GEOG Study Guide Midterm
GEOG Study Guide Midterm 1101.0
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sufian Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1101.0 at University of Georgia taught by Amy Ross in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
GEOG 1101 Here’s the GroupMe for this class, join it! https://groupme.com/join_group/20219632/MzFPZj Format: 50 Questions, AD choices What to bring: Student ID Number and eraser https://quizlet.com/_22jh NEW QUIZLET LINK Did they say we need to know the “Environmental Timeline” ?...if so do we need to know all those people in order??? Anyone know what page the timeline is on? I couldn’t find it P1718 who is George Marks??????? George Perkins Marsh (1801 - 1882) o Wrote Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action (1864): first major scientific paper that effectively argued that humans have the capacity to change the environment around them to a point where it could not come back(irreversible) Who is Rachel Carson? involved in agriculture pesticides in ecosystem; part of US environmental timeline, wrote “Silent Spring”, started movement that led to the ban of DDT (what’s DDT?) < The actual name of it is some huge chemistry name I’m sure we don’t need to know but it’s pretty much an insecticide farmers put on their crops/plants (It’s harmful to the environment) Vocab words that will be on the t FOR SURE: capitalism: a form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of goods by private ownership geographical imagination: capacity to understand changing patterns, changes in processes, and changing relationships among people, places, and regions globalization: the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political and cultural change colonialism: the establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society human geography: study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people's relationships with their environments identity: the sense that people make of themselves through their subjective feelings based on their everyday experiences and wider social relationships infrastructure: also known as fixed social capital, it is the underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity neoliberal policies: economic policies that are predicated on a minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for political and social life ordinary landscapes: also known as vernacular landscapes, everyday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives place: specific geographic setting with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes region: largersized territory that encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere sense of place: feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and the symbolism that they attach to it site: physical attributes of a location its terrain, its soil, vegetation, and water sources, for example social relations: a relationship between 2, 3, or more individuals spatial analysis: study of geographic phenomena in terms of their arrangement as points, lines, areas, or surfaces on a map state: an independent political unit with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states supranational organizations: collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature world region (Large scale geographic division based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major groupings of peoples with broadly similar cultural attributes) Cultural influence → Historical, geography and familial factors that affect assessment and intervention processes. environmental determinism: the land itself impacts its imprint on the human form. Differences in groups can be traced to differences in physical environments. (also called geographical determinism) ex: A mountain tribe can survive higher altitudes while a valley tribe would not be able to survive as well. ethnocentrism: attitude that one’s own race and culture is superior to others’ eurocentrism: the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective and with an implied belief, either consciously or subconsciously, in the preeminence of European culture neoliberalism: reduction in the role and budget of government, including reduced subsidies and the privatization of formerly publicly owned and operated concerns, such as utilities commercial imperialism: A form of imperialism in which giant organizations grow within core countries through the elimination of smaller firms by mergers and takeovers transnational corporations: companies with investments and activities that span international boundaries and with subsidiary companies, factories, offices, or facilities in several countries Agricultural density: ratio between the number of agriculturists per unit of arable land and a specific area Census: count of the number of people in a country, region or city Demography: the study of the characteristics of human populations Forced migration: movement of an individual against his or her will Gender: social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences that are related to sex Guest workers: individuals who migrate temporarily to take up jobs in other countries Immigration: Migrate to another location Internally displaced persons (IDPs): individuals who are uprooted within the boundaries of their own country because of conflict or human rights abuse International migration: move from one country to another Life expectancy: average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live Push factors: events and conditions that impel an individual to move from a location Pull factors: forces of attraction that influence migrants to move to a particular location Refugees: individual who crosses national boundaries to seek safety and asylum ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda): Set up by the UN, located in Tanzania. Prosecuted the Hutu for genocide. Interahamwe: The name for the Hutu militia who conducted the violence of the genocide; given order to start genocide, used machetes, no advanced weapons. They set up checkpoints April 6 1994: President's plane was shot down after meeting with the president of Tanzania “trigger date” launching of the genocide; president’s plane crashed and the plan to exterminate all the Tutsi was put in place as soon as this happened Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: U.S. was the last nation to sign this, referred to as genocide convention; important because punishment wasn’t enough, therefore prevention is necessary. Also important that it does not include intervention Hutu: majority of Rwanda population, farmers that harvested crops and land, poorer; begun the genocide Tutsi: minority, 15%, cattle raisers; richer, considered “more white” by the Belgians Twa: less than 1% of the population, native population Class notes: space how everything around us was made up and organized, think about Sanford Stadium, why do you think the field is in the middle of campus? It is a convenient location; our campus revolved around football. Is the field in the middle because it is the most important thing or was it made in the middle to make it the most important thing..(questions that needs answers) power if we can understand space, we have power critical thinking how are power relations showing how we can think critically about the world Social problems 1.Violence and conflict genocide, war crimes 2. Climate change and associated planet issues how this happened? why will there be losers and winners in climate change? 3. Poverty and inequality live in. People influence the land, and the land influences the life of the people gap between rich and poor Relationships (dialectics) this answer is going to be “all of the above” 1. Physical environment and human society people and the lands 2. Local and global 3. Wealth and poverty uneven equality Parachutes (feat. Oncue) – Jez Dior, OnCue Modern world system: o Last 500 years have been key in the creation of the world we know today, especially the unequal diversity throughout the world Origins of Colonialism: o Environmental determinism doctrine holding that human activities are controlled by the environment o It tended to support the European viewpoint, that they were from a better place than everyone else. (eurocentrism) o Tropical climate to them produced people that were lazy unlike them who were from the cold and had strong bodies. This lead to them taking over other groups because they were superior than others. “Cold weather produces stronger people.”<((lolol I just think that concept is funny)) Thomas Malthus: resources are finite, population will grow. This will be a problem because people>resources This theory is negated by technology. Malthus didn’t know about technology and increased knowledge in medicine. Ethnocentrism o Conquest o Colonialism o Capitalism 15001700: plunder, sacking of riches in latin America by Europeans Industrial revolution/slave trade: money from the slave trade went into European banks to fund the machines for industrial revolution Differences between urban and industrial lifestyles o Cities became more crowded o Creation of wage labor Countries: o Core: (1st world countries) Regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies o Semiperiphery: (2nd world countries) Regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions o Periphery:(3rd world countries) Regions with underdeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity 1776: US goes from being a colony to being a colonizer o Manifest destiny o Berlin Conference: SPLIT up Africa: Scramble for Africa (18801914) Neocolonialism & contemporary globalization o people make maps and maps make people th Georgia was the 13 colony: debateable land between GA and SC o Spain and Britain both claimed 176283: they were concerned that it would be a problem for the Carolinas o Therefore, they expanded GA above the Oconee river. Subcontinental divide: rainfall made the division Montreal: Hudson bay company for shipping World systems = EMPIRES Imperialism: the deliberate exercise of military power and economic influence by powerful states in order to advance and secure their interests o Extension of power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories (definition in book) Colonization: the establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society Urbanization: military garrisons, administrative >centers, principalities and intermediaries technologies or empire o Increasing concentration of populations into growing metropolitan areas (definition in book) Hegemony: Domination over the world economy exercised by one national state in a particular historical epoch through a combination of economic, military, financial, and cultural means 14501750: the emergence of expansion and consolidation of a European worldsystem Spatial Analysis of Industrialization in Europe Diffusion began in England and spread globally through Europe Structuring world systems core and periphery o Core (1st world): dominate trade, control most advanced technologies; dominance depends on the participation of other regions in worldsystem o Semiperiphery: able to exploit peripheral regions but themselves exploited and dominated by coreregions o Periphery (3rd world): dependent and disadvantageous trade relationships Comparative advantage: some places are better for certain items Third World: politically independent states in the periphery of the conflict between the competing worldsystems of the Cold War Conflict: control of the periphery RICHARD’S QUESTION IS LIKELY GOING TO BE “ALL OF THE ABOVE” Epistemology: a whole set of ways to make knowledge about something o The distinguished difference between justified belief and opinion o A branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge Ontology: what you assume to exist, the study of the nature of existence or being as such o The assumptions you make about what exists o WHY IS A TREE A TREE AND NOT A SHRUB? Semiotics: A system for studying language developed by Ferdinand de Saussure (the so called founder of modern linguistics) organized around the concept of the linguistic sign EUGENE ODOM IS THE FOUNDER OF MODERN ECOLOGY Maya: Indigenous peoples of Guatemala Operation Success: Coup authorized by Eisenhower to overthrow Arbenz, carried out by the United State Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that deposed the democratically elected Guatemalan Presiden t Jacobo Árbenz and ended the Guatemalan Revolution. Arbenz: Second president elected; contd. w/ land reforms from the previous presidency but added land reform, was a progressive politician. Did not see himself as communist, but the US did. Decree 900: also called the Agrarian Reform Law, was a Guatemalan land reform law introduced by Arbenz and passed on June 17, 1952, during the Guatemalan Revolution that redistributed unused lands of sizes greater than 224 acres to local peasants, compensating landowners with government bonds Land Reform: Redistribution of land by the state with a goal of increasing productivity and reducing social interest United Fruit Company: Largest land owner; didn’t give land to peasants because they wouldn’t work for them if they could grow their own food Efrain Ríos Montt: A Guatemalan politician who was President of Guatemala from 1982 to 1983. An army general, his time in office was marked by the Guatemalan Civil War. Years later, he served as president of Congress. o His military regime included widespread massacres, rape, torture, and acts of genocide against the indigenous population o First person to be convicted of the crime of genocide in the state where the genocide occurred Monroe Doctrine: A U.S. foreign policy regarding domination of the American continent in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention Leadership cycles: Portugal (1500s); Spain Netherlands (1600s) Great britain (1700s1900s) U.S. (1940present) Over long haul, costs of maintaining hegemony tend to weaken hegemony Scramble for Africa: 18801914 (Berlin Conference) Key Words: Chapter 1 and 2 Capitalism A form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of the means of production, distribution, and the exchange of goods by private ownership Geographical Imagination capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes and changing relationships among people, places, and regions Globalization Increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change Human Geography Study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationships with their environments Identity Sense that people make of themselves through their subjective feelings based on their everyday experiences and wider social relations Infrastructure AKA, fixed social capital. Underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity Neoliberal Policies Economic policies that are predicated on a minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for political and social life Ordinary landscape Vernacular landscape, everyday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives Place specific geographic setting with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attribution Region larger sized territory that encompasses many places, all of most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere Sense of Place Feeling evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and the symbolism that they attach to it Site Physical attribute of a location, its terrain, its soil, vegetation, and water resources Social Relations Any relationship between two or more individuals Spatial Analysis Study of geographic phenomena in terms of their arrangement as points, lines, areas, or surfaces on a map Supranational Organization Collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and or political in nature World Region Largescale geographic division based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major clusters of humankind with broadly similar cultural attributes SemiPeriphery Regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions Core Regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies Periphery Regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity Imperialism Extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories Colonization The physical settlement of a new territory of people from a colonizing state Issues Being Confronted: Environmental determinism: Doctrine holding that human activities are controlled by the environment; belief that social and cultural differences in human groups can be traced to differences in the environment (supports European idea that they are better, and that tropical heat produces lazy people) Malthusian Thinking: People will reproduce, the food will be finite, and we will eventually run out Ethnocentrism: Attitude that one’s own race and culture are superior to others Eurocentrism: Europeans believing their culture and people were above the rest of the world Neo Colonialism: Economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people Commercial Imperialism: A form of imperialism in which giant organizations grow within core countries through the elimination of smaller firms by mergers and takeovers Transnational Corporation: Companies with investments and activities that span international boundaries and with subsidiary companies, factories, offices or facilities in several countries Key Words Chapter Three: Agricultural density: Ratio between the number of agriculturists per unit of arable land and specific area Census: Count of the number of people in a country, region, or city. Demography: The study of the characteristics of human population Forced migration: Movement of an individual against his or her will Gender: Social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences that are related to sex Guest workers: Individuals who migrate temporarily to take up jobs in other countries Immigration: Move to another location Internally displaced persons: Individuals who are uprooted within the boundaries of their own country because of conflict or human rights abuse International migration: Move from one country to another Life expectancy: Average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live Neoliberalism: Reduction in the role and budget of government, including reduced subsidies and the privatization of formerly publicly owned and operated concerns, such as utilities Push factors: Events and conditions that impel a person to move from a location Pull factors: Forces of attraction that influence migrants to move to a particular location Refugees: Individual who crosses national boundaries to seek safety and asylum Third World: Independent states in periphery of conflict between competing worldsystems of Cold War Malthus: Essay on principle of population (1798) Malthusian Thinking: Too many people right now and need to get rid of people She likes the answer: all of the above Class February 4th: Keywords: RWANDA: A landlocked country in Africa in which the Rwandans are drawn from just one cultural and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda, although within this group there are three subgroups: the Hutu, Tutsi and Twa International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Interahamwe: Hutu militia, “Those that stand together”, word given to the organization of militias that were armed leading up to the genocide April 6, 1994: Rwandan president's plane struck down TEST QUESTION. triggered the plan to kill Tutsis and launch the genocide Convention for Prevention and punishment of the Crime of Genocide: Drafted in 1948, ratified in 1951, U.S. accepted in 1981, known as the genocide Convention, important because punishment isn’t enough, therefore prevention is necessary Hutu: 85% of Rwanda o Arrived first from South and West o Assigned to ones who harvested crops/land Tutsi: <15% Rwanda. o People had cattle o Arrived second from the North and East o Belgians labeled Tutsi as better because they were “more white” and they were the ones buying goods from the Belgians o ONLY Tutsi work for Belgians, ONLY Tutsi get education Twa: < 1% (minority) o Considered native of Rwanda Overview of Guatemalan Revolution Middle class revolt against strongman o Had democratically elected president o Was a social reformer United Fruit did not pay full tax value for land. Opposed lightest reforms in Guatemala and had influential friends in US government Arbenz continued revolutionary ideals with economic reforms o Arbenz gave too much importance to communist friends President had more nationalistic plans Americans come to Cuba, Nicaragua, stay Dictators arise (Bautista) Democratic regimes come out with leaders Communists start expanding Consider the dynamics of US hegemony o After 1954, the US instilled leadership that it liked Lasting consequences of the 1954 coup was the relationship of U.S. and Guatemala: o We supported them throughout the next few decades o Increased migrants (border) from Guatemala to the U.S—illegal immigrants o After 1954, U.S. became increasingly concerned w communism in the Caribbean o January 1 , 1959: Fidel Castro overthrew the whole Cuban government Castro became more and more allied with the U.S.S.R U.S. became increasingly concerned because it can potentially hurt their economy Additional Notes: Names weren’t ethnic distinction, were class distinction. Breaking up of Africa was based on European power, not ethnicity and history Hard to prosecute people of genocide because if you have power to control large armies, you can control courts United Fruit Company lost the most land under new land reform. The US used radio to exaggerate the power After 1954 coup: o US installed leader to liking in series of dictatorships. People that benefitted from Decree 900 had land taken back o Peasants sometimes shot and killed after land taken. o US Exercised hegemony over Guatemala and supported military leaders that held their views. FIdel Castro overthrows Cuban government with 200 people. US feared that poor people would prefer communism to capitalism CHAPTER 4. Nature and Society Epistemology: The way you know something or think about something Ontology: Study of what you assume to exist. o Things have a lot of political and cultural baggage that comes to our brain when we see something Eugene Odom: Called "the father of modern ecology," brought the word ecosystem into common parlance by making it the organizing concept in his 1953 Fundamentals of Ecology. Through that textbook, which was translated into twelve languages, and through his many other books and articles, he led the way toward the study of nature in terms Key concepts Nature, society, technology Environmental philosophies o Contemporary views: Dominated by the Western tradition that understands humans to be superior to nature Nature is something to be tamed or dominated o Romanticism: Ideas embraced by Henry David Thoreau, a philosophy that emphasized the interdependence of humans and nature All creatures, humans and otherwise, were infused with a divine presence that commanded respect and that humans were not exceptional in this scheme o Transcendentalism: Ideas embraced by Ralph Waldo Emerson, encouraging people to attempt to rise above nature and the limitations of the body to the point where the spirit dominates the flesh and a mystical and spiritual life replaces a primitive and savage one o Conservation: Holds that natural resources should be used thoughtfully and that humans should serve as stewards, not exploiters, of the natural world Gifford Pinchot, Theodore Roosevelt (drew on ideas of Thoreau, Emerson, and Marsh) o Preservation: Advocates that certain habitats, species, and resources should remain offlimits to human use US Environmental Movement o Greenpeace: Environmental organization focuses on the battle against environmental polluters (global) o Environmental Justice: Activists may consider the pollution of their neighborhoods by factories to be a result of a structured and institutionalized inequality Energy and Climate Change Globalization and Environment Ecosystem: Community of different species interacting with each other and their larger physical environment Nature: Social construct as much as it is physical universe that includes human beings o Concepts of nature reflect philosophies, belief systems, and ideologies of different people Society: Sum of inventions, institutions, and relationships created and reproduced by human beings across particular places and times Technology: Artifacts or tools (hammer), processes or activities (steelmaking), know how (seed planting) Semiotics: Practice of writing and reading signs, system of language developed by Ferdinand de Saussure and organized around linguistic signs Eugene Odom is founder of modern ecology. Emerson: Transcendentalism Preservation vs Conservation: Keep things exactly as they are Vs. help to nurture it 1950: Arbenz became the 2nd President of Guatemala; continued with reforms from 1st administration, but also took on land reform. Decree 900: Any land not being used in Guatemala could be purchased by government and redistributed to peasants. o United fruit company didn’t want anyone else to grow stuff on their land. They didn’t give land to peasants because they didn’t want poor to not work for them Operation Success: US Gov’t supported armed conflict and overthrew democratically elected president Arbenz of Guatemala in 1954, ended the Guatemalan Revolution Efrain Rios Montt: First former head of state to be prosecuted for genocide in national courts where the crime occurred, got the most votes from places which had the most violence, remaining people like him, everyone who did not were killed. Monroe Doctrine: Western hemisphere for purpose of USA o Increased foreign ownership of land in Guatemala, alongside subsistence agriculture Ladino vs Mayan o Ladino: descendents of spanish conquistadors. The elites. o Mayan: indigenous peoples. Rural dwellers Cultures and places are mutually influencing Key words Chapter 5: Culture: a shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life. Dialects: regional variations in standard languages Diaspora: spatial dispersion of a previously homogeneous group Ethnicity: socially created system of rules about who belongs and who does not belong to a particular group based upon actual or perceived commonality. Language: communicating ideas or feelings by means of a conventionalized system of signs, gestures, marks, or articulate vocal sounds. Popular culture: practices and meaning systems produced by large groups of people whose norms and tastes are often heterogeneous and change frequently, often in response to commercial products. Race: problematic classification of human beings based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Additional Ch. 5 Terms in HW Quizzes Environmental Justice: Movement reflecting a growing political consciousness, largely among the world’s poor, that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in wealthier neighborhoods Key Words Chapter 6: Landscape as a text: Idea that landscapes can be read and written by groups and individuals Sacred spaces: Area recognized by individuals or groups as worthy of special attention as a site of special religious experiences or events Semiotics: Practice of writing and reading signs Additional Ch. 6 Terms in HW Quizzes Acid rain: The wet deposition of acids upon earth created by the natural cleansing properties of the atmosphere naturally caused (not by greenhouse gases) Climate change: Any significant change in measures of climate (temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer) Conservation: The view that natural resources should be used wisely and that society’s effect on the natural world should represent stewardship and not exploitation Greenhouse gases (GHG): Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere, including, but not limited to, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide Nature: Social creation as well as the physical universe that includes human beings Preservation: Approach to nature advocating that certain habitats, species, and resources should remain offlimits to human use, regardless of whether the use maintains or depletes the resource in question Political ecology: Approach to cultural geography that studies humans in their environment through the relationships of patterns of resource use to political and economic forces EXAM QUESTION: Indigenous people are defined by unique language, long term relationship to homeland, and one time exercise of political control over their destinies. GOING TO BE ALL THE ABOVE! Indigenous people: Cultural ties prior to colonization . 10 % of people claim to be indigenous 200 nations states, 180 in 1980s, continuously growing, borders are manmade Modern states come in direct conflict with indigenous people. Modern civilization resulted in loss of indigenous people, land, and cultures. More cultures disappeared than have ever existed. EXAM QUESTION: “Environmental determinism” refers to: a. The belief that social and cultural differences between human groups can ultimately be traced to differences in their physical environments POTENTIAL EXAM QUESTION: 1. The textbook describes the capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places and regions a. Geographical imagination 2. The characteristics generally associated with core regions are: b. Regions that dominated trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity with diversity economies 3. Colonialism can be described as: a. A specific architectural style in African cities b. A system of production of goods and services for exchange on the market in order to make a profit c. A highest form of capitalism d. The direct political control of a people of capitalism 4. Which of the following best describes the sequence of world leaderships cycles in the last five hundred years of colonization and imperialism a. Portugal, the Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States How can states remove culture? Ban their language/teaching of it in schools, rob indigenous people of their land States can take land from indigenous people, they have an attachment to a certain territory. Arbenz: Overthrown by US government in 1954 (Operation Success) Discovering Dominga is the movie we are watching about Guatemala (young woman who grows up in Iowa, gets married, has children, start having dreams about her past, from Guatemala, started reading, found out she was from Rio Negro, massacre happened there in 1982, she realizes her parents and family are dead, she goes to Guatemala. **Building of nation states=bad for indigenous cultures March 1st Review Notes: “Environmental determinism” refers to: The belief that social and cultural differences between human groups can ultimately be traced to differences in their physical environments. (A. is correct answer) Chapters 16 Chapter 1: Why Geography Matters o Places and regions are highly interdependent o Local vs National vs Global phenomenon o 3 dialectics/3 relationships (TEST QUESTION) Physical environment and human society Local and global Wealth and poverty (answer will prob be all of the above) o Geographical Imagination: Capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places, and regions o Keywords: colonialism, imperialism, globalization, national, global, local, etc... Chapter 2: Development of the World System o Keywords: hegemony, colonialism...etc. o Understanding development of the world system and understand world systems by people and regions work together o The creation of the world system and history, created as a result of often violent conflict of policies, each place has unique characteristics, but have experienced similar patterns of interaction in emerging world systems o Places are marked by their relationship to the world system Core: Regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies SemiPeriphery: Regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions; provide the core region with labor, resources, energy, etc. Periphery: Regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity; also called 3rd world (KNOW THE DIFFERENCE )^^^ o Rich people exist in periphery and poor in core, understand the concept of contrast between the three, differing political/social/ economic lines o Africa colonized so much later than Latin America (does matter) o Conquest of Latin America key to the development of the core o “Why was the conquest of latin america in the 1500’s key to the development of the core?” extraction of resources It changed the way that global interaction happened for the rest of the world as well. Conquest, Colonialism, Capitalism. o What happened to the natives of the New World during the conquest? 90% of the indigenous population of the New World died in the first century of the conquest due to enslavement and other forms of warfare, but more than anything else, because of the diseases spread by the conquerors o Key way the Industrial Rev. has shaped society? Built things out of raw materials in the New World→ influenced the development of Industrial Revolution in Europe First Northern Europe, and then around the world as people moved from the countryside to the city Set off a dynamic frenzy of production, hunger of continual use of technologies that is still being seen today Chapter 3: Population Kinds of data used to determine population statistics o Less with amounts than the distribution of population o Geographers are concerned with births and deaths o Why people move (push/pull factors) Push Factors: Events and conditions that impel an individual to move from a location Pull Factors: Forces of attraction that influence migrants to move to a particular location o Voluntary and Involuntary migration (what is the difference?) Voluntary Migration: Relocation according to personal desires. Involuntary Migration: Essentially forced migration o How many people can the world support? 10 Billi WHOEVER PUT THIS CAN SMA BC ITS WRONGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG o Thomas Malthus: Wrote in 1798 that the power of the population is infinitely greater than the power of the Earth's (population grows, resources are stagnant) Why was Malthus wrong? Failed to take into account technology and the relationship of resources between the people (technology can change these relationships) Less about the finite number, but more about the distribution of these resources and the power to control them/, o People make maps, maps make people o Refugee v.s. Internally displaced person (will be a question on the test!) Refugee: Individual who crosses national boundaries to seek safety and asylum Internally displaced person: Individuals who are uprooted within the boundaries of their own country because of conflict or human rights abuse A crucial requirement to be considered a "refugee" is crossing an international border. Persons forcibly displaced from their homes who cannot or choose not to cross a border, therefore, are not considered refugees. Chapter 4 Keywords: Environmental justice, climate change, etc. What is nature? How is nature complex? What is the relationship between technology and nature? Relationship between nature and society o What does the tree mean to people (ex. religiously, providing warmth, etc) Nature: A social construction as much as it is the physical universe that includes human beings; concepts of nature reflect the philosophies, belief systems, and ideologies of different people o Is both a physical realm and a social creation o Understanding mitigated by humanness Ontology: About what exists and what are valid categories of existence o Trees and shrubs exist, but have to draw the line between tree and shrub Epistemology: How you make knowledge about things, how you validate knowledge, how you share knowledge Question: Which of the following best describes the relationship between ontology and epistemology? o Ontology is all about culture, epistemology is all about nature (WRONG) o You must determine the ontology before you can begin to form an epistemology Timeline for Environmental Movement in the U.S o Important Early Influences (1800s) Henry David Thoreau (18171862) Wrote Walden Embraced Romanticism (philosophy that emphasized the interdependence of humans and nature) His views of the natural world came from the negative effects he saw on nature brought by the Industrial Revolution Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882) Transcendentalist George Perkins Marsh (18011882) Works suggested human beings are significant agents of environmental change His ideas served as the foundation of the U.S. environmental movement in the 20th century o U.S. Conservation Begins in late 1800s Theodore Roosevelt (18581919) and Gifford Pinchot created the first national parks o 19301970: Early Environmental Movement Aldo Leopold (18871948) Founder of wildlife management Eugene Odom (19132002) Founder of modern ecology Rachel Carson (19071964) Marine Biologist Wrote Silent Spring (1962) Warned of dangers of agricultural pesticides to ecosystems Wildly popular bestseller Facilitated ban on DDT in U.S. in 1972 Environmental Justice: Movement reflecting a growing political consciousness, largely among the world’s poor, that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in wealthier neighborhoods Ecofeminism: A philosophical and political movement that combines ecological concerns with feminist ones, regarding both as resulting from male domination of society Chapter 5 and 6: Cultures and places are also mutually constituted o You can see the impact of culture on all places (even if hidden) o Main part of campus being this big hole in the ground is a place that says something pretty dramatic about our culture Indigenous Peoples Cultures often times came in direct conflict with modern states Landscape as Text o Landscape around you can be read as text and read as a text for human struggles (study for clues) to understand more about our culture Rwanda and Guatemala Scramble of Africa occurred in the late 19th Century Happens in a stage in the colonial process such that the Europeans were more aggressive with their search for raw materials o More aggressive with the control of these colonies Other Stuff on the Test The Movie “Mr. Johnson” look up on ELC o Depicts the relationship between the British Imperialists and the local population o Summary found online :) In 1920s Africa, a young Nigerian accountant Mister Johnson (Maynard Eziashi) is talented enough to get an accounting job at the English colonial offices, but he quickly learns that his race prevents him from advancing to the respectable kind of position he desires. Hoping to impress his superior, Harry Rudbeck (Pierce Brosnan), he decides to fudge some numbers and save his boss thousands. When his plan backfires, however, Johnson desperately turns to even more illegal measures in order to succeed what are these “even more illegal measures”? Answer: He stole and committed murder. He was then shot as punishment by his first boss instead of being hung like he was supposed to from the trial he was on for murder. The ending is sad...but he so deserved what he got. o System of Indirect Rule: A system of government used by the British and French to control parts of their colonial empires, particularly in Africa and Asia, through preexisting local power structures No test questions from Discovering Dominga or The Forsaken Cries exCCDTyE answer is ALL OF THE ABOVE stands for: Exclandestine centre for detention, torture, and extermination Last question About Sanford Stadium all of the above(any answer is correct) WHO OF YOU TOOK DOWN THE MOTIVATIONAL SPEECH THAT WAS PURE GOLD
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