Study Guide; Unit 2
Study Guide; Unit 2 BMS 208
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aldina Softic on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 208 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jolanta Lanier in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
BMS 208; Unit 2 Study Guide The Skeleton: Articulated: bones are joined together Disarticulated: bones are not joined Types of Bones: Long Short Flat Irregular Sesamoid Sutural Anatomy of a Long Bone : Proximal and distal epiphysis (ends) o Made of spongy bone & filled with red marrow Diaphysis (shaft of bone) o Made of compact bone Metaphysis (transition between diaphysis and epiphysis) o Made of spongy bone & filled with red marrow Inside of the diaphysis, there is the medullary cavity On the outside of bone there is a dense, regular tissue called periosteum which has 2 layers: fibrous on outside, cellular on inside On the inside of bone there is a tissue called endosteum which has only one layer but many cells: o Osteoprogenitor: gives rise to all cells o Osteoblasts: build new bone o Osteoclasts: destroy bone using enzymes and lysosomes o Osteocytes: maintain the bone matrix Formation of Bone Endochondral Ossification (how long bones form) o bones begin as hyaline cartilage o first ossification center in diaphysis o secondary ossification center in epiphysis as ossification continues, hyaline cartilage remains in the metaphysis and these become growth plates Intramembranous Ossification (how flat bones form) Axial Skeleton: Bones that form the central axis of the skeleton Provide main support Protect central nervous system Skull, vertebral, thoracic cage, sternum, ribs The Skull: Frontal Parietal (2) Occipital o Foramen magnum Temporal (2) o Petrous portion (juts inward) o Mandibular fossa (depression) Sphenoid o Sella turcica (depression that holds pituitary gland) o Sphenoid sinus Ethmoid o Perpendicular plate o Christa galli Facial Bones: Nasal o Vomer bone (bottom of nasal septum) Maxillary o Alveolar process (depression) o Makes up the palat (at end of palat are palatine bones) Zygomatic Mandible o Alveolar depression Lacrimal Sutures: connect bones of the skull Coronal suture: between frontal & parietal bones Sagittal suture: between parietal bones Squamous suture: next to squamous portion of maxillary bone Lambdoid suture: between parietal and occipital bones Vertebra: Cervical (7) o Cervical vertebrae have transverse foramen (openings on the side) o Vertebral artery passes through here o C1 is called the Atlas: holds the skull o C2 is called the axis: allows for rotation of the atlas & has a projection called “Dens” Thoracic (12) o Costal facet allowing ribs to fit Lumbar (5) o Designed to hold weight (have large body portion) Sacral (5) o Fusion of 5 vertebra Coccygeal (35) o Fusion of 35 vertebra Typical Vertebra: Body Arch Pedicle (connects body to arch) Lamina (connects left and right arches) Vertebral foramen (opening) Spinous process (projection) Transverse process (projections on the side) Between vertebra are articular processes to allow for movement Underneath vertebra are discs Thoracic Cage: 12 pairs of ribs Ribs with hyaline cartilage directly attached are true ribs Ribs with cartilage connected to the true ribs are false ribs Ribs without cartilage are floating ribs Sternum: In between the ribs Manubrium (top) Body (middle) Xiphoid process (bottom) Hyoid Bone: Allows for swallowing Part of axial skeleton Connected/attached by muscle Appendicular Skeleton: Bones in the appendages Shoulder clavicle, scapula, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs Shoulder Girdle: Clavicle Scapula o Body o Acromion process o Coracoid process o Glenoid cavity o Spine o Infra/supraspinous fossa o Subscapular fossa Humerus: Located in brachial region Two tubercles: greater and lesser Deltoid tuberosity Olecranon fossa Coronoid fossa Radial fossa Medial & lateral epicondyles Trochlea (small bumps) Capitulum Ulna: medial bone Has styloid process Radius: lateral bone Has styloid process Wrist is made up of 8 carpals Thumb is digit one, pinky is digit 5 On the thumb there is 2 phalanx: proximal and distal On digits 25 there is 3 phalanx: proximal, middle and distal Carpals metacarpals digits Hip Bone (Os Coxa): When hip bones are joined to sacrum it is the pelvis One hip bone is made from 3 fused bones o Ilium (largest & superior) o Ischium (posterior) o Pubis (anterior) Left & right pubis come together to form pubic symphysis Obturator foramen (2 openings) Acetabulum (deep depression) Ilium: Iliac crest at top Iliac spines (2 in back, 2 in front) o Anterior superior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch between ilium and ischium Ischium: Ischial spine Ischial tuberosity (where glutes attach) Pubis: Superior and inferior ramus Femur: Round head Neck Greater and lesser trochanters (large projections) Linea aspera (crest) Lateral and medial condyles Fibula: Lateral Head Lateral malleolus Tibia: Medial Medial and lateral condyles Tibial tuberosity Anterior crest Medial malleolus Tarsals metatarsals digits Heel = calcaneus Talus = sits on calcaneus Big toe is digit one o 2 phalanx: proximal and distal Pinky is digit five In digits 25 there is 3 phalanx: proximal, middle and distal Articulations: Arthrology: study of joints Arthritis: inflammation of joints Joints are classified by structure and movement Structure: Fibrous connective tissue Cartilage (fibro & hyaline) Synovial fliud Movement: Synarthrosis: no movement o Sutures, epiphyseal plates, costal cartilage Amphiarthrosis: slight movement o Symphysis pubis, intravetebral discs, interosseous membrane Diarthrosis: free movement (synovial) o Gliding, ellipsoidal and saddle joints Gliding: carpal bones Hinge: elbow & knee Pivot: radioulnar Ellipsoidal: knuckles Saddle: metacarpal of thumb Ball & socket: shoulder, hip Muscular System: Functions: Skeletal movement Maintain posture and position Support soft tissue Guard entrances and exits Maintain body temperatue Organization of connective tissue in a skeletal muscle: Epimysium: outermost Perimysium: covers fassicles Endomysium: covers each individual cell Thin and thick filaments aid in muscle contraction Myofibrals (stacks of protein) are made up of microfilaments In between myofibrals there is sarcoplasmic reticulum Z discs are borders between sarcomeres (functional units of a muscle) Mline is in the middle of the sarcomere Thick filament is made of myosin Thin filament is made of actin, tropomyosin and troponin Arrangement of muscle fibers: Circular Parallel Convergent Unipennate (1 stack) Bipennate (2 stacks) Multipennate (many stacks) Origin of muscle: the fixed point Insertion: attachment of moveable end to another structure Muscle Groups: 1. Head & Neck Frontalis Occipitalis Temporalis Masseter Sternocleidomastoid Orbicularis oris Orbicularis oculi 2. Muscles of Trunk Erector spinae group o Spinalis o Longissimus o Illiocostalis Rectus abdominus External/internal obliques Transversus abdominus 3. Muscles of Pectoral Girdle Pectoralis major/minor Serratus anterior Trapezius Levator scapulae Rhomboid minor/major 4. Muscles that Move Arm at Shoulder Deltoid Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor/major Subscapularis 5. Muscles that Move Forearm Triceps brachii Brachioradiallis Brachialis Supinator Pronator teres 6. Muscles that Move Hand Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Brachioradiallis Extensor carpi radialis longus/brevis Extensor digitorum Extensor carpi ulnaris 7. Muscles that Move Thigh Iliopsoas o Illiacus o Psoas major Sartorius Adductor longus Adductor magnus Gracillis Gluteus maximus/medial/minmus 8. Muscles that Move Leg at Knee Joint Flexors: o Biceps (lateral) o Semitendinosus (medial) o Semimembranosus (medial) Extensors: o Vastus lateralis o Vastus mediallis o Rectus femoris o Vastus intermedius 9. Muscles that Move Foot and Toes Tibialis anterior Fibularis longus Fibualaris brevis Gastrocnemius Soleus Specific Muscles to Remember: Biceps Brachii Origin: long & short head Insertion: radial tuberosity Action: flexes arm at shoulder joint Nerve: muscultaneous nerve Rectus Abdominus Origin: pubis Insertion: ribs 57 Action: flexion of trunk Nerve: intercostal nerve Levator Scapulae Origin: cervical vertebrae Insertion: scapula Action: elevates Nerve: dorsal scapular and cervical nerves Pectoralis Major Origin: sternum Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus Action: flexion Nerve: pectoral nerves Flexor Carpi Radialis Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: metacarpal bone Action: flexion Nerve: median nerve Sartorius Origin: anterior superior iliac spine Insertion: tibial tuberosity Action: flexion at knee Nerve: femoral nerve Biceps Femoris Origin: ischial tuberosity Insertion: head of fibula Action: flexion of lower leg Nerve: sciatic nerve Gastrocnemius Origin: femoral condyles Insertion: calcaneus Action: plantar flexion Nerve: tibial nerve
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