Cheat Sheat #1 for Virginia Clinton PSYCH270
Cheat Sheat #1 for Virginia Clinton PSYCH270 PSYCH 270
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Myhre on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 270 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 189 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 1 Classical conditioning: US: rat UR: fear CS: rat CR: fear Neu S: BANG Abnormality: behavior is inconsistent w/ the person’s devel., cultural & societal Counter Conditioning: associate fav item w/ fear=learn to love both Systematic Desensitization: treating intense fear, slow introduce fear, and it norms, and interferes w/ daily func. &emotional distress goes away Distress: u r upset with __ Dysfunction: u r having diff. in func. Operant conditioning: pos reinforcement: add, increase behavior neg Deviance: not w/social norms reinforcement: remove, increase behavior pos punishment: add, decrease behavior neg punishment: remove, decrease behavior Developmental Norms: not okay w/ ur age Social learning theory: Bandura: Modeling/ Observational learning we learn Goodness of Fit: deviance depends on enviro Developmental Trajectory: Symp. Vary w/age from others Vicarious conditioning: the person watches a model, and demonstrates a behavior Ancient theories of Abnormality (learn from parents: do what they do) Biological model: abnormal starts in brain, brain composed of neurotransmitters, Trephination: using a circular object to cut away skull, treat. For abnormal behaviors, released evil spirits people will either have enough trans, or not enough/too many=abnormal Hippocrates: father of medicine, made diagnostic classification, model to explain Viral infection theory: prenatal viral infections in mother could cause brain abnormalities abnormal behavior, identified hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, mania, hysteria Alzheimer’s disease: most common dementia, cognitive declrde, memory loss, Hysteria: females blind or paralyzed, thought was it was due to empty uterus, lang. diff., no care for self, more plaques and tangles=3 ventricle full cure was marriage or pregnancy Biological scarring: years of living with the disorder caused brain changes Behavioral genetics: study heritability in a person’s traits Four bodily humors: Hip believe enviro&physical factors made imbalance Blood: courageous and hopeful Cognitive model: how you think can influence behav Phlem: calm and unemo attitude Aaron Beck: neg view on self, world, future=cognitive distortions Yellow Bile: cause mania Humanistic model: people are good and motivated to selfactualize, troubles Black Bile: cause melancholia/removal of blood w/selfimage and actual self Avicenna: prince and chief of physicians, 2 teacher after Aristotle Carl Rogers: Unconditional positive regardno matter what patient says you stay Cannon of Medicine: depress. from mix of humors, physical diseases were from positive, client centered therapymeeting client’s needs, speaking with them to reach their full potential emo distress, + to music and emo distress View of abnormality in Middle Ages and Renaissance Sociocultural model: gender+SES+culture=influences type of disorder a person may have Mass hysteria: people convinced they were possessed by demons Biopsychosocial model: biogenes, hormones psychthoughts cognition soc Emotional Contagion: auto mimicry of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and norms, stress movements Diathesisstress model: disorder have bio or psych predisposition (diathesis) that Enlightenment: how to treat mental illness, religion would help mental ill lies dormant until stress occurs Philippe Pinel: illness is curable, calm and order w/in his asylums, removed restraints and had daytime activities for patients Chapter 2 Dorothea Dix: moral treatment in US, 32 asylums, treatment, research, education Respect for persons: people in a study must be able to make decisions about themselves of illness Mesmer: animal magnetism: flow in body freely but when obstructed disease Beneficence: researchers don’t harm/minimize harm occurred Informed consent: what is happening, purpose, procedure, risk/nemesis, and it is Placebo effect: symptoms gone becuz of specific treatment voluntary Central nervous system: brain+spinal cord, 100 billion nerve cells Kraeplin: scientific method to look at illness, devel. Etiology and prognosis dementia praecox: schizophrenia, autointoxication: body poisoned itself Peripheral nervous system: body Josef Breuer: study hypnotism on hysteria, Anna O. w/ conversion discussed Neuron: axon, neurotransmitter, synapse Sympathetic: fight or flight experience, treatment called talking cure Parasympathetic: slows down heart, respiration, returning body to norm state Psychoanalysis: both normal and abnorm behav, first 5 yrs. of life Familial aggregation: examine family members of person with a disorder to see if Id: seeking pleasure/sexual desires, unconscious they are more likely to have disorder than family//see patters or see sporadic Ego: balance out super & id, conscious and unconscious Proband: person w/ disorder in a familial aggregation study Superego: moral compass, partly conscious/unconscious, manages id’s impulses Twin studies: identical: mono, fraternal: dizy//helps with environmental factors Defense Mechanisms: denial: acting as if it doesn’t exist Descriptive research Displacement: taking out anger on a target Case studies: description of person or group, that focuses on the assessment of Intellectualization: avoiding emotions to focus on intel. aspects of event abnormal behavior or treatment Projection: your impulses on someone else Naturalistic observation: watch, describe behavior//Hawthorne effect: observing Rationalization: using possible info for behavior than real reason changes behavior Surveys/interviews: ask specific questions, large #sur, smallinterview Reaction formation: taking opp. belief if true one causes anxiety Regression: returning to early devel. stage Experiments and random assignment: messing with environment/study, each Repression: forgetting a conscious thought participant is give equal probability of being assigned to exper or control Independ Variable: experimenter controls Sublimation: acting out impulses in an acceptable way Suppression: pushing unwanted thoughts to unconscious Dependent variables: assessed to see the effect of IV Undoing: try to take back bad behavior Causal inference: correlation between two V can be due to a shared correlation Insight: with an unmeasured 3 Vrd free association: person tells analyst everything that comes to mind, drawing Correlations: positive: high score of correlation w/two V negative: low score info from unconscious conflicts Correlation is not causation! dream analysis: individ. Are encouraged to recall their dreams and discuss Crosssectional: snapshot in time (80s, 90s) Longitudinal: takes place over time more than twice w/ same people analytically “royal road to the unconscious,” symbolic images, meaning of conflict interpretation: focus on present issues and conclude person’s past and present, Epidemiological research designs: disease patterns in populations and factors of dreams/fantasies are looked at influence, prevalence: # of cases of disorder in population, Observational Epi: presence of physical or psychological disorders in Modern psychoanalysis: no more id, Alder: sibling rivalry, birth order, inferiority complex, family issues population Exper Epi: scientist manipulates exposure to either causal or preventive factors Ego Psychology: conscious motivation and healthy forms of human func. object relations theory: people’s emo ties to objects Behaviorism: CC: Watson, Pavlov//OC: Skinner Body dysmorphic disorder: defects or flaws, repetitive behaviors to check, distress, not concerned with weight, Heritability of anxiety disorders: between siblings and parent child, Trait Anxiety: high are more reactive to stressful events, and develop a disorder Temperament: personality components are biological or genetic, from birth are stable across time and situations Brain differences OCDPTSD: trauma changes amygdala=emo, impulse control and habits has a different blood flow in brain Anxiety and Neurotran: Nor=too much, Sera=too little, Dope=too little? GABA: affects postsynaptic activity, restricting prevents anxiety Cortisol: produced by adrenal glands, causes stress in body Evolutionary explanations for phobias: humanphobic objectssnakes, heights, closed spaces darkness. Nonphobicfish, low places, open spaces, bright light. Dangerousnonguns, electricity, cars Psychoanalytic viewpoint for anxiety: conflict in id and ego, sexual an aggressive impulses, defense mechanisms Chapter 3 Clinical assessment: gathering info of person w/enviro make decisions of nature, Behaviorist explanations status, and treatment of psych probs Classical Conditioning: ustrauma, urfear, cssetting of trauma, crfear Standardization: assessments results in context w/population involuntary Reliability: consistency of a test Operant conditioning: negative reinforcement, changing thinking to develop Validity: whether a test measures what it was intended to measure anxiety Screenings: identify psychological probs or predict risk of future Vicarious learning: watch others who are anxious can increase you anxiety Unstructured Interview: clinician decides what questions to ask and how to ask Cognitive viewpoint: one is hypersensitive to bodily sensations, fear of fear them Structured Interview: clinician asks a standard set of questions, goal of a model, distorted cognitions or faulty beliefs Fear of fear model: fear of the fear reoccurring again diagnosis Distorted cognitions: thinking the fear is way out of proportion Psychological tests: measure dimensions such as personality characteristics, Biological treatment: SSRIsselective reuptake inhibitors for depletion of general psych func, intell, and behavior Behavioral assessment: learning to understand behavior and functional analysis, serotonin, Prozac, Lucox, Zoloft//Benzodiazepines for GABA which reduces anxiety, Valium and Xanax addictive identify casual links between problem behaviors and contextual variables. Psychodynamic treatment: uses free association and dream interpretation, Selfmonitor: patient observes and records their own behavior as it happens finding the underlying problem, IPT good for anxiety disorders to talk about it Behavioral avoidance: test to assess phobias and avoidance behaviors Behavioral treatments: Exposurefacing fears//Systematicpicture to toy to real Psychophysiological assessment: measure brain structure, function, and NS thing//Social Skillsobserve other people in situation w/fear EEG: sensors on skull pick up electrical activity from brain Cognitive behavioral therapy: exposure in combo with cognitive restructuring, Electrodermal Activity: measures sweat, looks at electrolytes in the sweat of skin hypothesis testing generate positive coping cognitions to counteract the negative Biofeedback: patients learn to modify physical responses such as heart rate, thoughts, relaxation training and biofeedback respiration, and body temp Neg to diagnostic systems: labeling, inaccurate assumptions by clinicians, stigma Chapter 5 that mental health is bad, overmedication Somatoform disorders: one or more somatic symptoms plus abnormal/excessive thoughts, feeling, and behaviors regarding the symptoms selffulfilling prophecy: prediction that causes it to be true Conversion disorder: 1+ altered voluntary motor, or sensory func, Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM): to diagnose, give treatment plan, see outcome, agreed terms, rule out physical condition Illness anxiety disorder: fears about having an illness that persist despite medical Critiques of the DSM: too many people are disordered, border between reassurance, lots of anxiety, comorbid with anxiety, avoid hospital, no symptoms present, 6mth diagnoses, disorder and normal, decisions to include judgements, labels how we Transient hypochondriasis: due to environment, temporary comorbidity not as interpret Dimensional versus: functioning, supported by high frequency of comorbidity, common richer descriptions, more complex to explain Factitious disorder self: signs and symptoms intentionally produced, eager for medical attention, no external awards Categorical systems: discrete clinical conditions, easier to understand, requires Factitious disorder others: signs and symptoms intentionally produced on consensus on boundaries, subthreshold syndromes Comorbidity: more than one disorder another, presents another as ill, no external reward Developmental considerations: minor health complaints are normal for young Chapter 4 children, reinforcement of complaints can perpetuate and mimicry of symptoms What is anxiety: worrying, thinking about future, time limited, physical Malingering: not a disorder, lying to get what they want physical/psych healthy, symptoms external rewards, deliberate, get what they want symptom gone Panic attacks: intense fear, abrupt onset, expected or unexpected, sweating, Psychodynamic viewpoint: intrapsychic conflict and defense mechanisms, neg shaking, choking feelings become physical symptoms, factitiousmastery or control, masochism, Panic disorder: Reoccurring panic attacks in one month deprived childhood, be an abuser after being abused Agoraphobia: fear of in public and can’t handle panic attack, situation has fear Behaviorist viewpoint: encouraged health concerns, reinforcement for being ill, w/it, 6+ mth modeling is reinforced Generalized anxiety disorder: excessive worry, difficult to control, Cognitive viewpoint: form of communication, for people to express difficult emo, emotions converted to physical symptoms distress&dysf, 6+ mth Social anxiety disorder: situational fear to scrutiny by others, out of proportion, Somatic amplification: increased awareness of somatic symptoms, perceive 6+mth normal body and organ sensations as being intense, or disturbing Specific phobia: fear to object situation, actively avoided, out of proportion, Dissociative disorders: disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment 6+mth Obsessivecompulsive disorder: obsession is thought, compulsion is acting on it, Depersonalization: feeling of detachment from one’s body, watching your life time consuming 1+ hr, as someone else, feel detached PTSD: exposure to death, injury, sexual violence, memories, dreams, flashbacks, Derealization: feeling of unfamiliarity or unreality about the environment, in a dream, conscious avoid stimuli with event, neg effect on mood, 1 mth. Separation anxiety disorder: lots of fear with Sep., worry, distress, won’t leave amnesia: physical traumastroke, low blood sugar, booze blackout, hit to the them, nightmares of sep, 4week in child, 6+mth in adult head identity confusion: confusion about who a person is Dissociative identity disorder: presence within a person of two+ personality identity alteration: being markedly different from another part of oneself states, their own things, alters, amnesia between alters Dissociative amnesia: psychological trauma Psychosocial: childhood sexual abuse, repressed/recovered memories localized: a certain time period you cannot remember Recovered/repressed childhood memories: repressed mem are not inherently selective: remember most of life except for the trauma unreliable, memories recalled in the context of therapy generalized: can’t remember anything at all, identity/life history Treatment of dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia resolves itself, Dissociative amnesia with fugue: loss of personal identity and memory, often antidepressants for dereal and DID, CBT used to work with symptoms of physical involving a flight from their life, sense of self gone, can func normally distress, CBT used to restructure thoughts and other sources for where memory Depersonalization Disorder: both depreson and derealization loss started
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