PSYC 160 exam 1 study guide
PSYC 160 exam 1 study guide PSYC 160
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Thomas on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kay Walsh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
PSYC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1 Developmental Diversity o “Culture, Ethnicity, Race…” 2 views of parenting: American mothers occasionally put their babies down & there is no cause for concern; Mayan mother in Central America would find this repulsive and feel they must maintain constant contact with their babies Individualism vs collectivism Race=biological concept; Ethnicity=broader cultural background African American vs black, Native American vs Indian, Hispanic vs. Latino – which is correct? Cohort, Critical, and Sensitive periods o Cohort—a group of people born at around the same time in the same place o Critical period—specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences; occur when the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli is necessary for development to proceed normally o Sensitive period—period where organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment; represents the optimally period for particular capacities to emerge, and children are particularly sensitive to environmental influences Six Types of Theoretical Perspectives o Psychodynamic Behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond people’s awareness & control Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory: unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior; Id (raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality that is present at birth—the pleasure principle. Ex. Hunger, sex, aggression, etc.), Ego (part of personality that is rational and reasonable—the reality principle), Superego (represents a person’s conscience, incorporating distinctions between right & wrong—learned from parents/teacher around age 6 Weakness of Freud’s theory: experiments were demographically restricted, lack of research, male-oriented Strength: first to recognize that your unconscious can affect behavior Freudian slip—a verbal or memory mistake that is believed to be linked to the unconscious; supposedly reveal the real secret thoughts and feelings that people holdex. A man calling his girlfriend by his ex’s name, saying the wrong word, etc. o Behavioral The keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment Nurture is more important to behavior than nature, according to this perspective Rejects the notion that people universally pass through a series of stages Developmental change=quantitative, rather than qualitative Classical conditioning—dog & bell = salivation (ex. Dwight on the office) Operant conditioning—behavior modification—learning from associated consequences o Cognitive Focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world Jean Piaget—all people pass through a fixed sequence of universal stages of cognitive development, with the quality AND quantity of knowledge increasing; assimilation & accommodation; focused on childhood intellectual growth Information processing approach: models that seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information Cognitive neuroscience approach: examines cognitive development through the lens of brain processes, i.e. brain scanning o Humanistic Contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and to control their behavior; emphasis on free will Each individual has the ability and motivation to reach more advanced levels of maturity and people naturally seek to reach their full potential Self-actualization o Contextual Considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds A person’s unique development cannot be properly viewed without seeing how that person is enmeshed within a rich social and cultural context Bioecological approach—Bronfenbrenner 5 levels—microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem o Evolutionary Seeks to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors; began with Charles Darwin Draws heavily on the field of ethology (study of the way biology influences our behavior) Konrad Lorenz—discovered that newborn geese are genetically programmed to become attached to the first moving object they see after birth; led developmentalists to consider the ways in which human behavior might reflect inborn genetic patterns Behavioral genetics—studies effect of heredity on behavior Pays little attention to the environmental and social factors involved in producing behavior Neuroscience (brain scanning) o Used in cognitive developmental studies—some argue it provides a description instead of explanation for behavior o Allows researchers to peer into the inner functioning of the brain o Seek to identify actual locations and functions within the brain that are related to different types of cognitive activity Why is it wrong to ask “Which approach is right?” o Each perspective emphasizes different aspects of development— the same phenomenon can be looked at from a number of perspectives o Some developmentalists use an eclectic approach and draw on several perspectives simultaneously o Considering the approaches together “paints a fuller portrait” Collectivism—the wellbeing of the group is more important than that of the individual; typically followed by traditional Asian cultures Ivan Pavlov—Classical conditioning experiment with dogs—trained dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by giving them a treat each time it rang B.F. Skinner—operant conditioning-individuals learn to operate on their environment in order to bring about desired consequences (positive vs negative reinforcement) Correlational research: seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists; proves nothing about causality, just proves they’re related o Correlation coefficient Experimental research: designed to discover causal relationships between various factors by deliberately introducing a change in a carefully structured situation in order to see the consequences of that change Independent variable: the variable that is manipulated in an experiment Dependent variable: the variable that is measured and expected to change as a result of the independent variable being manipulated “From Research to Practice”—Using Developmental Research to Improve Public Policy o By conducting controlled studies, researchers have made several contributions affecting education, family life, and health o Findings can provide policymakers a means of determining what questions to ask in the first place o Findings are often part of the process by which laws are drafted o Helps policymakers/professionals determine how to best implement a program o Used to evaluate the effectiveness of existing programs and policies “Becoming an informed consumer of development”—Thinking critically about “expert” advice o Consider the source—and their “goal” o Evaluate the credentials o Understand the difference between anecdotal evidence (based on 1 or 2 instances haphazardly discovered) and scientific evidence (based on careful, systematic procedures) o If advice is based on research findings, the correlation should be clearly shown o Do not overlook the cultural context of the info o Don’t assume that because a large # of people believe something that means it’s true Ethics and Research o Researchers must protect participants from physical or psychological harm o Researchers must obtain informed consent from participants before their involvement in a study o The use of deception in research must be justified and cause no harm o Participants’ privacy must be maintained Measuring Developmental Change (Three types of studies) o Longitudinal: research in which the behavior of one or more individuals in a study is measured as they age; measures developmental change over time o Cross-sectional: research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time; provide info about differences in development between different age groups o Sequential: researchers examine a number of different age groups at several points in time; combines aspects of longitudinal and cross sectional Chapter 3 Physical Growth in infancy (birth-2 years) o By the end of the second year, baby weighs about 4x what he did at birth & is about 3 ft. tall o Learning how to integrate bodily functions producing harmony- allows infant to sleep through the night, for example o Rhythms: repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior State: degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation; each change in state brings about an alteration in the amount of stimulation required to get the infant’s attention (fussing, sleeping, crying, etc.) o Sleep an average of 16-17 hrs/day (can range anywhere from 10- 20+) Sleep for about 2 hrs at a time followed by a period of wakefulness REM (rapid eye movement): period of sleep found in older children/teens and is associated with dreaming; rapid heartbeat/breathing, closed eyes moving back and forth (1/2-1/3 of infant sleep time) Dreaming? Probably not. Auto stimulation---infant brain stimulating itself Physical growth in preschool o Average differences between boys and girls increases during this period o Weight gain, less rounded, more slender, head more in proportion with the rest of the body o Economic conditions of the family also determine a lot of development milestones during this period (healthy eating, exercise, etc.) Physical growth in middle childhood/adolescence o Mastering of many new skills o Slow, but steady growth o Only period in life where girls tend to be a little bit taller than boys (~4 ft. 10in) Reflects beginning of adolescent growth spurt for girls (age 10ish) while for boys its around age 12 o Weight gain + weight redistribution (loss of baby fat) o Once again, culture and economic status big determinants o Adolescence = RAPID growth Puberty—age 11/12 for girls, age 13/14 for boys; begins with the pituitary glands Menarche-the onset of menstruation; wealthier (and more obese) girls tend to begin menstruation earlier than less affluent (skinnier) girls Primary sex characteristics: development of the organs/structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction (change in vagina, uterus) Secondary sex characteristics: visible signs of maturity that do not involve the sex organs directly (breasts, pubic hair) Boys: growth of penis and scrotum around age 12, reaching adult size 3 or 4 years later-- + prostate gland and seminal vesicles grow + deepening of voice; increased hormone levels can lead to feelings of anger, annoyance First ejaculation=spermarche (~age 13) Physical Growth in Adulthood o Age 20-40—“peak” of growth o Senescence: natural physical decline brought about by decreasing age (begins during this period but changes are not usually obvious until much later in life) Also known as primary aging (these changes are inevitable) Negative aging changes can develop for some (ex. Gray hairs)—can make middle adulthood very difficult for those who are very connected to their stellar physical appearance o Secondary aging: changes that are due to illness, health habits— not necessarily inevitable o Internal Aging Brain becomes smaller and lighter, uses less oxygen, decrease in number of neurons (sometimes), other times there is neuron growth, reduced blood flow to the brain, Less efficient respiratory system and digestive systems (results in higher incidence of constipation), reduced hormone levels, loss of muscle fiber A healthy and exercise-driven lifestyle can slow down these changes Gerontologists: specialists who study aging We can no longer define old age just by chronological placement, physical and psychological well-being are becoming increasingly big determinants of “functional age” Young old=healthy and active; Old old=have some health problems and difficulty with daily activities; Oldest old=frail and need extra care o According to demographers: young old=65-74; old old=75-84; oldest old=85+ Fastest growing segment of the population is oldest old Growing brain—grows at a faster rate than any other part of the body o Increased neuron communication + increased protective myelin o Neurons communicate through dendrites and axons + nuerotransmitters (chemical messengers) o Gaps between neurons=synapses Synaptic Pruning-babies are born with more neurons than they need so the unused/unstimulated neurons are eliminated o Meant to allow the more established neurons to build more elaborate connections networks with other neurons Plasticity—the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience Sensitive period—period during which an organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences Lateralization—the process in which certain functions are located more in one hemispehere than the other, becomes more pronounced during preschool years Links between brain growth and cognitive development o Increases in myelin=increased cognitive ability o Increased pruning=^ o Prefrontal cortex Reflexes—unlearned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli o Rooting: tendency to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek; possibli function=food intake; disappears after about 3 weeks of age o Moro: activated when support for the neck and head is suddenly removed, the arms of the infant are thrust outward and then appear to grasp onto something; possible function=protection from falling; disappears after 6 months of age o Startle: in response to a sudden noice, flings out its arms, arches it back, and spreads its finger; possible function=protection; remains in different forms throughout infancy Gross motor skills=the skills learned and acquired when a person was still a baby up until early childhood; ex walking, running Fine motor skills=pertain to the coordination of muscle movements in the body like the eyes, toes, fingers, and such. It allows one to write, grasp small objects, and fasten clothing Gender differences in gross motor skills Girls usually surpass boys in activities involving coordination of arms & legs up until midpreschool years Norms—the average performance of a large sample of kids at a given age Potty wars—should be based around child’s readiness; children have no bladder/bowel control unil 12 months and only slight control for 6 months after that; some not ready til 30 months or older Handedness—the preference of using one hand over the other Art—plays a part in honing fine motor skills; also teaches importance pf planning, restraint, and selfcorrection; pictorial stage not reached until 4 or 5 Visual cliffexamines the depth perception of infants; more infants in the age range of 6 14 months cannot be coaxed to cross the cliff, apparently responding to the fact that the patterned area drops several feet Infant eyesight and visual preferences o 20/20 by 6 months o Infants prefer to lookat stimuli that includes patterns, rather than more simple stimuli; curved, 3d, human faces are all preferences; also mothers face is preferred to other women’s o Can also distinguish between male and female faces Infants’ sensitivity to pain and touch o Produces distress o Touch=one of the most highly developed sensory systems in a newborn; also one of the first to develop Sensory development in preschoolers o Not until about 6 that kids can effectively focus and scan text o View objects as made up of a bunch of different parts—fruit vegetable bird o Sharpness of hearing gets better during this time as well Speech impairment—deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interfers with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker o Stuttering—substantial disruption in the rhythm and fleuncy of speech; the most common speech impairment Reaction time in adulthood o Does increase but is usually mild and unnoticeable o Lifestyle changes can slow down this process CHAPTER 5 Piaget and module 5.1 (know all stages except for substages)
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