LING 1010 Exam 1 Study Guide
LING 1010 Exam 1 Study Guide LING 1010
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Skinger on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LING 1010 at University of Connecticut taught by Hendrikus Van Der Hulst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 700 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Languages and Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Study Guide: Exam 1 Mind Mind= Behavior because our behavior is a byproduct from the decisions our mind makes. o Behavior is a way to observe the mind. o language is a form of behavior Is MODULAR made up of different components all doing separate things o A module one part of a complicated system which has a particular function. ex: a battery in an electric toothbrush o Some of our modules are: desire to communicate, desire for “tasty” food, fears, visual system, etc Nature What we are BORN WITH. o Ex: Instincts. Genes. Nature = Innate = Born with Learning Mechanisms are Innate Nurture Comes from EXPERIENCE from the environment around us. o Ex: How many languages we speak, What foods we eat, How often we exercise. Noam Chomsky Believes that language is primarily but not entirely INNATE (mostly nature, little nurture) Innate, specific learning mechanisms are used to help us learn some things, like language Semiotics The study of sign systems o Sign Anything that has both Form and Meaning Form Can be perceived (heard, seen, felt) Meaning What the form stands for Syntax The rules used for combining simple signs. Can only be done by humans Plato Believed that we are born with innate knowledge. Everyone is born with an innate universal grammar module, but when you are exposed to a language, it turns into a Mental Grammar for that language. Rationalism: We are born with knowledge knowledge is innate (nature) Believed in by: o Plato o Noam Chomsky o Rene Descares o Gottfried Wilhelm Leibiniz o Benedict de Spinoza o Immanual Kant o William James o Steven Pinker Empiricism: We are not born with knowledge knowledge comes from ecperience (nurture) Believed in by: o Aristotle o John Locke o George Berkeley o David Hume o Geoffrey Sampson MindBody Dualism: This was highlighted by Rene Descartes, who said that we are a combination of mind and body Monism Idealism The belief that only the mind exists, and that everything around us is a figment of our imagination (extreme view). Materialism Only our body exists, our mind does not. o Physicalism The brain is an electrical and chemical factory, and our brain activities are our mind. The mind is what our brain does. o Behaviorism The only thing we can study and observe is the behavior of humans and other animals. The mind can’t be seen or measured so we have to study behavior. Believed in by: J.B. Watson and B.F. Skinner (trained pigeons to respond to a certain stimulus) Noam Chomsky disagreed Two Approaches to Cognitive Science: Serialism Models are stepwise. You go through different steps in order to form a sentence. believed in by Chomsky Parallelism Processing in the brain isn’t a one way street, but is parallel multiple things go on at once. Modularity Phrenology Early modularity. Believed that there were different spots on the brain that corresponded to different things, such as being good with money or having a strong connection with your parents. They believed that people’s modules were at different levels, and If you had a very developed module, that it would enlarge into a bump on your head. Wasn’t real! Criteria for Modules according to Fodor: o DomainSpecific, Automatic, Informational Encapsulation, Shallow, Quick, Subconscious, Innate, Separate, Localized, Adaptive Evolutionary Psychology Argues that the mind is modular, like a swiss army knife. The mind is a collection of many different modules, each which can solve a particular problem (ex: turning sounds we hear into meaningful words). This is similar to a swiss army knife, which has a number of different tools attached to it, each which helps the user perform a given task. Phonetics Studies how sounds are produced (through our anatomy), how we articulate sounds, what they sound like and how we perceive them. A word is made up of three dimensions: Form Phonology The study of phonemes and the way that they combine to create words. o Words are built out of a series of phonemes (don’t have meaning on their own) and are organized into units (symbols). Words are an output of units, comparable to a sequence of notes. Category Label Syntax The study of word class labels and the way that words are combined to create sentences. o Words must have a label (noun, verb, etc) it is a directive for how it is used in a sentence. Meaning Semantics The study of concepts and they way that they combine to create a meaning. o The mental concept you have. The meaning of a word. For example, the meaning of the word “cat”. Phonemes The building blocks of words, informally called “speech sounds”. They are used to pronounce a word, and allow us to recognize a word that someone else pronounces. We know the word by knowing the building blocks of the word. o Every language has it’s own set of phonemes o One phoneme is not always pronounced the same way The smallest sound bits of language Do not have meaning on their own The mental counterpart of speech sounds. The smallest units. Written between slanted lines /p/ Allophones A phoneme can be pronounced in different ways. Each way of pronouncing it is an allophone For example, the phoneme /t/ has three different allophones (pronunciations) o At the beginning of a word ex: tree o At the end of a word ex: cat o When in between vowels ex: water Allophonic alternations are caused by allophonic rules this is why phonemes are pronounced different ways. Phonology The study of how sounds function in a language system. How different sounds are used to distinguish words from each other. How sounds are represented in the mind. Spells out the allophones of phonemes Each language has it’s own phonetic constraints (what looks and sounds good) o Ex: In English, no word can start with the combination “rd”. /rdop/ is not okay, but /drop/ is. We block the phoneme combinations that aren’t allowed. Constraint Morphemes Simple Words are formed from just one morpheme the smallest meaningful part that you can find in a word. It cannot be divided into smaller parts that still have meaning. The smallest meaningful parts of language. Complex Words are formed from two or more morphemes (two or more meaningful parts) o unfair, unreadable, etc Free Morphemes Can occur by themselves. Cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. Ex: Mother, child, burrito, pencil Bound Morphemes Are bound to other morphemes to create words. Also called Affix (for prefix, suffix). Ex: re, un, hood Morphemes are stored in the Lexicon, and are not innate. Roots A type of morpheme that can’t occur by itself, but it can have different things attached to it. Ex: anarchist Different languages have other patterns for creating words. Ex: In Indonesian anak = boy and anakanak = boys. This is called reduplication. Infixation A rule allowing you to put affixes in the middle of words. Ex: Fucking fantastic → fanfuckingtastic Morphology Morphemes are the basic building blocks of words Words are created by combining words and affixes o Word Label: X (free morpheme. Is a word. ex: dog) 1 o Affix Label: X (bound morpheme. Attaches to a word, isn’t a full word on its own) o (X= N(oun), A(djective), V(erb), etc) Whatever morpheme is on the right of the tree diagram is what part of speech the whole word is. Morphological Constraints (Projection and Insertion) govern how words are formed Mental Grammar Is one module in our mind. Allows us to speak our language, tells us how our language sounds and how to properly form sentences. Contains morphemes and rules used to form complex words and sentences. Constructs Builds structures (words and sentences) Inspects Checks that all words and sentences are formed correctly MERGE is the structure building mechanism of grammar. It combines other words or sentences Each structure needs to be checked by the mental grammar o The form phonology o The category morphosyntax o The meaning semantics Both words AND sentences have to be checked in all three dimensions: o Phonotactic Phoneme structure o Semantics Conceptual structure o MorphoSyntax Syntax structure MERGE Part of our mental grammar, used to combine morphemes into words and words into sentences Each node can only have one mother node. No node can have two (or more) mother nodes. E mother nodes G ╱╲ ╱╲ D ╲ Intermediate nodes E F ╱╲ ╲ ╱╲ ╱╲ A B C daughter nodes A B C D Six Submodules of the Mental Grammar Phonology o For Words: Word Phonology o For Sentences:Sentence Phonology Semantics: o For Words: Lexical Semantics o For Sentences: Sentence Semantics MorphoSyntax: o For Words: Morphology Word Syntax o For Sentences Syntax Sentence Syntax A submodule Contains: o Basic Units. Phonology: Phonemes. Semantics: Words. Morphology: Morphemes. o Rules for formation (to ensure everything is well formed) o Repair Rules Repair Rule Sometimes, an error occurs when we are combining morphemes. o Morpheme: /in/ Meaning: NOT o Morpheme: /possible/ Meaning: POSSIBLE o Combined: inpossible But inpossible is not a word. Repair Rule replace one phoneme with another similar phoneme o Replace /n/ with /m/ o iNpossible → iMpossible Ease of Articulation (Lazy Bastard Principle) / Assimilation We replace one phoneme with another Allomonic rule creates variations of phonemes Allomorphic Rule Adaptations replace 1 phoneme with another phoneme. They are called allomones in and im o Prefix /in/ has several allomorphs: in edible, im possible, in credible, il legal ir rational Understand that: Phonetic constraints govern how words are formed and ensure well formedness. Morphology might create words that are illformed Phonology provides repair rules which fix the problem by changing one phoneme into another phoneme also called allomorphy rules Phonology is created from Constraints (phonotactics) + Repairs (phonemic rules: allomorphs) Phonemes spell out allophones Morphology builds complex words Syntax builds sentences by combinging words Each product is checked for welformedness in three ways: o The form phonotactic structure o The meaning Semantic structure o The labeling Syntactic structure If a word is illformed in one of these dimensions, it might be repaired Projection A constraint of Morphology A complex word is made up of multiple morphemes. The suffix of the word projects the label of the whole word. A complex word’s label (noun, adjective etc) comes from one of its daughters. O O A X = A free morpheme. A whole word that can be ╱╲ used in a sentence. Also called the base. V A X = The suffix. Also called the HEAD because it is the read able most important, since it determines the label of the combined word The daughter node that gives its category to the mother node is called the head. The head is always found on the right side of a tree diagram (in English, but not other languages). Insertion The second constraint for Morphology Says that each affix is inserted into a particular position of a word. o For instance, the affix able must be inserted to the right of a verb. In this case, the verb is referred to as the “base”. The insertion frame to represent this would be [V ]. The orientation of the head (being on the left or right of a tree diagram, in this case the right) sets languages apart from each other. This rule is built into the mental grammar. Affixes can be category makers or category takers. If either constraint isn’t followed when forming a word, then morphology rejects these words and they don’t get repaired Lexicon Contains every unit that has meaning. Does not contain properties that can be deduced from general rules. Ex: It has leave but not leaves, because we have a rule that says to make something plural, you add an ‘s’ to the end of the word. Contains complex words that don’t follow the general rules. Exceptions to rules must be memorized and are stored in our lexicon. o Ex: Deep + th → depth , wide + th → width Idioms (common phrases) are stored in the lexicon o Ex: ‘kick the bucket’ = to die Adding New Words to our Lexicon We can use our rules of morphology to combine more morphemes in new ways. New words are created by combining morphemes. Open Classes Nouns and Verbs. We have rules from our morphology which govern the way these are created. Because of this, we can use those rules to create new nouns and verbs. Closed Classes Everything that is not a noun or a verb (prepositions, conjunctions, articles, etc). Are not modified by time. new ones aren’t created. New words can be created by: o Derivation Combining words and affixes. ex: read + able o Compounding Combining words ex: arm + chair O O 1 X > Y +X The arrow means “can consist of” Recursion Creating a language is recursive If a structure contains itself, then it is recursive. Ex: Bed + Room + Rug + Factory N → N N , V → N V , N → V N You can recognize recursion if the label of the whole thing contains itself
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