Special Education Midterm Study Guide
Special Education Midterm Study Guide EDX 3213
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaela Brewington on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDX 3213 at Mississippi State University taught by KELLIE FONDREN in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION OF THE EXCEPTIONAL CHILD in Special Education at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 1 • Disability categories 1. Specific leaning disabilities (43%) 2. Speech or language disabilities (19%) 3. Intellectual disabilities (8%) 4. Emotional or behavioral disorders (7%) 5. Other health impairments (11%) 6. Other disabilities combined (12%) • Labeling • Pros: 1. Access to services 2. Educators can access appropriate resources 3. Create cultural solidarity (deaf culture) 4. Child’s strengths through people first language • Cons: 1. Discrimination 2. Stigmatization 3. Can lead educators to make biased decision 4. Disability before kid • Two Types of Discrimination 1. Exclusion 2. Misclassification • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - IDEA • Purpose • The purpose of IDEA is to ensure that all students with disabilities have a free appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting. • Principles 1. Zero reject: prohibits schools from excluding any student with a disability from a free appropriate public education. 2. Nondiscriminatory evaluation: the effect of the zero- reject rule is to guarantee all students with a disability access to an appropriate education. 3. Free appropriate education: the key to an appropriate education is “individualization.” 4. Least restrictive environment: education alongside students without disability. 5. Procedural due process: to make school sand parents accountable to each other for carrying out the students IDEA rights. 6. Parental and student participation • Part a 1. (Who, what, where) 2. Provides the overview of the law • Part b 1. Delineates categories of eligibility and rights to services fro students • Brown vs. Board of Education • Desegregation case (1954) argued that because the court held that schools may not segregate by race, and that schools also may not segregate or otherwise discriminate by ability and disability. • IEP • Individualized education for students of 3 years to 21. • Least restrictive environment • Natural environment is favored for early intervention (ages 0-2) • General education classroom is favored for all other education (3-21) • 3 Dimensions of General Education 1. Academic curriculum 2. Extracurricular activities 3. Other nonacademic activities • Tech Act • The technology-related assistance to individuals with disabilities act of 1988. • Grants federal funds to the states so that they can help create statewide systems for delivering assistive technology devices and services to people with disabilities. • Expectations • Authorize services for students • Prohibit students form discrimination based on disability • Elementary and Secondary Act • Authorizes services for all children, including those with disabilities. • ESEA seeks to improve educational outcomes for all students • Amended to No Child Left Behind in 2001 • No Child Left Behind • Amended version of ESEA in 2001 by congress Chapter 2 • Standards based reform • This process identifies the academic content that students must master (reading, math, science, etc.) the standards for student’s achievement of content proficiency. • Academic Content Standards • Define the skills, knowledge and understanding that students should attain in academic subjects. • Alternate achievement standards • This is for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities; but even so, those alternative standards must align with the same academic content standards for all curriculums. • Accommodations • Changes HOW a students learns a new material (extended time, large font, read-aloud, etc.) • Modifications • Changes WHAT a student is taught or expected to learn • Supplementary aids and services • Aids, services and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings to enable children with disabilities to learn. • Universal Design for Learning • Refers to the design of buildings, environments, and products with features that ensure that all people can access the building or environment or use of the product. • Tailors instruction to the needs of each student • Least restrictive environment • Where a student with a disability can get the most of his/her education with the greatest amount of independence. • Benefits of inclusion • Social and communication benefits • Make more friends • Increased self-confidence • Response to intervention • To determine whether any student, regardless of disability, needs more intensive instruction. • Progress in the general curriculum • IEP is required to state what child will be involved and progress. • ESEA requires state to establish challenging courses. • General education refers to the same education taught to nondisabled students as well as disabled ones. • Supplementary aids and services • Allow children with disabled children to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate. • The inclusion debate Chapter 3 • Culture • Refers to the customary beliefs, social forms and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group. • Micro culture • Groups from each area within these larger places have distinct traditions and cultures; micro being the smaller group within the macro or bigger group known. • Cultural responsiveness • Examining your own culture values, becoming more aware of our stereotypes, biases and prejudices. 1. Use the adapted posture of culturally reciprocity 2. Incorporate five components for delivering culturally responsive instruction 3. Capitalize upon instructional consultation teams 4. Implement response to intervention • Theories regarding culture • Genetic deficit theories: held that white people were genetically superior to nonwhite people. • Cultural deficit theories: blames the academic failure of students from diverse backgrounds on the inherent disadvantages that exist within the student’s culture. • Cultural reproductive theory: hold that inequality is created and reproduced continually through individual and organizational decisions that create privilege for some groups at the expense of curtailing privilege of others. • Case law regarding culture, diversity, or equal access • Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) • Diana vs. state board of education (1970) • Larry P vs. Riles (1972, 1974, 1979, 1984) • Discrimination • IDEA’s nondiscriminatory evaluation principle was a lawsuit brought by advocates for students with disabilities against the state of California. 1. Exclusion 2. Misclassification • Evaluation/assessment • Standardized testing • IDEA introduces way of testing that is nondiscriminatory • Self-awareness • Examining your own culture values, becoming more aware of our stereotypes, biases and prejudices. Chapter 4 • Demographics • Statistical comparison of populations • Quality of life • Refers to the extent to which: 1. The families needs are met 2. Family members enjoy their life together 3. Family members have a chance to do things that are important to them. • Domains 1. Emotional well being 2. Parenting 3. Family interaction 4. Physical/ material well being 5. Disability related support • School-family partnership 1. Listening 2. Being friendly 3. Being clear 4. Being honest 5. Providing and coordinating information • Effective communication strategies 1. Communication 2. Professional competence 3. Respect 4. Commitment 5. Equality 6. Advocacy 7. Trust • Professional competence • Providing quality education • Continuing to learn • Setting high expectations • Trust • Being reliable • Using sound judgment • Maintaining confidentiality • Trusting yourself • Advocacy • Seeking win-win solutions • Preventing problems • Keeping your conscience primed • Pinpointing and documenting problems • Forming alliances • Respect • Honoring cultural diversity • Affirming strengths • Treating students and families with dignity • Commitment • Being available and accessible • Going above and beyond • Being sensitive to emotional needs • Types of listening • Listening with empathy: listening with your ears and most importantly your eyes and heart. • Family resources • Parent training and information centers • Community parent resource center • Parent to parent programs • Family to family health information centers • Circle of friends • Involves educators and/or parents inviting peers to form a support network for a student with a disability so that student will have friends. Chapter 5 • Learning disabilities • Disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written. • Prevalence • Language disabilities continue to be one of the most prevalent of all disabilities. • Strengths • Perseverance • Empathy • Courage • Assertiveness • Weaknesses • Imperfect ability to listen • Think • Speak • Read • Write • Spell • Mathematical calculations • Memory • Characteristics • No such thing as a typical student • Average or above average intelligence • Low academic achievement • Challenges in how they learn and process new information • Areas affected • Reading • Mathematics • Memory • Emotional and social • Strategies for participating in general curriculum • Embedded learning opportunities (key skills embedded in other routines) • Differentiated instruction (differentiation of content and instructional strategies) • Learning strategies instruction “learning to learn” • Typical accommodations & modifications • Extended time • Oral presentation • Computer administration • Calculator use • Typical LRE • General education classroom • Executive functioning • Impulse control • Emotional control • Flexible thinking • Working memory • Self-monitoring • Planning and prioritizing • Task initiation • Organization • Metacognition • Awareness and understanding of one owns thought process • RTI • Proponents of the RTI approach to identification emphasize the importance of screening and monitoring all students from the earliest elementary years and then providing evidence-based instruction. • Tier one-universal • Tier two-deliberate intervention • Tier three-intense interventions • Curriculum mapping • Descriptions of the content to be taught during the year • The process and skills emphasized • The student assessments used • Identifying gaps or repetitions in curriculum • Curriculum-based measurement • Is a useful method of tracking a student’s progress in reading, writing, spelling, and math and is frequently used in the context of a response to intervention approach. • Chart students progress • Brief times samples or probes of academic material directly from curriculum • Probes given under standardized conditions • Scored on speed or fluency or accuracy • Can be given repeatedly since and easy to score • Advance organizers • Graphic organizers • Lesson organizers • Chapter survey routines • Unit organizers • Course organizers • Differentiated instruction • Teaching strategies to learn, altering some student’s tasks, and modifying how to perform those tasks. • Provide visual or graphic organizer • Incorporate models, demonstrations, or role play • Using teacher presentation cues to emphasize key points • Scaffolding key concepts • Involving students by implementing every pupil response techniques or incorporating manipulative for students to use • Assessment • Students with learning disabilities may need a wide array of accommodations to be able to perform at their highest level on standardized tests. • Inclusionary/exclusionary standards • Inclusionary: identifies what conditions are included. • Exclusionary: identifies what conditions are excluded. • Discrepancy model 1. Aptitude-achievement: discrepancy between an ability and a related area of achievement 2. Intracognitive: the discrepancy between different abilities 3. Intra-achievement: the discrepancy between different areas of academic achievement • A nondiscriminatory evaluation commonly establishes a discrepancy between the students intellectual ability as measured by an IQ test and the student’s achievement as measured by standardized testing. • Intelligence test: bell curve, WISC-IV • Achievement test: WIAT-II Chapter 6 • Communication Disorders •Relate to components of the process affected: speech, language, or both. • Prevalence • Congenital disorder: occur at birth or before • Acquired disorder: occurs well after birth • Strengths • Specific to child • Weaknesses • Specific to child • Characteristics • Speech: oral expression of language • Language: structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating • Phonology: (phonemes) sound system • Morphology: (morphemes) word forms • Syntax: word order and sentence structure • Semantics: word and sentence meaning • Pragmatics: use of communication contexts • Social interaction theories: communication skills through social interactions • Areas affected • Speech • Language • Phonology • Morphology • Syntax • Semantics • Pragmatics • Strategies for participating in general curriculum • Use audio and text formats • Visual representation with verbal information • Graphics, graphic organizers, and controlled vocabulary • Typical accommodations & modifications • No accommodations • Additional time • Access to word processor/ computer software • Typical LRE • General education classroom • Receptive & expressive communication • Receptive: is characterized by difficulty receiving or understanding information. • Expressive: characterized by difficulty formulating ideas and information. • Language disorders • Phonology: discriminate between differences in speech sounds or sound segments • Morphology: using the structure of words to get or give information • Syntax: word order, such as ordering words in a manner that does not convey meaning to the listeners • Semantics: using words singly or together in sentences may have semantic disorders • Pragmatics: the social use of language • Speech disorders • Articulation o Substitutions o Omission o Additions o Distortions • Apraxia of speech o Motor speech disorder affecting the planning of speech • Voice disorders o Pitch, duration, intensity, resonance o Hypo-nasality o Hyper-nasality • Dialect • Language variation that a group of individual’s uses and that reflects shared regional, social or cultural/ ethnic factors. • Accent • Accents and dialects are not communication disabilities, rather just differences. • Mode of pronunciation of a language • Typical Speech/language development • The development of communication is quite uneventful, and follows a typical, predictable, timetable pattern. • Assistive technology • Includes any piece of equipment, commercial or hand- made, that assists an individual to perform various functions, such as communication. • Assessment • Speech assessment: o Articulation o Voice o Fluency • Language assessment: o Conventional (speech, eye contact, facial expressions) o Nonconventional (nonverbal vocalizations, gestures) o Includes eye contact and gaze o Includes facial expressions o Includes social and functional interactions • School records • Parent teacher interviews • Hearing and vision screening • Observations • Speech samples • Language samples • Classwork samples • Checklist • Formal tests • Screening • Assessed by educators, early intervention specialists, and speech language pathologists Chapter 7 ◦ Emotional and Behavioral Disorders • A condition that is accompanied by one or more of the following characteristic over a long time and to a marked degree and that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. • Inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. • In ability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships • Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances • General, pervasive mood of unhappiness • Tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems • Prevalence • About 5.8% of all students ages 3-21 in special education • Gender, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors influence prevalence o White males more than white females o Females higher in adolescence o Black males overrepresented • Strengths • Specific to student • Teacher should look and find strengths and seek out to build on them • Weaknesses • Specific to student • Characteristics • Emotional characteristic of EBD o Separation anxiety o Phobia o Panic disorder o Post-traumatic stress disorder • Behavioral characteristics of EBD o Externalizing behaviors o Aggression o Acting out o Bullying o Internalizing behavior o Depression o Anxiety o Obsession o Compulsions • Cognitive and academic characteristics of EBD o Below grade level reading, math and writing o Rated low on self-control social skills measures o Higher rates of being held back o Expressive/ receptive disorders o Dropout rate 52% compared to 31% for students without disability • Areas affected • Emotional • Cognitive and academic • Behavior • Strategies for participating in general curriculum • Wraparound services: • School, community, mental health and other services are wrapped around the student instead of compartmentalized. • Voice and choice • Team based • Natural supports • Collaboration • Community-based • Culturally competent • Individualized • Strength-based • Persistence • Outcomes-based • Typical accommodations & modifications • Extended time for testing • Individual test administration • Breaks during testing • Typical LRE • Gen. Ed. (39%) • 19% in separate setting • 19% in gen. ed. Class for 40-79% of their time • 23% of students in regular class 0-39% of their time • Assessment • Frequently assess students mastery of content determining whether to move on to the next concept • Ask questions • Think-pair-share • Social skills • Socio-metric ratings for ranking ◦ Internalizing behaviors • Includes withdrawal, depression, anxiety, obsessions, and compulsions - display sadness and depression ◦ Externalizing behaviors • Persistently aggressive or acting out and noncompliant behaviors ◦ Anxiety disorders • Separation anxiety • Generalized anxiety disorder • Phobia • Panic disorder • Obsessive-compulsive disorder • Post-traumatic stress disorder ◦ Phobias • Unrealistic • Overwhelming fear of an object or situation ◦ Panic disorders • Overwhelming panic attacks resulting in rapid heartbeats, dizziness, and other physical symptoms ◦ Mood disorders • Depression • Suicide • Bipolar disorder ◦ Obsessive-compulsive disorders • Obsessions manifesting as repetitive, persistent and intrusive impulses, images or thoughts about death. ◦ Opposition defiant disorder • Pattern of negativistic, hostile, disobedient, and defiant behaviors ◦ Bullying • A form of externalizing behavior ◦ Schizophrenia • Highly unusual delusions • Hallucinations • Disorganized expressive language • Loss of contact with reality • Auditory hallucinations ◦ Student engagement • Student involvement in curricular and extracurricular activities and feelings of belonging within the school. ◦ Impact of learning Chapter 8 ◦ ADHD is in which IDEA category • IDEA includes ADHD in a subcategory of “other health impairments” ◦ Who defines it • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ◦ Prevalence • More than 2/3 of the students in OHI (Other Health Impairment) • DSM-V criteria: • Must occur before age 12 • Symptoms must persist for at least 6 months • Symptoms must be present in at least two settings • Must not be attributable to another disability ◦ Types of ADHD • Predominantly inattentive type: trouble paying attention • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type: cannot seem to sit still • Combined type: feature of both ◦ Causes • Heredity • Brain differences • Environmental changes (prenatal) ◦ 504 plan • Student’s ADHD does not adversely affect educational performances • ADHD is still present • Accommodations are still required ◦ Nondiscriminatory testing 1. ADHD symptoms as outlined in DSM-V 2. Alternative conditions and factors that could cause the same symptoms 3. Co-existing conditions 4. Considerations related to medical, social, emotional, behavioral, and/ or learning ◦ Goal setting • Process that allows you to compare goals and quantify student goal attainment. ◦ Self-monitoring • Students learn to collect on their own towards progress toward an educational goal. ◦ Multimodal learning • Involve multiple interventions or treatments across mode or types of therapies. ◦ Curriculum based assessment • The student may be experiencing difficulty in one or more areas of the curriculum used by local school district because the behaviors have caused the student to miss important skills. ◦ Video self-monitoring • Select a recording technology • Create a self-modeling image • Have students view the video image and imitate or repeat the desired behavior • Record a students progress • Use the video for occasional booster sessions ◦ T-chart • Is laid out in the form of a capital letter T, the chart allows teachers to track two aspects of a behavior. ◦ Errorless learning • Instructional strategy that minimizes the mistake students make when learning a new task.
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