ARCH 2300 Quiz 2 Study Guide
ARCH 2300 Quiz 2 Study Guide ARCH 2300
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisa on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Aimee Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 447 views. For similar materials see Outlines of the Built Environment in Architecture at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
EGYPT: orthogonal, secession, hierarchical, symbolic, telescoping, limited interior space, linear mostly desertlike but they’re lucky to have river nile (north/south axis) and sun (east/west axis). therefore, most egyptian architecture is very geometrical and arranged in accordance with the axes. fertile crescentarea including egypt/mesopotamia that was fertile amid deserts. (nile, tigris, euphrates rivers) **mesopotamians felt like they were battling the geography b/c tigris/euphrates flooded violently and suddenly. to prevent floods from destroying important buildings, they raised them higher up (precedent for raising important buildings!!!)> built with thick walls, very limited interior space/light b/c of material limitations in mesopotamia and egypt. **built with bundled reeds covered w/ mud **egyptians were in harmony w/ nile which flows north into med. sea. lifeblood of egypt, floods reliably every year. lower egypt= river delta (close to med. sea); upper egypt hilly, rockier where most architecture is b/c of availability of stone. **built with stone, bricks *** very little light in both egyptian and meso. architecture but when there’s light, it’s very powerful, often clerestory. statue of ranofer carved from stone (subtraction), frontal focus, rather symmetrical, static organization. idealized (realistic/generic human body, unlike buff greek statues) contrasts egyptian style w/ greek style (movement, buff people. temple of queen hatshepsut Senmut (good relationship w/ hatshepsut), 1480 BC ● hatshepsut= most powerful queen ● built into a mountain (much like vals thermal baths). sanctuary located at the back behind a hypostyle hall. ramps connect terraces. ○ has stoa temple of khons karnak, egypt, 1150 BC, ramses III symmetry, subtraction/addition, very clear axis present. doors are all aligned; total symmetry. pylon, obelisk, telescoping, hypostyle hall, intercolumniation, sanctuary. many columns placed VERY close together b/c they were not yet sophisticated in using columns (compared to Romans). Temple is additive to the blank landscape (tabula rasa) temple of ramses ii unknown, abu simbel, egypt, 1250 BC. subtracted from the mountain (main difference between khons (additive) and ramses ii (subtractive)). dark, enclosed, reducing space enter w/ light and guide. ***entrance lets light go straight through telescoping rooms to the back where it would illuminate a statue of a god at sunrise (doesn’t work anymore b/c a dam was build that submerged the temple underwater so it had to be moved above ground by a huuuuge work force. ● built a dome when moving to hold the weight of the reconstructed mountain ANCIENT GREEKS: ● developed use of columns and interior space ● very 3d, mobility/movement/plasticity emphasized (ex. discus statue) ● used geography to enhance architecture ○ geography includes water, islands, mountains rugged trees, wood, marble/stone ○ clear distinction between human/god, living/dead unlike Egyptians who worshipped mortal pharaoh as a god stoa of attalos place for shopping vendors; precedent for plans of modern day malls pantheon (rome) parthenon (greece) very frontal corner seen first, emphasizes plasticity/3 “one way” to understand the building dimensionality of the architecture plan shows very formal organization multiple entrances more plasticity!! ANCIENT ROME: maison caree 117 AD, unknown, nimes, France (roman empire). pagan roman temple, very similar tripartite organization to pantheon (porch → [space] --> cella. pilasters used to expand the cella space as large as possible (columns would’ve taken up space) ● was built as a freestanding structure w/o buildings around it. now there’s Mediatech next to it ○ Media Tech built w/ exact proportions as Maison (golden rect.) ■ several stories underground to avoid overwhelming Maison imperial fora 100 AD, rome. many forum/temple complexes built… urban planning effort includes stoa, temple, forum, basilica. ● stoa= bestpreserved place in the fora use of arches that curved around to help with structural support ● Rome has many layers pockets dug down in the city “waoo there’s a building here!” 0.o baths of caracalla 212 AD, rome, unknown. ● primary example of HUGE decorated interior spaces seen in roman architecture ● functions: baths, libraries, lecture halls, exercise room, market (SOCIAL HUB) ○ baths proper: frigidarium → tepidarium → caldarium ■ hierarchy emphasizing caldarium ● centered, circular, ceiling protrudes, tallest, end of sequence of baths ○ modern day...concerts held here but vibrations deteriorated stone..GG. RANDOM JAPANESE TEMPLE… ise shrine 690 AD, Ise, Japan. unknown designer ● shinto= indigenous religion of japan reference to nature; importance of water,etc ○ ise shrine dedicated to shinto (seen in many bridges, waterways) ● bordered on one side by Isuzu River; pilgrimage site highly religious ● all materials (when possible) are natural (ex. the bridge is actually a rock) ○ primary materials= wood, thatch (rough material used in tiki huts) ○ wooden pillars are used to lift the building off the ground stairs used to enter ○ trabeated structure for strength ● most sacred space is closed to all but the highest priests/etc. ● reliquary holds sacred heart mirror CATHEDRAL ORGANIZATION: Gothic & Medieval arcade lowest of 3 parts; different from stoa b/c stoa divides interior/exterior space triforium middle part, separated horizontally by 3 clerestory highest windows ● Gothic Cathedral: ○ dematerialization flying butresses, rib vaults, pointed arches all used to help expand interior space while maintaining stability ○ verticality in structure ○ monumental scale ○ symbolic use of clerestory (heavenly light) ○ exemplification of tripartite (arcade, triforium, clerestory) ○ sun rises in east & jerusalem is in the east→ apse faces east ○ 4 structural advances: ■ 1. Pointed archmost important structural advance that resolved lateral thrust issue ● invented during gothic post 1100AD ■ 2. Rib Vaultmost structural elements on the interior elevations. x’s on ceiling ■ 3. flying buttresses and (4) piers ● flying buttress= exoskeleton of the building idea of reducing the structure on the inside by bringing it to the outside ● pier= bundle of columns (instead of a wall of columns) usually outside, opens up interior space notre dame cathedral paris, 1163AD ● built by secretive master masons, 108ft. high ● tripartite, dematerialization, frontal ○ hierarchy center door aligns w/ altar ● tympanum sculptural area over the doorway most highly decorated part of the cathedral, very detailed, symbolic, tells a story (often biblical) ○ very visual b/c most people were illiterate ● located on Ile de la Cite “island of the city” where it’s relatively protected ● rose window stained glass window used to bring in more clerestory ○ tracery thin grill of stonework holding the glass together carved VERY thin ● **before 1000 AD (change of millennium), there was uncertainty and fear of apocalypse when everything was fine, there was religious revival chartres cathedral Chartes, France, 1194AD, master masons ● built w/ same stone as surrounding buildings to help blend in a little ○ kinda works, kinda doesn’t, still looks kinda awkward imo ● asymmetrical towers b/c left tower burned down and was rebuilt in gothic style, right remains romanesque (thicker w/ few, small windows) ● paradigm of cathedral plan, also very vertical (gothic) ○ transept, nave, side aisle, apse, westworks notre dame Chartes cathedral located in urban paris located in rural, demure town major pilgrimages during gothic time passed through here holds special reliquary tomb of Mary STUFF IN FRANCE/ITALY: hadrian’s villa “house in the country”, 110AD Classical Roman, Tivoli ● roman emperor Hadrian built as a getaway ○ in various states of ruin :( partly remodeled ○ plan is so unclassical roman b/c of the awkward landscape ■ multiple axes but no cardo/decumanus ● relationships & precedents: ○ similarity to pantheon (built around the same time 118AD) ○ circular temple ● relationships w/ other architectural structures (ex. columns taken from previous structures) ● precedent for Baroque Replanning of Rome!!! Baroque Replanning of Rome: Domenico Fontana, 1585AD, Rome ● baroque era (16001700AD) plays on emotion through use of sublime, illusions, layering of elements, and multiplicity of centers ○ precedent: hadrian’s villa ○ later a precedent for DC ● Reorganized Rome so that the endpoints of the axes are churches (pope ruled everything). obelisks (with a cross on top to make them unpagan) placed at the ends of axes by christian churches worked very well as markers ○ obelisk started in egypt → classical roman temples → roman churches ● replanning of rome inspires replanning of other cities ○ London after the fire that destroyed ⅓ of the city, they tried replanning. however, lacked political effort so it didn’t work ○ Paris successful replanning of axes with focus on civil rather than religious places (ex. Paris Opera House & Arc du Triomphe are at the ends) Campidoglio: Michelangelo, 1539 AD, heart of Rome ● between Renaissance and Baroque styles ○ mixed baroque (circles and web in center); renaissance (static, symmetry) ● precedent: Athenian Agora ○ all about the gaps & exits between buildings ● Michelangelo redesigns facades of the 3 buildings so side buildings look symmetrical even though they’re not ○ same color for all 3 buildings too… buildings at slants so the square looks bigger than it really is. yousa trickster, mikey. ○ disrupted axis forced discovery of other spaces (because walking in a straight line wasn’t really his style…) ○ statue of Marcus Aurelio in center Pagan but he had connections:P VILLAS…… Villa Lante: Vignola, 1566AD, Bagnaia, Italy ● paradigm of renaissance landscape architecture ○ entirely symmetrical ● procession of water as it flows downhill from nature → human dominance ○ 1. Grotto nature dominates human order ○ 2. Octagonal fountain human order starts to be seen ○ 3. Chain fountain more order (linear, formally organized) but small details like seashells add nature elements ○ 4. fountain of reclining river gods becoming more formally organized, resembles traditional fountain but maintains natural elements (moss) ■ 2 statues represent 2 major rivers: Tiber and Nile ○ 5. Water Table: rectangular table with “slice of water” in the middle; emperor hadrian (different one) used it during parties ○ 6. Casini 2 casinos, formally organized on either side of the diamond ○ 7. Paradise Garden end of the sequence, place where human order organizes everything ■ vegetation/design is carefully sculpted Villa d’Este: Ligorio, 1575 AD, Tivoli, Italy ● Baroque style ○ all about exploiting ambiguity and multiple centers ● another “retirement home” for d’Este (governor of Tivoli) ○ similar to villa lante-- many water features (grotto → fountain → water organ) ○ 1. water organ played music with water going up/down (more than one direction), not just a visual experience (owl also hoots) ○ 2. Oval Fountain 2nd major axial cross road and waterway ■ oval symbolic of tivoli; tiles bearing eagles symbolic of d’Este family ○ 3. Rometta Fountain “little Rome” “parody” of a palace ● Cyprus trees are tall, this, used to express verticality Vaux le Vicomte Le Vau & Le Notre, 1656 AD Melun, France ● setting: monarchy holds 100% power. Vaux le Vicomte designed for Louis XIV’s finance minister ● mostly symmetrical ● Parterre stepped, wellmanicured, geometric garden ● Topiary shaped vegetation ● King Louis XIV was VERY jealous so he imprisons his finance minister, steals his design team, and builds……...versailles! BAM. Versailles Le Vau & Le Notre, 1669 AD Versailles, France ● Italian landscapes are all about lines; French are all about planes ○ French exercise total control over landscape extreme formal organization ● major fountains in Versailles: ○ 1. Fountain of Latona Louis XIV liked to relate pieces to ancient Greek myths fountain told story of Latona and frogs ○ 2. Fountain of Apollo hierarchy last fountain before canal starts, statue of Apollo riding horses & chariot. when turned on, hooves “spray water” ○ 3. Dragon Fountain finale, end of procession tallest fountain ■ fountains are coordinated, very complex, takes a lot of manpower to work ● Versailles characterized by monumental sublime scale and baroque asymmetry even though one axis extends the entire length of the landscape (which is characteristic of French landscape) ○ Baroque style inside palace VERY ostentatious ■ Hall of Mirrors at the center. main stateroom, very impressive ● one room mitigating palace & landscape ● arches facing mirrors vast landscape is reflected back into the room (bringing in a human nature relationship) ● Reflected symmetry w/ town of Versailles (3 prongs going both ahead of/behind the palace) Philadelphia William Penn & Thomas Holmes (business partners), 1682AD ● Precedent: classical Roman town plan w/ cardo/decumanus ● Green figural voided space in American City ● use of grid and 4 major greens b/c US is an agrarian society ● Delaware River on east, Schuylkill on west Washington DC L’enfant, 1792 AD ● setting: sparsely inhabited countryside ● L’Enfant father was involved in politics, was inspired by Versailles ● Precedent: Baroque Replanning of Rome ○ not only about the presence of axes (as seen in Versailles, which is also a [weaker] precedent b/c of radial organization) but also about the endpoints (seen in Baroque replanning of Rome). ■ Rome: endpoints = churches ■ DC: endpoints = political centers ● Precedent for Mall of America: Champs de Elysee in Paris ○ both are figural voids with an endpoint (Washington memorial in DC, Arc de Triomphe in Paris; lined by museums in DC, lined by buildings in Paris) ● White House is slightly off center use of multiplicity of axes, layers/organizations ○ DC is so confusing b/c a grid and radial axes are overlaid ● use of pagan symbols: obelisk & pediment Jeffersonian grid: Jefferson, 1785 AD ● used to organize vast US landscape (mostly midwest Rocky mts) ● utilitarian= democratic and resourceful but also aesthetic ○ set up grid to sell off 640 acre lots (36mi x 36mi), “townships”, which were then divided into 1mi x 1 mi lots and sold shorter diagram/essay questions 48 points 1. Diagram and label the parts of the Christian church plan or facade (interior facade). ● Plan: Westworks (entrance), Nave (congregation), Side aisles (alongside nave), Apse (“head”), Transept (“arms”) ● Facade: Arcade (lowest), Triforium (middle layer, divisions of 3), Clerestory 2. Discuss how the geography of the city of Rome developed and influenced the city planning efforts. The geography of Rome is very diverse, including many hilly and mountainous regions. Thus, the use of a cardo and decumanus to organize the town was impractical. Instead, during the Baroque Replanning of Rome, the Romans worked in harmony with the landscape and, instead of relying on very formally organized axes, set up multiple axes with various endpoints. Being ruled by the church, they took advantage of these endpoints by marking them with churches and obelisks which were visible from far away. Had the geography of Rome been even and supportive of a simple cardo and decumanus, Rome would not be as it is. 5. Discuss and diagram the development of Columbus in relation to transportation routes and how those define the organization of the city. Highway 270 goes around the city Longer Diagram/ Essay questions 912 points 1. Discuss how the geography of Egypt, Greece and Roman Empire determined and influenced the architecture and landscape architecture developments and use of the land. Discuss available building materials, effect on structural systems, and cite projects as examples. Egypt: extremely fortunate to have the Nile river which they worked in harmony with. Most of Egypt’s architecture exists on the “upper nile” where there was more availability of building materials (mostly stone and brick). The northsouth axis was the Nile and the eastwest axis was the sun thus, Egyptian architecture is often very geometric and arranged in accordance with these axes. Egyptians also used subtractive (ex. Temple of Ramses II) and additive (ex. Temple of Khons) forms to take advantage of preexisting forms (Ex. Temple of Ramses II uses the preexisting mountain) or the lack thereof (ex. temple of Khons is additive to it’s landscape, stands out on the “tabula rasa”). However, as the Egyptians were less sophisticated with columns than the Greeks and Romans, they used hypostyle halls and intercolumniation, resulting in thick walls and lessexpansive interior spaces with limited lighting aside from clerestory. developed Capitals for the columns which helped a LOT Greece: used geography (water, islands, mountains) to enhance architecture. stuck to marble/stone as main building materials as they were mostly available. Acropolis was on higher elevation than the agora allowed for panathenaic procession. Roman: Rome was very hilly and mountainous (located by Tiber river and 7 hills), meaning they couldn’t effectively use a cardo/decumanus. Instead, they planned the city with multiple axes and endpoints marked with churches and obelisks, emphasizing the importance of the church. The geography provided them with stone as the main building material although they would later invent concrete. They also took advantage of the geography by building aqueducts to transport water downhill. 2. How are axes important to the architecture of ancient Egypt? Give examples of projects and diagram. ● architecture is very geometric ● NorthSouth axis = Nile ● East West axis = Sun ○ Ex. Temple of Ramses faces the East so that the sunlight travels through the telescoping rooms and illuminates a image of a god upon the back wall. 3. Discuss and diagram European city planning developments as precedents for US city planning developments. ● Baroque Replanning of Rome was precedent for DC a precedent for this had been Hadrian’s villa but it later acted as a precedent for Washington DC b/c of it’s emphasis of not just axes but the endpoints of these axes ○ Champs de Elysee was a precedent for Mall of America b/c of figural voided space lined with buildings, headed by monument ○ Versailles also a precedent for DC b/c of it’s multiple axes (though Versailles doesn’t focus on endpoints) as well as radial organization (which is seen in DC although it is overlaid with a grid) ● Classical Roman Town plan with Cardo/Decumanus was precedent for Philadelphia ○ use of grid and 4 major greens. philadelphia has a cardo/decumanus 4. What is sublime? Discuss specific buildings and/or landscapes that exemplify each, explain, and diagram. Sublime= inspiring a sense of awe through scale or other factors ● Cenotaph to Newton inspires sublime through monumental size as well as the day/night phenomenon and it being a microcosm for the universe ● Versailles inspires sublime through monumental size of the gardens compared to the “human” scale of the palace (which is already very large) as well as the formal organization that shows total human control over nature ● Gothic Cathedrals (ex. Notre Dame) inspire sublime through monumental scale (and, specific to Gothic cathedrals, verticality) as well as intricacy. 5. Compare characteristics of Italian and French landscapes. Cite specific examples as discussed in class and diagram. ● Italian landscapes are characterized by their focus on lines and axes. ○ Baroque Replanning of Rome use of multiple axes and endpoints ○ Villa d’Este, Villa Lante focus on a center axis that runs down the entire length of the landscape (d’Este has multiple axes) ● French landscapes are characterized by their focus on planes and extreme formal organization. ○ Ex. Versailles, Villa le Vicomte focus on planes of the landscape. use of topiary and parterre (geometrically shaped gardens) 6. Describe and diagram the development of structural concepts of Egypt, Greece, Rome and Gothic and their effect on the spatial organization in each era. ● Egypt: ○ use of columns: not as sophisticated ■ Temple of Khons, Hatshepsut hypostyle halls, intercolumniation ■ Temple of Ramses ii so dark you needed light & a guide ○ used larger capitals on their columns to increase surface area and the amount of weight that could be held by a single thin column ■ major structural advance, allowed them to expand interior spaces ● Greece: ○ developed use of columns and interior space ○ stoas, rows of columns used ● Rome: ○ exploited arches and columns that had been developed by greeks to create cavernous interior spaces (Ex. baths of caracalla exemplify exploitation of arch, dome of Pantheon created by compression rings combats lateral thrust) ■ also used pilasters to expand interior space (ex. Maison Carree) ○ also defined public spaces (forums) ● Gothic: ○ bundled columns together to form Piers, used flying buttresses to enlarge interior space by bringing the skeleton out, used ribbed vaults all to enlarge interior space ○ used pointed arch to help combat lateral thrust by transferring weight vertically ○ enlarged interior space and increased vertical height ● Goals: enlarge interior space, combat lateral thrust VOCABULARY acropolis large rock outcropping in city of Athens agora most public space in classical Greek city. panathenaic path goes through athenian agora to acropolis additive addition of a structure (ex. temple of khons is additive to its surroundings (plain)) allee an axis in a landscape (ex. long line in villa d’este) amaterasu primary deity of ise shrine, goddess of light/sun axis mundi axis connecting earth and sky baroque era characterized by multiplicity of centers (replanning of rome), ambiguity of space, spatial continuity, perspectival illusion (campidoglio), compound layering of elements (versailles and DC) basilica place of legal proceedings in roman cities (later changed to christian functions) caldarium hot bath, emphasized, baths of caracalla capital (column) top of a column, widened to increase surface area and transfer more weight with thinner columns very important structural advance for egyptians allowed them to increase interior space cardo northsouth axis (Ex. river nile in egypt) casino small building in a landscape cella most sacred part in roman temple clerestory light from above, symbolic, heavenly, used in cathedrals and egypt decumanus eastwest axis (ex. sun for egypt) dematerialization reduction of mass of a wall becomes skeletal rather than solid grotto cavelike space in a landscape w/ the presence of shade, cool water, ferns/moss/etc. meant to look completely rustic figural object object… ex. temple of khons (defined by presence of void) figural void void… ex. oval (defined by presence of objects) folly miniature building in a landscape fora plural “forum” frigidarium cold bath, baths of caracalla forum most public central space in classical roman town genus loci spirit of the place hypostyle hall hall made up of columns intercolumniation space between columns fertile crescent stretch of fertile land amid the desert from nile/egypt to tigris/euphrates/mesopotamia ka egyptian idea of soul kami japanese spirit (japanese “ka”) lateral thrust tendency of a force from an arch or dome to push to the side obelisk placed near pylons, made from one piece of stone, tapered top panathenaic way linear path one would take cutting through the athenian agora up to the acropolis parterre stepped, wellmanicured, geometric garden pediment triangular piece above the entryway signifies religious building pier bundle of columns used for structural support (takes up less space than a row) pilaster semicircular or square column engaged with the wall plasticity movement, 3dimensionality, key to Greeks pylon gateway/entryway into egyptian temple→ large and monumental, divides sacred and secular space reliquary place holding an important religious object (ex. reliquary at ise shrine olds the sacred heart mirror) renaissance rebirth of classical architecture mathematical organization of buildings and landscapes, idealistic and static, clear idea of a central point/axis (think Vitruvian man) sanctuary egyptian version of “cella” most sacred part of temple shinto “the way of the kami” indigenous religion of japan stoa row of columns that separate space subtractive subtracted from another form (Ex. temple subtracted from mountain) tabula rasa blank slate (ex. surrounding of temple of khons) telescoping reduction of space by height/width temenos an enclosure of area of sacred value, belonging to the gods. ex. the acropolis is a temenos tepidarium baths of caracalla, warm/middle bath tori arch trademark of asian architecture 2 vertical, 1 horizontal. marks difference between space in front and behind. topiary shaped vegetation toyouke secondary deity in Shinto god of food/clothing/shelter folkhouse (grainery) lifted off the ground to keeps grains from moisture, precedent for lifting the temples greens figural voided space in American city apse most sacred part of cathedral, at the “head” arcade lowest of 3 parts in cathedral organization flying buttress used to resist lateral thrust, exoskeleton of the building nave place where congregation sits in a cathedral pointed arch developed during gothic period resolved lateral thrust issue by transferring force vertically pharaoh ruler in egypt, human mortal who was worshipped as a god reliquary place holding important religious artifact rib vault most structural elements on interior elevations crisscrossed vaults rose window stained glass window in cathedral side aisles walkways alongside nave tracery thin grill of stone holding glass of rose window together carved very thin transept crossing horizontal “arms” piece in cathedral plan triforium middle layer of tripartite cathedral, oftentimes separated by 3’s tympanum sculptural area over the doorway most highly decorated part of the cathedral, very detailed, symbolic, tells a story (often biblical) westworks entrance to cathedral trabeated 2 vertical, 1 horizontal piece used for structural stability cenotaph to newton boulee, 1784. idea for a tomb for sir isaac newton; never actually built. idea included darkness during the day w/ stars shining through holes in the walls and light during the night. **sublime inspires a feeling of awe. microcosm for the universe (one light in the center represents the sun, “eclipse” during the daytime), VERY centralized. princess diana memorial kathryn gustafson, 2004, london. “powerful” and “vulnerable” how kathryn thought diana lived her life. looks like a necklace tossed on the grassy landscape; serpentine river cutting through hyde park near memorial. 2 materials: stone/water. engaging, interactive memorial, very popular
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