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by: Davina Jagdeo


Davina Jagdeo

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Politics of the Middle East
Jinu Abraham
Study Guide
Poly Sci
50 ?




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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Davina Jagdeo on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Pol 365 at Adelphi University taught by Jinu Abraham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Politics of the Middle East in Political Science at Adelphi University.




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Date Created: 02/18/16
Critiques of Area Studies: 3 Critiques­ Area studies are too descriptive, does not predict, and relies on anecdotes Area studies are irrelevant in a global world with a breakdown of national barriers Area studies is imperialist and part of a colonial study of domination  Critiques of Mideast Area Studies: Mideast studies has failed to be predictive Shifts in the discipline do not reflect realities on the ground The field is dominated by leftists who end up whitewashing ugliness of politics in the  region Mideast studies is irrelevant and it does not speak to policy concerns/serve those in  power Nomothetic Versus Idiographic: Nonmothetic­ Attempts to discern general laws and patterns in human behavior to develop hypotheses Seeks to create if…then statements that are observable and testable Idiographic­  Does not generate predictive statements  Attempts to go into incredible amounts of detail   Relies a great deal on historical understanding as a basis  Ethnic Groups­ AIPAC: Interest groups that aim to politically advance a particular ethnic group, either in the  United States or abroad All successful ethnic lobbies have 3 elements that give them political clout: A. A credible threat of switching allegiances at election time B. A strong and effective organizational structure C. The ability to build a case around American symbols and ideals AIPAC:  A. An umbrella organization for pro­Israeli groups which aims to provide elected  officials data, personal contacts, and campaign contributions relating to the  interests of the Jewish state B. Has a $100 million yearly endowment and a well organized internal structure C. An active force in American politics since the 1980s D. The most imitated of all ethnic lobbies Quantitative Methods:  The investigation of phenomena in the natural or social world using statistics and  mathematical models  Tables and graphs are used to display the results of quantitative research Qualitative Methods: The investigation of phenomena in the social sciences focusing on the intricacies of  human behavior Qualitative approaches ask why or how certain decisions came about MENA Survey Respondents: Those living in a police state will self­censor their responses The illiterate, rural dwellers, foreign nationals, and women are reluctant to take part in  surveys/difficult to gain access to People in less repressive regimes get interviewed over and over again Not everyone in MENA speaks Arabic Survey populations are often MORE guarded on the telephone than in person Political volatility of the region means huge swings in popular attitudes in relatively  short periods of time Public Diplomacy: The statements and actions of leaders that are designed to influence foreign public  opinion The newest method of diplomacy brought on by technological advances and increasing  importance of non­state actors/legislatures/ideas Many American Presidents engage in public diplomacy Four aspects of American public diplomacy: 1. Inform the world accurately and clear about American policy 2. Represent values/beliefs of the American people 3. Explain the various virtues of democracy 4. Convey American support for education Third Wave of Democracy: The considerable growth of democratic governance throughout the world since the  1970s Transitions to democratic governance in Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe  after the breakup of the Soviet Union Initiated by the 1974 Carnation Revolution in Portugal Transition Paradigm: Simultaneous movement away from dictatorial rule towards more democratic/liberal  forms of governance Assumptions of Transition Paradigm:  Countries moving away from dictatorship are also moving toward democracy  Democratization unfolds in stages: opening, breakthrough, consolidation  Elections equal democracy  Structural factors are not important for transitional states  Transitions are occurring in already functional states  Feckless Pluralism:  Significant amount of political freedom  Nearly all political elites are seen as corrupt and self­serving  Political parties seem to want only to impede progress of political rivals Participation in politics rarely extends beyond voting Dominant Power Politics:  One individual, family, or dominant party dominates the entire political system so  power does not change hands  The state and the dominant power are fused  Poor social outcomes because of stagnant bureaucracy  Citizens are disillusioned by politics in the state Full Autocracies:  Rely on the provision of jobs and economic benefits to stay in power  Use force and intimidation if provision of economic goods fails to build support in the  population   Unwilling to allow societal reforms of any kind   Conservative constitutions Liberalized Autocracies:  Open to some economic and social reforms  Willing to ally with various sectors in society in order to provide services to the  population  Weak party systems Civil Society:  All of the ways people associate with each other apart from the state authority  May meet for an explicitly political purpose or for a variety of other reasons  Seeks to empower individuals and protect their interests/rights Social Capital:  The social connections all individuals possess that affect our productivity  Places a high value on social networks  NIMBY Movements   Imagined Communities NIMBY Movements:  Not In My Backyard  To characterize local, grassroots movements that are endeavoring to resist the sitting of some unwanted land use in a particular neighborhood, community, or region. Hierarchies:  Run by a single central authority  Goal oriented and strategic  A high level of individual accountability  Engage in high risk activities with great potential cost to the individual  The ties between individuals are strong and significant  Networks:  Not controlled by a single central authority  Decisions are made by consensus  Resilient and adaptable to change  Ties between individuals in a network are loose by definition  Experience difficulty in goal setting and are prone to internal conflict GUVS:  The General Union of Voluntary Societies  Formed to control and regulate all charitable activities in Jordan  Monitors activities of NGOs through extensive statistical analysis and data collection Party Weakness:  Islamic parties in Tunisia, Egypt, and Palestine were historically refused recognition by sitting governments  Islamic parties rebranded and ran again as independents to the detriment of electoral  competition  NGOs expanded greatly and grew in all three regimes  A great deal of electoral fraud in MENA contributes to weakness of party system  Viable candidates are harshly repressed  Opposition parties have limited access to the public due to extensive police  surveillance  Opposition parties are financially fragile and rely on existing governments for funds The Mandate System:  Provided Britain and France with an opportunity to secure their (League of Nations)  strategic interests in the Middle East while paying lip service to the widely publicized  principle of self­discrimination  Differed from prewar imperialism in that the mandatory power was responsible for  preparing its charges for self­ government and was thus bound to terminate its control at  some unspecified time Ottoman Iraq:  The Ottoman Empire governed what is now modern Iraq in three distinct  administrative units  The Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra provinces correspond to ethnic/religious divisions and  make up what is now known as Iraq  Iraqi nationalism has been stifled under the legacy of allegiance to these provincial  identities Divide and Rule:  A key imperial policy of the Western powers throughout the 19  century onwards  Keep ethnic/religious  groups separated  Allow or even foment ethnic rivalries  Classify ethnic groups and extend different rights/privileges to different groups The Wafd Party:  A liberal nationalist party in Egypt with a secular orientation  Offered an avenue for the disaffected in Egypt under British rule to speak out in the  early 20  century  Failed to mobilize young people or offer social services during the Mandate Period  Seen as too accommodating to British presence   Dissolved in 1952, after the Egyptian Revolution and the rise of Colonel Nasser The Muslim Brotherhood: Founded by Hasan al­Banna in 1928 Advocated for a restored form of sharia law, compatible with the needs of a modern  society, to be adopted by Egypt Strong focus on social needs and advocacy of societal reforms Appeal of the group was widespread and cut across class lines NAM & Nasser: NAM­ Non­ Alignment Movement  A group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any  major power block  Represents the interests and priorities of developing countries NASSER­  The most influential Arab leader of the 20  century  Son of a postal worker  Came to power in a military coup in 1952  Sought to create a pan­Arab union based on a mix of nationalism and socialism The Suez Crisis: Britain largely left Egyptian domestic affairs in the postwar years, except for funds  accrued from the Suez Canal  Egypt needed funds for economic development and infrastructure and nationalized the  Suez Canal Egypt was attacked by combined British, French, and Israeli forces The disapproval of the US and USSR forced the attacking nations to back down Nasserism: After his stand during the Suez Crisis, Nasser became incredibly popular in the Arab  World Nasser sought to create a pan­Arab union founded on the ideals of nationalism and  socialism While other Arab leaders admired Nasser, they did not necessarily want to be ruled by  him The Jewish Diaspora: The Jewish population in Palestine scattered after the Roman Empire destroyed the  Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD The Jewish population sought refuge in Eurasia and North Africa Jews experienced considerable distrust and tremendous persecution almost everywhere  they settled The Kibbutz:  A collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture  A society dedicated to mutual aid and social justice  A socioeconomic system based on the principle of joint ownership of property, equality and cooperation of production, consumption and education  The Balfour Declaration: The Zionist Congress met in 1897 and agreed financial assistance from Jews living in  the West and the backing of a Great Power were needed  Intense lobbying and the Ottoman Empire joining the Axis in WWI led Great Britain to  lend its support to a Jewish state The language within the document was extremely vague and left all parties confused The LoN adopted the Balfour Declaration but shocked the Palestinians with the  language used The Law of Return: A law promulgated by the state of Israel in 1950 Allowed those of Jewish ancestry to emigrate back to Israel An outgrowth of the right of return guaranteed by the UN Declaration of Human Rights Since 1970, the law of return was extended to include spouses and grandchildren of  those with Jewish ancestry Since 1950, 2.7 million Jews have claimed the provisions of the law of return Critiques of Area Studies: 3 Critiques- Area studies are too descriptive, does not predict, and relies on anecdotes Area studies are irrelevant in a global world with a breakdown of national barriers Area studies is imperialist and part of a colonial study of domination Critiques of Mideast Area Studies: Mideast studies has failed to be predictive Shifts in the discipline do not reflect realities on the ground The field is dominated by leftists who end up whitewashing ugliness of politics in the region Mideast studies is irrelevant and it does not speak to policy concerns/serve those in power Nomothetic Versus Idiographic: Nonmothetic- Attempts to discern general laws and patterns in human behavior to develop hypotheses Seeks to create if…then statements that are observable and testable Idiographic-  Does not generate predictive statements  Attempts to go into incredible amounts of detail  Relies a great deal on historical understanding as a basis Ethnic Groups- AIPAC: Interest groups that aim to politically advance a particular ethnic group, either in the United States or abroad All successful ethnic lobbies have 3 elements that give them political clout: A. A credible threat of switching allegiances at election time B. A strong and effective organizational structure C. The ability to build a case around American symbols and ideals AIPAC: A. An umbrella organization for pro-Israeli groups which aims to provide elected officials data, personal contacts, and campaign contributions relating to the interests of the Jewish state B. Has a $100 million yearly endowment and a well organized internal structure C. An active force in American politics since the 1980s D. The most imitated of all ethnic lobbies Quantitative Methods:  The investigation of phenomena in the natural or social world using statistics and mathematical models  Tables and graphs are used to display the results of quantitative research Qualitative Methods: The investigation of phenomena in the social sciences focusing on the intricacies of human behavior Qualitative approaches ask why or how certain decisions came about MENA Survey Respondents: Those living in a police state will self-censor their responses The illiterate, rural dwellers, foreign nationals, and women are reluctant to take part in surveys/difficult to gain access to People in less repressive regimes get interviewed over and over again Not everyone in MENA speaks Arabic Survey populations are often MORE guarded on the telephone than in person Political volatility of the region means huge swings in popular attitudes in relatively short periods of time Public Diplomacy: The statements and actions of leaders that are designed to influence foreign public opinion The newest method of diplomacy brought on by technological advances and increasing importance of non-state actors/legislatures/ideas Many American Presidents engage in public diplomacy Four aspects of American public diplomacy: 1. Inform the world accurately and clear about American policy 2. Represent values/beliefs of the American people 3. Explain the various virtues of democracy 4. Convey American support for education Third Wave of Democracy: The considerable growth of democratic governance throughout the world since the 1970s Transitions to democratic governance in Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe after the breakup of the Soviet Union Initiated by the 1974 Carnation Revolution in Portugal Transition Paradigm: Simultaneous movement away from dictatorial rule towards more democratic/liberal forms of governance Assumptions of Transition Paradigm:  Countries moving away from dictatorship are also moving toward democracy  Democratization unfolds in stages: opening, breakthrough, consolidation  Elections equal democracy  Structural factors are not important for transitional states  Transitions are occurring in already functional states Feckless Pluralism:  Significant amount of political freedom  Nearly all political elites are seen as corrupt and self-serving  Political parties seem to want only to impede progress of political rivals Participation in politics rarely extends beyond voting Dominant Power Politics:  One individual, family, or dominant party dominates the entire political system so power does not change hands  The state and the dominant power are fused  Poor social outcomes because of stagnant bureaucracy  Citizens are disillusioned by politics in the state Full Autocracies:  Rely on the provision of jobs and economic benefits to stay in power  Use force and intimidation if provision of economic goods fails to build support in the population  Unwilling to allow societal reforms of any kind  Conservative constitutions Liberalized Autocracies:  Open to some economic and social reforms  Willing to ally with various sectors in society in order to provide services to the population  Weak party systems Civil Society:  All of the ways people associate with each other apart from the state authority  May meet for an explicitly political purpose or for a variety of other reasons  Seeks to empower individuals and protect their interests/rights Social Capital:  The social connections all individuals possess that affect our productivity  Places a high value on social networks  NIMBY Movements  Imagined Communities NIMBY Movements:  Not In My Backyard  To characterize local, grassroots movements that are endeavoring to resist the sitting of some unwanted land use in a particular neighborhood, community, or region. Hierarchies:  Run by a single central authority  Goal oriented and strategic  A high level of individual accountability  Engage in high risk activities with great potential cost to the individual  The ties between individuals are strong and significant Networks:  Not controlled by a single central authority  Decisions are made by consensus  Resilient and adaptable to change  Ties between individuals in a network are loose by definition  Experience difficulty in goal setting and are prone to internal conflict GUVS:  The General Union of Voluntary Societies  Formed to control and regulate all charitable activities in Jordan  Monitors activities of NGOs through extensive statistical analysis and data collection Party Weakness:  Islamic parties in Tunisia, Egypt, and Palestine were historically refused recognition by sitting governments  Islamic parties rebranded and ran again as independents to the detriment of electoral competition  NGOs expanded greatly and grew in all three regimes  A great deal of electoral fraud in MENA contributes to weakness of party system  Viable candidates are harshly repressed  Opposition parties have limited access to the public due to extensive police surveillance  Opposition parties are financially fragile and rely on existing governments for funds The Mandate System:  Provided Britain and France with an opportunity to secure their (League of Nations) strategic interests in the Middle East while paying lip service to the widely publicized principle of self-discrimination  Differed from prewar imperialism in that the mandatory power was responsible for preparing its charges for self- government and was thus bound to terminate its control at some unspecified time Ottoman Iraq:  The Ottoman Empire governed what is now modern Iraq in three distinct administrative units  The Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra provinces correspond to ethnic/religious divisions and make up what is now known as Iraq  Iraqi nationalism has been stifled under the legacy of allegiance to these provincial identities Divide and Rule:  A key imperial policy of the Western powers throughout the 19 century onwards  Keep ethnic/religious groups separated  Allow or even foment ethnic rivalries  Classify ethnic groups and extend different rights/privileges to different groups The Wafd Party:  A liberal nationalist party in Egypt with a secular orientation  Offerethan avenue for the disaffected in Egypt under British rule to speak out in the early 20 century  Failed to mobilize young people or offer social services during the Mandate Period  Seen as too accommodating to British presence  Dissolved in 1952, after the Egyptian Revolution and the rise of Colonel Nasser The Muslim Brotherhood: Founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928 Advocated for a restored form of sharia law, compatible with the needs of a modern society, to be adopted by Egypt Strong focus on social needs and advocacy of societal reforms Appeal of the group was widespread and cut across class lines NAM & Nasser: NAM- Non- Alignment Movement  A group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power block  Represents the interests and priorities of developing countries NASSER-  The most influential Arab leader of the 20 century  Son of a postal worker  Came to power in a military coup in 1952  Sought to create a pan-Arab union based on a mix of nationalism and socialism The Suez Crisis: Britain largely left Egyptian domestic affairs in the postwar years, except for funds accrued from the Suez Canal Egypt needed funds for economic development and infrastructure and nationalized the Suez Canal Egypt was attacked by combined British, French, and Israeli forces The disapproval of the US and USSR forced the attacking nations to back down Nasserism: After his stand during the Suez Crisis, Nasser became incredibly popular in the Arab World Nasser sought to create a pan-Arab union founded on the ideals of nationalism and socialism While other Arab leaders admired Nasser, they did not necessarily want to be ruled by him The Jewish Diaspora: The Jewish population in Palestine scattered after the Roman Empire destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD The Jewish population sought refuge in Eurasia and North Africa Jews experienced considerable distrust and tremendous persecution almost everywhere they settled The Kibbutz:  A collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture  A society dedicated to mutual aid and social justice  A socioeconomic system based on the principle of joint ownership of property, equality and cooperation of production, consumption and education The Balfour Declaration: The Zionist Congress met in 1897 and agreed financial assistance from Jews living in the West and the backing of a Great Power were needed Intense lobbying and the Ottoman Empire joining the Axis in WWI led Great Britain to lend its support to a Jewish state The language within the document was extremely vague and left all parties confused The LoN adopted the Balfour Declaration but shocked the Palestinians with the language used The Law of Return: A law promulgated by the state of Israel in 1950 Allowed those of Jewish ancestry to emigrate back to Israel An outgrowth of the right of return guaranteed by the UN Declaration of Human Rights Since 1970, the law of return was extended to include spouses and grandchildren of those with Jewish ancestry Since 1950, 2.7 million Jews have claimed the provisions of the law of return  


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