Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide CRM 1003
Popular in Crime and Justice in America
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This page Study Guide was uploaded by Katy Davit on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRM 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Sarah Rogers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Crime and Justice in America in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
This correlates with the study guide that was uploaded to my courses CHAPTER ONE the scienti c approach to studying criminal behavior The study of agencies of social control They devise accurate methods of collecting crime data measure trends and amount of criminal activity determine who commits a crime and where measure social policy and social trends on crime rate changes design crime prevention programs Calculating costs studying the role services for victims factors that increase the likelihood of becoming a victim The role social forces play in shaping criminal law history of legal thought how social forces shape the definition and content of law the impact of legal change the relationship between law and society Behavior that departs from social norms values and beliefs but isn t always a crime An act deemed as socially harmful or dangerous that is defined and prohibited by law law defines crime consensus eXists on what is right and wrong and laws apply to all citizens equally Law is a tool of ruling class politically define concept real crimes are not outlawed and law is used to control lower class an eye for an eye moral teaching was what inspired the United States legal system Common law Early English law which were mostly judge made law Norman conquest of England De nes rights and duties such as crimes and punishments in the criminal law and civil rights and responsibilities in civil law The rules and laws regarding operation of criminal proceedings Two people CHAPTER TWO Are official data on crime in the United States published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation An incidentbased reporting system for crimes known to the police For each crime incident coming to the attention of law enforcement a variety of data are collected about the incident A national survey of approximately 49000 to 77400 households twice a year in the United States on the frequency of crime victimization as well as characteristics and consequences of victimization Criminal Homicide Forcible Rape Robbery Aggravated Assault Burglary Larceny Theft Motor Vehicle Theft Arson Drug Abuse Fraud Vandalism Simple Assault Possession Charges Amount of crime committed that never comes to light UCR Dark gure is mostly nonserious crime Victimization Survey Dark gure is mostly nonserious crime SelfReport Dark gure is mostly serious crime Observation of a group of people who share a like characteristic over time Civil rights movement Vietnam protests Increase in number of police Drug markets psychopharmacological violence in selling and buying drugs Baby boomers in crime prone age Economic boom Gun control Age structure very argued factor New drug law effects war on drugs coined by Nancy Reagan Incarceration Policing Immigration lower crime rates for any immigrant legal or illegal Compensation for lack of economic opportunities Result of anger and 39ustration against society Both types are argued to be more likely to happen in impoverished areas with low income and SES Income education and occupation When talking about gender use the terms men and women as opposed to male and female because those terms are used when talking about seX 8 men are arrested for every 1 woman Female arrests are increasing Socialization Cognitive development Feminist theory Women will be treated more leniently for committing certain crimes generally shoplifting is often associated more with females than males but the statistics suggest that males commit many more acts of theft than women the view that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men Official crime data indicate that minority group members are involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity Is is true racial differences or bias SelfReport studies System bias White racism increases with the competition posed by a greater proportion of African Americans in a community CHAPTER THREE Larger homes African American homes Urban homes Homes in the west Homeowners versus renters Renters are victimized more than homeowners for reasons such as no alarm system always transient not as attached to the home if it isn t yours so renters are less committed to the home s upkeep Broken window theory 0 Gender OOOOOO 0 Age 0 Elderly victims fraud neglect sexual assault and home invasion for example 0 Elder abuse 0 Social status those with low SES are most likely to be victims of property and violent crimes 0 Marital status less likely to be assaulted or victimized than single people although intimate partner violence could be prevalent o Cohabiting the same this as being married without the title 0 Raceethnicii African Americans are more likely to be victims of violent crime 0 Males are more likely to be victimized by a stranger 0 Females are more likely to be victimized by a friend acquaintance or intimate partner 0 Single offender over 20 o Intraracial 0 Substance abuse aggressive or provocative behavior by victims that initiates or contributes to the incident surrounding their victimization personal and social characteristics that may make some people attractive targets for criminals 0 Increased exposure to criminal offenders 0 College students 0 Homeless o Runaways 0 Drug users 0 College lifestyle 0 Criminal lifestyle Routine Activities Theory and Lifestyle Theory have sort of been merged together 0 1979 More women in the workforce which makes them more exposed to crime Explains the rise in property crime Suitable target Lack of a cable guardian Motivated offender Exposed more to other people A lot of aws in this theory Proximity to areas of high crime increases your likelihood of victimization 0 Highly and densely populated urban areas 0 High poverty and instability low SES 0 Commercial businesses and residences This factor may outweigh any personal or lifestyle characteristics in determining your level of risk CHAPTER SIX Quetelet 0 Data and statistics Durkheim 0 Crime is a normal and necessary event Ecological Theory Focuses on spatial geographic distribution of crime Why do crime rates vary over space 0 Community deterioration Poverty concentration Community fear Race and fear Gangs and fear Mistrust and fear police Community change Cycles of community change Racial threat Chronic unemployment 000000000 1 Central Business District 11 Zone of Transition 111 Working Class Zone IV Residential Zone V Commuter Zone Crime results from weaknesses in the social structure Focus on lowerclass crime Focus less on place more of strati cation Con ict between institutionalized means what one does to achieve that cultural goal and culturally speci ed goals Modes of Adaptation I II III IV V Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion CHAPTER SEVEN Children who do poorly in school lack educational motivation and feel alienated are the most likely to engage in criminal acts Dropping out SES don t get attention at home learning disability race gender Association between peers and criminal behavior Debate over path of relationship Delinquent friends cause lawabiding youth to get in trouble Antisocial youths seek out and join up with likeminded friends deviant peers sustain and amplify delinquent careers As children move through their life antisocial friends help youths maintain delinquent careers and obstruct the agingout process Criminal Behavior learned through interactions with others Crime constructed as normal rather than pathological Product of same learning processes as noncriminal behavior I II III IV V Criminal behavior is learned Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others Learning occurs within intimate personal groups Learning includes techniques motives drives rationalizations and attitudes Motives drives etc learned from de nitions of legal codes as favorable or unfavorable Excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over def1nitions unfavorable to violations of law Differential associations vary in frequency duration priority intensity Learning criminal behavior is same as any other learning Criminal and noncriminal behavior are products of similar needs and values 0 Same process involved in learning both deviant and conventional behavior Direct conditioning differential reinforcement Negative reinforcement Initiation and persistence of criminal behavior depends on rewards and punishments Principal in uence on behavior comes from important groups Techniques of neutralizations o Deny the victim o Deny responsibility 0 Deny injury 0 Appeal to higher loyalties o Condemn condemners Neutralizations help us overcome negative stereotypes Neutralizations are NOT rationalizations Neutralizations occur BEFORE crime happens Rationalizations occur AFTER crime happens Focuses on formal and informal applications of stigmatizing labels Treats labels as both dependent variables and independent variables Who applies label to whom What produces stigmatizing label and determines way in which it is applied to different individuals Deviant labels become master status the status in which you hold more important People will commit crime unless adequately bonded to conventional institutions and people Elements of the social bond 0 Attachment I Family I Friends I Community 0 Commitment I Future I Career I Success 0 Involvement I School activities I Sports I Social clubs 0 Belief I Honesty
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