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UCONN - PNB 3260 - Study Guide

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UCONN - PNB 3260 - Study Guide

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Stem Cell Biology
Professor: Conover
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: stem cell
Name: Stem Cell Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: 62 questions covering important concepts and terms along with helpful tables and explanations.
Uploaded: 02/19/2016
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background image PNB 3260 Stem Cell Biology Exam 1 Study Guide  Questions  1.  What are the 2 requirements for a stem cell to be considered pluripotent?  
2.  What are the main differences between adult/somatic stem cells and embryonic stem 
cells(ESCs) 3.  When is a cell considered totipotent 4.  What are iPSCs? How are they generated? What are they meant to resemble? 
5.  What are 2 types of adult/somatic stem cells being considered for research/therapeutic 
potentials?  6.  What is the zona pellucida? What is its function/role?  7.  True/False: Spatial organization in the blastula influences a cell's future function. 
8.  What are the three germ layers and what does each give rise to? 
9.  What is the difference between the trophoblast and the embryoblast 10. Give five examples of where pluripotent stem cells can be found. 
11. What are three methods of experimentally acquiring pluripotency? 
12. What are the functional criteria for pluripotent stem cells? 
13. List the stages and corresponding transcriptional factors associated with development from the  morula to the post-implantation egg cylinder.  14. Explain the process of gene targeting in chimera formation 15. What is tetraploid complementation
16. What was Gurdon's discovery? 
17. What was Yamanka's discovery?  18. Who was Hans Spermann and what discovery did he make?  19. Describe the original protocol of nuclear transfer. 
20. Describe the "resistance" found in differentiated cells. 
21. What is the importance of the cell cycle and what stage does the donor cell and oocyte need to be  in for a successful reprogramming?  22. What is one of the major limitations of SCNT? 
23. What are two ways to distinguish iPS cells? 
24. Define an embryonic stem cell line.  25. What is "gastrulation"?  26. What cell types are in the central nervous system? 
27. Name 2 locations of adult neuronal stem cells in rats. 
28. What is the neural plate 29. Define neurulation 30. Describe the process of neural differentiation starting at the ESC. 
31. What are the 2 classes of cortical neurons
32. In what order are the layer specific neurons generated from the human embryonic stem cells? 
33. What is an organoid 34. What are the requirements for a stem cell to be useful in cell therapy?  35. What is the function of Doublecortin (Dcx)
36. How can you test the functionality of transplanted neuronal donor cells? 
37. Define epigenetics 38. What variations can be found between iPS cells and ES cells?  39. What might cause a donor cell to retain it's differentiated characteristics? 
40. List four possible outcomes of the iPSC model: 
41. What are the "master regulators"? Are they sufficient in guaranteeing pluripotency?  42. How is the state of a cell defined?  43. What is the fundamental unit of chromatin? 
44. Name two different chromatin structure variations and list their similarities/differences. 
background image 45. Where is a common site of DNA methylation 46. What are passive and active demethylation 47. What is the function of post-translational histone modifications
48. Is cellular differentiation more associated with gene activation or gene repression? 
49. What molecules are associated with modifying DNA 50. What molecules are associated with unmodifying DNA 51. What are chromatin remodelers
52. Name one possible outcome of a mutation of a chromatin remodeler and it's effects. 
53. What is the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins?  54. What happens if the PcG is not present?  55. What are the activating and repressive roles of Oct4, Klf4 and Sox2? 
56. What is the function of cMyc
57. What are 3 additional factors affecting the genome?  58. What are the 3 ways to validate iPS cells?  59. What is valproic acid (VPA)
60. What models explain low efficacy of iPSCs? 
61. Describe the waves of molecular events underlie cellular reprogramming 62. What is "direct conversion"?     
background image Answers  1.  (1) ability to self-renew: division to make copies of themselves and     (2) ability to differentiate: able to give rise to mature cell types. Can make the entire embryo i.e.  cells from all 3 germ layers  2.  Adult/somatic stem cells are multipotent: can generate MANY (but not all) organ-specific cell  types - usually only one germ layer. They are already partially specialized - can produce some or  all of the mature cell types found in their respective tissue/organ    ESCs are pluripotent: able to generate ANY cell types in the body. can make the entire embryo i.e.  cells from all 3 germ layers. Experimentally they are obtained during the blastocyst stage of development  from an oocyte created by in vitro fertilization  3.  A cell is totipotent for a few days after fertilization of the oocyte by a sperm (prior to blastocyst  formation). After this time period the cell becomes pluripotent. A totipotent cell has the ability to  form ANY and ALL cells in an organism (fertilization to birth to death). Can make the entire  organism - reserved for fertilized egg (zygote) or a cell from up to the 8 cell stage.  4.  iPSCs are induced pluripotent stem cells. They are generated by exposing adult/somatic  (differentiated) cells to transcription factors that are important in ESCs (Yamanaka factors: Oct4,  Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4). They are meant to resemble ESCs as much as possible.  5.  (1) Blood stem cells: transferred via bone marrow transplants (umbilical cord blood may be  viable alternative)    (2) Mesenchymal stem cells: ubiquitous cell in body that can become bone, cartilage, fat and  possibly muscle  6.  The zona pellucida is an extracellular matrix material that surrounds an oocyte and is activated  by sperm penetrating the oocyte. Functions: 1-restricts additional sperm from penetrating an  already fertilized oocyte 2- maintains distinct formation of dividing cells 3-Prevents ectopic 
pregnancy by containing the cells until they reach the uterus at which point 'hatching' occurs 
(embryo breaks out of zona pellucida and implants in uterine wall).  7.  TRUE: Spatial organization in the blastula influences a cell's future function.  8.  The 3 germ layers and structures they give rise to:   a.  Ectoderm - epidermis and nervous system  i.  Outer surface: skin cells of epidermis   ii.  Central nervous system (CNS): neurons  iii.  Neural crest: pigment cell (melanocyte)   a.  Mesoderm - muscle, connective tissue, blood, bone, kidney, heart  i.  Dorsal: notochord  ii.  Paraxial: skeletal muscle cells  iii.  Intermediate: tubule cell of the kidney  iv.  Lateral: red blood cells  v.  Head: facial muscle  b.  Endoderm - epithelium of gut and respiratory system (lungs), relies on mesoderm  i.  Digestive tube: pancreatic cell  ii.  Pharynx: thyroid cell  iii.  Respiratory tube: lung cell (alveolar cell)  Note: each layer influences the other layers  **Remember order: Zygote-->blastula-->gastrula(inserts into uterine wall)-->3 germ layers AND both  germ cell types  9.  The trophoblast and the embryoblast are the first two derivations from the blastocyst. The  trophoblast is the outermost cell layer that will become the placenta and umbilical cord. The  embryoblast (also known as the inner cell mass -ICM) is the inner portion that gives rise to both  embryonic tissues (epiblast) and extraembryonic tissues (hypoblast). 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Stem Cell Biology
Professor: Conover
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: stem cell
Name: Stem Cell Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: 62 questions covering important concepts and terms along with helpful tables and explanations.
Uploaded: 02/19/2016
8 Pages 34 Views 27 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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