ARCH2300 Quiz 3 Study Guide
ARCH2300 Quiz 3 Study Guide ARCH 2300
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisa on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Aimee Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 676 views. For similar materials see Outlines of the Built Environment in Architecture at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Pyramids of Giza 2530 BC, Giza, unknown ● 3 pyramids (Khufu, Khafre, Menkaura) of varying sizes built on the Upper Nile where it’s rockier (where most of the building materials and architecture is) ○ 2 big pyramids are aligned relationship with Orion’s belt ● built with simplest construction system stone on stone on stone… ○ axis mundi ○ reflects shape of mountains ○ structurally supported ○ relationship to the heavens ○ line up exactly with cardinal directions Parthenon 438 BC, ictinos and callicrates, Athens ● Optical Illusions: ○ 1. Stylobate is curved lifts up 2inches in the middle along the course of 100ft so that the temple seems bigger and not slumped ○ 2. Columns are spaced closer at the corners and wider at the centers so they look to be farther away ○ 3. Entasis: curve and bulge of each individual column makes them look straighter up close. otherwise the fluting (vertical lines) on the columns would make them look concave ● frieze is only 23” thick but maintains 3dimensionality ○ represents birth and coronation of Goddess Athena ● History: was used to store gunpowder at one point during Greece’s political turmoil, is currently under reconstruction (mostly covered with scaffolding, only some parts are there), many parts/sculptures on the frieze are missing and/or in the Britain Museum Hagia Sophia 532 AD, Isodorus (mathematician) & Anthemios (physicist), Istanbul ● built during Constantine’s reign in thenday Constantinople ○ he saw the need to create another center to the Classical Roman world ● “Huge conglomeration of additive spaces” minarets, dome, hierarchy ○ huge dome sits on 4 huge piers evolved from Roman Pantheon which needed VERY thick walls to support the dome ■ use of pendentives allows for dematerialization of walls ○ “ribbed vault dome” allows for dematerialization of the base of the dome itself where it should be the heaviest and for light to shine through *yay, clerestory!!) ● History: was a christian church at first → changed to a mosque which wasn’t very public (not open to non-Islamic peoples) → changed to a museum RyoanJ i 1500, Kyoto, Japan, unknown ● Kare Sansui garden not meant to be physically occupied ● meant to be very peaceful and contemplative, inwardly focused space ● Earth wall, raked sand (straight except for the areas around rocks), stones set in moss (5 groups, representative of Japan’s islands which are connected by water (sand)), tile pavement, veranda ● materials: stone, sand, moss St. Peter’s Cathedra l 1546AD, Vatican City, Michelangelo ● Renaissance plan was a contest for many architects ○ design by Bramante (tempietto!!) was rejected b/c interior space was too small ■ accepted plan by Michelangelo included a much larger dome. like. a HUGE eggshaped double dome (combats lateral thrust) and allows for huge amounts of sunlight. ● centrally organized, dome rests on 4 large piers through the use of pendentives ● extended nave longest cathedral in the world ■ has Baldacchino (Baroque) inside marking the Burial location of St. Peter. ● **apse faces west, not east St. Peter’s Piazz 1656, Vatican City, Bernini ● baroque, built to match scale of the existing cathedral ● obelisk at “center” and fountains on sides, plaques at true centers ● piazza is defined by one structure set of curved double columns (very complex) as opposed to multiple buildings ● ambiguous centers ○ obelisk doesn’t mark true center b/c it’s an oval ○ fountains don’t either, they’re just aligned with the side domes ○ real centers marked discreetly with plaques ● cathedral reflected in the piazza ○ foreshortening used to bring facade of cathedral closer to you Savannah1733 , savannah, GA, James Oglethorpe ● James Oglethorpe= member of British Parliament ● kind of like philadelphia plan (4 quadrants, each w/ its own green, many repeated becomes a datum) 1. datum of additive blocks 2. each one with its own green 3. begins at edge of the river a. dispersed centers ***Graveyard was south east when they first started the site, then they decided to just include it in the plan Central Park 1857, NYC, frederick law olmsted and calvert vaux ● olmsted= “father of landscape architecture”; visionary tried to make a natural landscape for everybody to enjoy back then parks were often for the elite only ○ responded to society’s needs, conscious to sustainability ○ olmsted wrote a lot about pastoral themes influenced projects ● all formally organized to look very natural ○ huge park in city (80x oval in size) ○ includes changes in altitude (most of Manhattan is flat) ○ figural void in the city ○ organized w/ 4 main axes ■ central park north, the reservoir, the ramble, sheep meadow, central park south ○ leisurely paths are aboveground, utilitarian/traffic paths are tunneled below so there’s no crosstraffic ○ today lots of green space, baseball fields, etc. owned publicly by NYC but maintained by private entity ■ always fundraising, sometimes get gifts Yellowstone 1872, Montana/Wyoming ● first national park most wellknown for geysers ● 1883 protection for park began but no laws were instilled ● 18861916 army controls/protects park against… 1. poaching bison are vital to park 2. vandalism Yosemite 1890, California, no one designer, credit to olmsted ● Olmsted sought to protect park ● first state park ● more people visiting, more easily accessible than Yellowstone ● 1864 becomes 1st state park ● 1890 becomes national park ○ waterfalls, glaciers, etc. some similarities with yellowstone but both are still unique Barcelona Pavilion 1929, Barcelona, Spain, Mies van der Rohe ● “German Pavilion” used for german exhibit ● built for the 1929 world fair ○ not meant to be “permanent” was dismantled and recreated 50yrs later in its original location ○ thin, easily deconstructed walls used cruciform columns for most of its support since the walls were too weak ● plan set up so you can never see the whole way through ● large figural void in front ● not all reflections align “is that real or reflected?? waw!!” ● materials: glass (transparent, translucent, reflected, etc.), marble (travertine marble), stone, stainless steel, water ○ very expensive wall of bookmatched marble present where dignitaries would be show off room :P ● used clean, simple furniture to keep the focus on the architecture (modernist ideal) ● statue in the water is reflected 1, vertically in the water (marble behind it is bookmatched and also reflected); 2, horizontally in the glass across from it. ○ designed by George Kohl, highlights plasticity and 3 dimensionality Paley Park 1966, NYC, Zion and Breen Associates ● vest pocket park ● water and light are important amenities so that the park looks nice and not like an alley ○ long, thin, dark, alley needs certain sense of comfortable scale (actually wedged between 2 taller buildings) so they added tables/chairs for interior space ○ ivy on side walls and water on back wall define perimeters and planes ■ perimeters= ivy, waterwall, street ○ trees in sidewalk have 2 functions: ■ 1. invite people into the park ■ 2. slight suggestion of extending/continuing the park into the street ○ private/public relationships present in park ■ tables for more public groups ■ benches along the edges for loners ○ water wall= wall of water along the back, makes noise to block out the sound of the bustling street and make the park a retreat ■ bonus= cools down the park on hot summer days Parc de la Villett 1982, Paris, Bernard Tschumi ● competition project open to everyone ○ Tschumi isn’t a landscape architect (controversy!) but he won ○ believed the space was too large for a single person to design so he included multiple compositions ○ used follies to create a datum ■ why red? no idea. ○ Ourcq Canal splits park develops asymmetry ○ Bamboo Garden 1987, Alexandre Chemetoff added it to Parc de la Villette ■ challenge= big pipe was stuck running through landscape ■ solution= Chemetoff brings the landscape down, shows off the infrastructure and lets bamboo grow better since it’s sheltered; today the bamboo’s tall enough to cover it anyways World Trade Center Memorial 2011AD, NYC ● buildings around the site are extremely political one of the most complex, negotiated sites in the US ● built on footprints of preexisting twin towers ● includes datum of trees, museum, public zone, and the 2 pools ○ started building bottom up realized that’d take wayyy too long built memorials first then continued fixing infrastructure ● materials: water, bronze, oak trees, granite ○ people can actually touch the water very important material ○ makes loud but not distracting sound helps focus inward (similar to waterwall at paley park) ○ oak trees deciduous, symbolic of circle of life ■ grew trees the exact proportion as they’d be placed on the site b/c they couldn’t afford for a single tree to die ○ granite all of the ground is granite very unusual that a landscape architect uses one material for everything ■ added diversity by experimenting w/ scale, drawn with chalk first ● precedent: michael heizer north, east, south, west ● names are etched into bronze symbolism behind organization of names (ex. coworkers were closer together, etc.) ○ precedent maya lin vietnam memorial 5th Avenue Dam removal 2012, Columbus ● dams were causing issues b/c the water that wasn’t running would pool and warm up the temperature of the water behind the dam→ low oxygen levels → endangered mussels ● 16 miles of recreational and riparian corridor down to highbanks ● involves removal of 8 dams total 1. Discuss and diagram the optical adjustments in Greek temples. ○ 1. Stylobate is curved lifts up 2inches in the middle along the course of 100ft so that the temple seems bigger and not slumped ○ 2. Columns are spaced closer at the corners and wider at the centers so they look to be farther away ○ 3. Entasis: curve and bulge of each individual column makes them look straighter up close. otherwise the fluting (vertical lines) on the columns would make them look concave 2. Diagram and label the parts of the Greek temple (facade and/or plan). 3. Diagram and explain the multiplicity of centers for St Peter's Piazza and Cathedral. ● obelisk at the expected center ● oval so fountains at individual centers? ● nope! plaques marking individual centers ● fountains are aligned with side domes so that the piazza is very much a reflection of the cathedral 4. Explain 5 influences on architecture and landscape architecture as discussed in lecture. ● climate/geography/site ● culture/religion ● precedents/time period ● people (ex. oval) what’s practical, what’s not ● resources available/cost 5. Explain 5 purposes architecture and landscape architecture can serve as discussed in lecture. ● shelter/residential ● monument ● symbol of culture/iconic ● entertainment (theaters, restaurants, etc) ● nature preservation sites 6. State and explain the four steps required to become a licensed architect and landscape architect as discussed in lecture. Landscape Architect: 1. professional degree (BS LArch suffices) 2. internship regulations are set individually by state 3. L.A.R.E (Landscape architect registration exam) must pass it 4. licensure “registered” architect, no limits for what you can legally do :D Architect: 1. professional degree (masters) BS is a preprofessional degree 2. internship need to accumulate a certain number of units in various training settings, need relevant experience 3. ARE (architecture registration exam) 7 sections are covered, can be taken on own time 4. licensure can practice as a licensed architect, take responsibility for buildings and credit 1. Describe and diagram the development of structural concepts of Egypt, Greece, Rome and Gothic and their effect on the spatial organization in each era. Egypt: GEOMETRIC, VOLUMETRIC. extremely fortunate to have the Nile river which they worked in harmony with. Most of Egypt’s architecture exists on the “upper nile” where there was more availability of building materials (mostly stone and brick). The northsouth axis was the Nile and the eastwest axis was the sun thus, Egyptian architecture is often very geometric and arranged in accordance with these axes. Egyptians also used subtractive (ex. Temple of Ramses II) and additive (ex. Temple of Khons) forms to take advantage of preexisting forms (Ex. Temple of Ramses II uses the preexisting mountain) or the lack thereof (ex. temple of Khons is additive to its landscape, stands out on the “tabula rasa”). However, as the Egyptians were less sophisticated with columns than the Greeks and Romans, they used hypostyle halls and intercolumniation, resulting in thick walls and lessexpansive interior spaces with limited lighting aside from clerestory. developed Capitals for the columns which helped a LOT Greece: used geography (water, islands, mountains) to enhance architecture which, consequently, was more spatially spread out (athenian agora). stuck to marble/stone as main building materials as they were mostly available. Wood was also used to build and for easy trabeation (structural concept). Acropolis was on higher elevation than the agora allowed for panathenaic procession. Roman: Rome was very hilly and mountainous (located by Tiber river and 7 hills), meaning they couldn’t effectively use a cardo/decumanus. Instead, they planned the city with multiple axes and endpoints marked with churches and obelisks, emphasizing the importance of the church. for buildings, they used stacked concentric rings to make the dome for the pantheon to try to combat the issue of lateral thrust Gothic: structural concepts: ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, piers, pointed arches used to expand interior space and to dematerialize walls. 2. Discuss and diagram the difference and or similarity of materiality and structure in Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Parthenon, Pantheon, and Ise Shrine and their effect. Temple of Queen Hatshepsut built with stone, use of stoa, depended on preexisting mountain for structure. different levels were connected by ramps Parthenon first built with wood, then translated into marble. structurally used trabeation, similar to that of Ise Shrine Pantheon used marble, much like the parthenon; structurally was a challenge because of lateral thrust which they tried to combat by decreasing the weight of the dome with the coffers; built the dome with stacked concentric rings to also help combat lateral thrust. Ise Shrine built from thatch, so it has to be rebuilt every 20 years, used of trabeation for structure much like the Parthenon. wooden pillars lift it off the ground to protect from moisture 3. Discuss and diagram the structural innovations in these religious structures and their effect: Pantheon, Hagia Sophia, and St. Peter's Cathedral. Pantheon concentric rings compression dome used to combat lateral thrust. however, it wasn’t strong enough to completely carve through the base to allow in sunlight thus the only source of light was the oculus. Hagia Sophia pendentives, ribbed vault dome, allow for the dematerialization of walls and large interior space as the entire dome rested on 4 square piers. ribbed vault dome allowed for lots of clerestory from the base of the dome. St. Peter’s Cathedral dome allows HUGE amount of sunlight in, eggshaped to combat lateral thrust issue, since they didn’t worry about this anymore they could dematerialize the base of the dome, also allowing for lots of clerestory. double dome has large shell on the outside to make it look very big but then a smaller, more structural dome on the inside. 4. Discuss and diagram the evolution of light in the Pantheon, Hagia Sophia, and Notre Dame Paris. Pantheon very dark, only clerestory came through the oculus in the center of the roof. although this was symbolic and fit into the idea of the pantheon as a microcosm for the sun, there was very limited interior lighting Hagia Sophia 532 AD Ribbed vault dome allowed for dematerialization and clerestory to flood through the base of the dome which is usually the heaviest part. Notre Dame 1163 AD huge rose windows with very thin tracery allow for lots of clerestory; The small clerestory windows typical of the Early Gothic style were enlarged downward and filled with High Gothic tracery. 5. Discuss and diagram the development of Columbus in relation to transportation routes (water and vehicular) and how those define the organization of the city. Using specific names will gain the most credit. 6. What is Picturesque? What is sublime? Discuss specific buildings and/or landscapes that exemplify each, explain, and diagram. Picturesque= artistic concept and style of the late 18th and early 19th centuries characterized by a preoccupation with the pictorial values of architecture and landscape in combination with each other. opposite of the extreme formality and geometric organizations of french gardens such as Versailles. Sublime= inspiring a sense of awe through scale or other factors ● Cenotaph to Newton inspires sublime through monumental size as well as the day/night phenomenon and it being a microcosm for the universe ● Versailles inspires sublime through monumental size of the gardens compared to the “human” scale of the palace (which is already very large) as well as the formal organization that shows total human control over nature ● Gothic Cathedrals (ex. Notre Dame) inspire sublime through monumental scale (and, specific to Gothic cathedrals, verticality) as well as intricacy. 7. Compare characteristics of English, Italian and French landscapes. Cite specific examples as discussed in class and diagram. ● English gardens are picturesque, characterized by lack of axes, lines, symmetry, and geometry. attempt to imitate natural landscape paintings ● Italian landscapes are characterized by their focus on lines/axes and a multiplicity of centers. ○ Baroque Replanning of Rome use of multiple axes and endpoints ○ Villa d’Este, Villa Lante focus on a center axis that runs down the entire length of the landscape (d’Este has multiple axes) ○ Piazza del Popolo obelisk stands in the center, 3 axes from the original trident from baroque replanning of rome ○ St. Peter’s Piazza epitome of multiple centers. each center serves a purpose obelisk, fountains, plaques ● French landscapes are characterized by their focus on planes and extreme formal organization. ○ Ex. Versailles, Villa le Vicomte focus on planes of the landscape. use of topiary and parterre (geometrically shaped gardens) Vocabulary Acanthus leaves decorative leaves at the top of Corinthian columns Antiquities Act 1906 act, This law gives the President of the United States the authority to, by presidential proclamation, restrict the use of particular public land owned by the federal. set aside for historical or scientific importance. Architrave first horizontal part of a temple located above the capital Baldacchino italian for canopy marks the burial location of St. Peter in St. Peter’s Cathedral Baroque style of architecture from 16001700, spatial continuty, multiplicity of centers, ambiguity of space, play on emotion, perspectival illusion, compound layering of elements very fancy, ornate. Base bottom of a column Book Matched matching 2 pieces of stone so that they are reflected upon a center line (used in Barcelona Pavilion) Capital (column) top, decorative part of a column Cantilever any rigid structural member projecting from a vertical support,especially one in which the projection is great in relation to the depth,so that the upper part is in tension and the lower part in compression. Caryatid a column in the figure of a woman (used in Erechteion) Causeway a raised road or path, as across low or wet ground. Cella most sacred part of a Greek temple Corinthian most decorative type of column; has volutes on the corners and acanthus leaves Cornice corner area of a temple Courtyard open space in a single building Deconstruction fragmentation, an interest in manipulating a structure's surface, skin, nonrectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit deconstructivist "styles" is characterized by unpredictability and controlled chaos. Doric most masculine, least decorative type of column Entasis each column bulges slightly outward so that they look straight when looking up (optical illusion used in Parthenon) Foreshortening trapezoidal space, canted walls bring facade closer to you. used in St. Peter’s Piazza to make the space seem bigger Frieze most sculptural/decorative part of a Greek temple Folly miniature building in a landscape (parc de la villette, sometimes useful sometimes just aesthetic); not the same as a casino Greens green space Grotto cavelike space in a landscape w/ the presence of shade, cool water, ferns/moss/etc. meant to look completely rustic Intercolumniation space between columns Ionic kindafancy column, has volutes, is very frontal Ka japanese soul Kare Sansui dry, contemplative landscape; one type of japanese garden (other type is Stroll Garden); not meant to be physically occupied Mortuary Temple temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Ancient Egypt Pediment triangular piece signifying religious significance Pendentive triangular, concave, structural piece that transfers circular weight from above to the square piers below allows for dematerialization of walls (hagia sophia) Piazza an open public area in a town or city (especially in Italy) that is usually surrounded by buildings Pyramid pyramid... Renaissance 15001600AD period, before baroque; rebirth of classical architecture, mathematical organizations, idealistic and static, clear idea of a central point/axis Riparian relating to wetlands/water Shaft shaft of a column Stylobate base of a temple (3 steps) Temenos an enclosure of area of sacred value, belonging to the gods. ex. the acropolis is a temenos Trabeated 2 upright, 1 horizontal used in asian architecture Tripartite divided into 3 parts Volutes decorative scrolls located on the side of a temple. Denotes ionic capital, which is quite frontal Vestpocket Park small park on private property for the public to enjoy originated in NYC
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