thickness of a wall coffers architecturally dematerialized articulation (design in the dome of Pantheon lightens the dome which is VERY heavy and emphasizes hierarchy for the oculus) dematerialization dome half of a sphere, romans constructed them with compression rings oculus opening that connects the ground and heavens pietra dura marble inlay technique of using cut and fitted, highly polished colored stones to create mosaics (designs in Taj Mahal) sublime aweinspiring obelisk tall, thin, tapered stone; Egyptian origin orthographic projection 2D representation on a 2D surface (plan, section, facade/elevation) diagram graphic synthesis that simplifies, reduces, and reorganizes a building on a landscape mosaics small, decorative pcs of glass/stone; used by romans (Ex. santa costanza) minarets tall, thin, occupiable tower chahar bagh garden divided by 4 1. State and diagram the four elements in the Pythagorean Progression and how they organize space. Point, line, plane, volume line is made by extending a point; plane is made by dragging a line; volume is made by dragging that some more. Point/volume are similar in that they are bounded, finite, and neutral to their surroundings can both act as centers to organizations. Lines/planes are defined by extension and their ability to divide act as edges to organizations of form 2. State, discuss and diagram four examples of partis as discussed in lecture. Paradise garden, vitruvian man, datumobject, golden rectangle, metaphor 3. Explain and diagram how the Nolli map organizes and defines space. Nolli map organizes and defines space by showing private properties as shaded and public properties as white. this shows that public spaces/roads/etc. are just as important as private spaces and buildings. “Emphasizes the interplay of solid and void space and helps to identify a sequence of public spaces throughout the city”. black areas depict “urban fabric”; aka parts of city occupied by buildings. unlike other representations of the city, Nolli map assigns equal or greater value to the spaces between things than to the built elements in the city. represents the continuity between interior public spaces and exterior public spaces. clear distinction made between public/private spaces of the city. 4. Explain the cultural markers that defined the Classical Roman empire including technological, city planning, and structural advances as discussed in lecture. technological concrete was invented (lighter, stronger than stone); aquaducts were used to transport water from far away places which helped improve the sustainability of Rome; city planning romans were great at building public spaces such as the pantheon, colosseum, forum. structural advances romans exploited the arch that had already been developed by the greeks vaults, crossvaults, and domes were all common in roman architecture and the most diverse array of arches/vaults is at the baths of caracalla. 5. Explain the geography of the Classical Roman empire (not only city of Rome) and how the Romans connected the vast empire as discussed in lecture. the empire extended all around the mediterranean sea and every city had a cardo or decumanus. the empire tied together a variety of landscapes. rome was located by the tiber river and seven hills. romans took advantage of the landscape and used architecture to enhance that (ex. aquaducts to take advantage of hills) 6. How are axes important to the cultural identity of ancient Egypt as discussed in lecture? How do they connect and define the geography and architecture of this era? Give examples of projects and diagram.
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