Psychology 124 Exam 1 Study Guide
Psychology 124 Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 124 - 03
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Layne Franklin on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 124 - 03 at University of Indianapolis taught by Jordan Sparks Waldron in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Fndtns/Psyc Science I:Methods in Psychlogy at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Research Methods Exam 1 Study Guide See the end of this study guide for general information about the exam and preparation. Chapter 1: Research in the Behavioral Sciences 1. What are the three distinguishing features/criteria of the scientific approach discussed in class and in your book? Understand what they mean; be able to recognize examples where they are fulfilled or not fulfilled. Systematic empiricism- relying on info to draw conclusions Public verification-findings can be observed, replicated, and verified by others Solvable problems-Only scientists can investigate these by given current knowledge and research techniques. 2. What are the necessary criteria for a hypothesis? Conceptual Definition, Advantages of Science, Social Experiment 3. How should we interpret findings that are based on methodological pluralism compared to findings that are not? Using many different many different methods and designs—as they test theories. The greater the measures, the greater methods we can find in the theory. 4.Define conceptual definition versus operational definition. Be able to identify examples of each. Conceptual definition-description/ definition of the concept Operational definition- Specifying how a concept will be measured/manipulated in a study 5. What is a theory? A set of propositions that attempts to explain the relationships among a set of concepts. 6. Can theories be proven by hypotheses that are supported? Why or why not? A good theory can be disconfirmed through researched through a testable hypothesis. 7. Can theories be disproven by hypotheses that are not supported? Why or why not? Yes, because there are theories that can predict the activity in a study. A hypothesis has little, unless if it has the potential to be found false. Chapter 2: Introduction to Scientific Writing & Reporting, Behavioral Variability in Research 1. Understand variance, variability, error variance, systematic variance. Variance- indicates the amount of observed variability in participants’ behavior. Variability- runs through the entire enterprise of designing and analyzing research. Error Variance-variance that remains unaccounted for Systematic Variance- part of the total variability in participants’ behavior that is related in an orderly, predictable fashion to the variables the researcher is investigating. Standard deviation-square root of the variance. 2. Understand the propositions of variability discussed in your book. How much the actual scores differ from one another. 3. What are the main parts of a research article? What is the main information found in each section? (See Chapter 16) A research paper should have a title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. 4. What is the variance (conceptually) and how is it different from the range? Variance indicate the amount of observed variability in participants’ behavior. Range is difference between largest and smallest scores. 5. What would it mean if you were told that a distribution of scores in a sample had a high or low variance? High variance-scores differed quite a bit. Small variance-results are very close to the mean 6. Understand systematic variance and error variance. If the ratio of systematic variance to total variance is 1, what does that mean? If zero? If score in the data set, have different values, they vary. Measures of variability-descriptive statistics that convey information about the spread or variability of a set of data. Range-difference between the largest and smallest scores in the distribution Chapter 3: The Measurement of Behavior 1. What are the four scales of measurement? Nominal-giving numbers as a label Ordinal-rank ordering of a set of behaviors or characteristics Interval- equal differences between the numbers reflect equal differences between participants in the characteristic being measured. Ratio-highest level of measurement Which properties does each scale of measurement have?-See above answers Observed score = ? 2. What is reliability? What is validity? What is the relationship between the two? Reliability- consistency or dependability of a measuring technique Validity- extent to which a measurement procedure actually measures what it is intended to measure rather than measuring something else (or nothing at all). Relationship-must be reliable to be valid 3. What is the correlation coefficient and how is it involved in assessment of reliability? Statistic that expresses the strength of the relationship between two measures on a scale from .00 (no relationship between the two measures) to 1.00 (a perfect relationship between the two measures). Interitem reliability assesses the degree of consistency among the items on a scale. 4. Know how you would assess each of these types of reliability (what would need to be correlated) and why you might use each type (what do you want to know): Test- Retest, Inter-rater, Inter-item, Split-Half. Test-retest- consistency of participants’ responses on a measure over time. Inter-rater- consistency among two or more researchers who observe and record participants’ behavior. Inter-item- irrelevant because there is only one item; and, because others cannot observe and rate the participant’s feelings of happiness. Split-half- researcher divides the items on the scale into two sets. 5.What are the categories of factors that can contribute to measurement error (see textbook)? Examples of each? What is the relationship between reliability and measurement error? Transient error- participant’s mood, health, level of fatigue, and feelings of anxiety stable attributes-can lead to measurement error situational factor, characteristics of measure, actual mistakes, Relationship-There are always some amount of relationship. High reliability, low errors. 6. What is convergent validity? Discriminant validity? Predictive validity? Face validity? Concurrent validity? Convergent validity-correlates with measures Discriminant validity-should not correlate with measures Predictive validity-- measure’s ability to distinguish between people on a relevant behavioral criterion at some time in the future. Face validity- extent to which a measure appears to measure what it’s supposed to measure. Concurrent validity- two measures are administered at roughly the same time. 7. What is test bias? What tells us/DOESN’T tell us if test bias is present? Test bias- occurs when a particular measure is not equally valid for everyone who takes the test. Test bias is hard to demonstrate because it is often difficult to determine whether the groups truly differ on the attribute in question. Chapter 4: Approaches to Psychological Measurement 1. Be able to identify examples of observational, self-report, archival, and physiological measures. Observational-Direct observations of human or nonhuman behavior in a systematic manner Self-report-questionnaires Archival-researchers analyze data pulled from existing records 2. Know the three decisions a researcher has to make about how to conduct observational Research. (1) Will the observation occur in a natural or contrived setting? (2) Will the participants know they are being observed? and (3) How will participants’ behavior be recorded? 3. What is a checklist? Observational rating scale? Narrative record? Temporal measure? Checklist-researcher records attributes of the participants (such as sex, age, and race) and whether particular behaviors were observed. Observational rating scale-researchers interested in measuring the quality or intensity of a behavior. Narrative record-full description of a participant’s behavior Temporal measure-measure of latency and duration 4. Define: disguised observation, undisguised observation, unobtrusive measures Disguised observation-researchers conceal the fact that they are observing and recording participants’ behavior. Undisguised observation-individuals who are being studied know that the researcher is observing their behavior Unobtrusive measures-involve measures that can be taken without participants knowing that they are being studied. 5. What are problems with validity that can occur in observational research (as discussed in class?) What can researchers do to try to address those problems? 6. What are the advantages (and disadvantages) of a questionnaire over interviews? Advantages- less expensive and time-consuming than interviews, participants can be assured that their responses to a questionnaire will be anonymous, participants may be more honest on questionnaires than in interviews, detailed information can be obtained about complex topics. Disadvantages- if respondents are drawn from the general population, questionnaires are inappropriate for those who are functionally illiterate 7. What are common pitfalls in writing items for self-report? Be able to explain why an item is a “bad” item. Misconceived and poorly worded items can doom a study. 8. What are the response formats that can be used in self-report? Free-response? Rating scale (bipolar adjective), fixed alternative (multiple-choice, true-false)? Free response- participant provides an unstructured response. Rating scale- When questions are about behaviors, thoughts, or feelings that can vary in frequency or intensity, this format should be used. Fixed alternative-multiple choice 9. What is content analysis? A set of procedures designed to convert textual information to numerical data that can be analyzed. 10. When is the social desirability response bias a concern? When people bias their answers or behaviors in a socially desirable direction, the instrument no longer measures whatever it was supposed to measure. 11. What is acquiescence? What is nay-saying? Why are these a problem? Understand examples of item designs where an acquiescent or nay-saying response set would be relevant. Acquiescence- tendency to agree with statements regardless of the content Nay-saying-expressing disagreement Item design- true vs. false
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