Soc 100, exam 2 study guide
Soc 100, exam 2 study guide SOC 100
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 100 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Black in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Intro to Sociology Exam 2 study guide This study guide is based off of what Dr. Black gave us in class with all of the questions answered. 1. Optional readings from EBook: chapter 3 (culture) and chapter 11 (race) 2. Reading material, handouts, and videos: “In the Valley of the Shadow of Death: Guyana After the Jonestown Massacre” (article) A journalist wrote this article after going to Guyana shortly after the massacre at Jonestown. He describes the horror of what happened there and talks about some of the survivors that he came into contact with while there. “Drinking the Kool-Aid: A Survivor Remembers Jim Jones” (article) Teri Buford O’Shea fled Jonestown three weeks before all of the members committed suicide. In this article, she talks about her time there. She joined the People’s Temple when she was 19 years old, and stayed with them for 7 years. She moved with them from California to Guyana. She remembers Jim Jones as being charismatic and reaching out to people who were vulnerable. O’Shea decided to leave because she knew the situation was bad. People were being beaten, and they had suicide practices. She defines a cult as when you aren’t allowed to see your friends or family. She wants Americans to trust their guts and not give up their liberties. “A Polygamist Cult’s Last Stand: The Rise and Fall of Warren Jeffs” (video/article) Warren Jeffs is the former leader of a Fundamentalist Latter Day Saints (FLDS) church. He’s currently in jail for marrying girls as young as the age of 12. Although in prison, he is still running a community in Short Creek. Some of his followers have turned from him, but remain in Short Creek. National attention has been brought to the dispute due to a flood in the area last year. “Why do people get Tattoos?” (Article) This article talks about three groups of people who get tattoos: youth, women, and members of tattoo subcultures. For young people, a tattoo sometimes plays a role in finding their sense of self in the world and gives them a sense of having greater control and authority in their lives. Women use tattoos to enforce, rather than deny, traditional femininity, and it allows women to have some over control their bodies. A lot of women use tattoos to reclaim their bodies after a traumatic experience, like breast cancer. Some people who are heavily tattooed define themselves as modern primitives and identify with tribal tattooing practices. They are in opposition to modern society and want to reconnect to primal experiences. At the core, people tend to have significant reasons for getting tattoos. “Putting your best Cyber Face Forward” (article) This is an article about the online world we live in and how people create an image for themselves on the Internet that may not be entirely true to who they are. Social networking and online dating sites put pressure on people to act in a manner that makes them “perform in a more sophisticated way”. But people are still learning the best way to do this since it’s a relatively new idea. In a study on online dating, the researchers found that people have developed their own tactics for making themselves presentable. “Impression management” is what they call it. “GASP: Toxic City” (video) This video is about the pollution in the air in the city of Birmingham. This pollution comes from plants all around the city that release harmful toxins into the environment. The video is informative and it has interviews of people who have had family members affected from the air pollution. Some of the effects of the pollution are respiratory issues, brain development, and cardio system issues. The two types of pollution in this area are legacy sole contamination and current air toxics. Superfund is used by the EDA to clean up the pollution. There are some problems with the progress of cleaning the air. ABC Coke in Tarrant, Alabama is the worst affecter, but the EPA is not testing there. GASP is a clean air nonprofit advocacy group that was started because there was a need to work on the air quality in Birmingham. Their focus is only on air pollution. “Nina Joblonski: Skin color is an Illusion” (video) This video is of a lecture by Nina Joblonski, who says that skin colors are different in people due to adaption to varied climates and levels of UV exposure received. The adaption is due to closeness to the equator and intersexual unions. To her, people are divided into race not because of skin, but because of social constructs. “Being Garifuna” (video) Garifunas are a group of people who are part African, part Caribbean, and part Central American. A large majority of them now live in New York City, NY. They are frustrated with the census because they don’t fit into any of the categories. In the recent years, these people have decided just to mark “other” and write in Garifuna. They don’t want to be categorized into a group that they don’t belong to. “Measuring Race and Ethnicity Across the Decade: 1790-2010” This is a timeline that shows the different racial groups that have been categorized in the United States since 1790. It’s interesting to see how racial classifications are closely approximated to history. 3. The Theoretical Perspectives Symbolic Interactions: this is at the micro level, which is a smaller group of individuals. It is the way that people evaluate their relationships with other people, and it’s face-to-face interactions and communication. Symbols are how we label people (ex: teachers/students). An example of symbolic interactions that has to do with race and culture is that we categorize people based on their skin color and the culture they are a part of. We use the symbols that we can see to make judgments about people. Functionalism: this is at the macro level, aka society as a whole. It “sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals who make up that society”. Some key terms are dysfunction/function, manifest/latent, and equilibrium/disequilibrium. Manifest function is the intention of a policy, and latent function is unintended consequences revealed much later in time. Functionalism is like what Nina Joblonski talks about in the video. We are different colors because of the adaption to the environments we live in, but we are all part of society and should work together. Conflict Theory: this is also at the macro level, which is society as a whole. This looks at society as groups who are in competition over scarce resources. It focuses on the economic conflict between the different social classes. Some key words are inequality, power, competition, and exploitation. An example of conflict theory for this section would be the air pollution problem in the city of Birmingham. The people at the plants are only concerned with production. They don’t care about the pollution they are creating even though it’s bringing harm to innocent victims. 4. Culture is made up of people who have similar values and beliefs. Culture comes from the society that people live in. Through that, it comes from invention and discovery. It’s passed down from generation to generation. Culture universals are patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies. Cultural imperialism is when a society exports their ideas and values through media to other cultures. Culture as a whole is represented in popular culture by the social norms and values that we follow in our everyday lives. For example, in a fast food restaurant such as McDonald’s, people follow rules such as standing in line, ordering, and then waiting for their food. 5. A minority group is any group of people who are singled out from the others for differential and unequal treatment. It is made up of those in a subordinate position and tends to give back power in society. According to Charles Wagley and Marvin Harris, a minority group can be divided into five characteristics. The first is unequal treatment and less power of their lives. The seconds is distinguishing physical or cultural traits like skin color or language. Next is involuntary membership in the group. The fourth characteristic is awareness of subordination, and the fifth is a high rate of in-group marriage. 6. Assimilation is when a minority group adopts the culture of a majority group. There are 4 degrees of assimilation. 1) SES status (social and economic stability) 2) special concentration (ethnic enclaves) 3) language assimilation and 4) intermarriage 7. De jure segregation is the restriction on where certain races can live. Basically it’s segregation by law. De facto segregation is when a de jure ordinance is no longer in place, but there is rigid concentration of races. It’s segregation by practice. 8. The core economy is the industrialized capitalist countries, which peripheral countries depend on. Peripheral economies are built upon a few commodities or a single commodity thus they are extremely vulnerable to fluctuations in price and demand. They have a dependent relationship with core economies. 9. There are many laws associated with the segregation, thti- miscegenation, exclusion movements, and the 14 amendment. There were laws that prevented racial groups from intermarrying, going to schools together, and living in certain areas together. Anti- miscegenation laws enforced racial segregation at the level of marriage and intimate relationships and made interracial marriages punishable by the law. The exclusion movement consisted of anti- immigration laws. One of these was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1904 that restricted Chinese immigrants from coming to the United States. The 14 Amendment addresses citizenship and the rites of citizens (“equal protection of the laws”). 10. Demographic shifts: Immigration today compared to the late 1800s is very different. In 1850, the immigrants who came to America east of the Mississippi were primarily German and Irish (88%). Mexicans at the time were immigrating to Mexico. In the 1860s, there were many Chinese immigrants going to California to work on the railroad. In 2013, most of the immigrants were from Mexico. There were many other groups coming as well, but at that time it was primarily Mexicans. Today, the largest growing minority group in the U.S. is Asians by percentage. In straight numbers, Mexicans are the largest growing minority group. According to “The Next America”, the baby boomer age group is continuing to age out, which is causing a change in the age dependency ratio. The younger generation is able to support the smaller, older generation. Nowadays, there has been a decrease in religious affiliation within groups of people. 11. Cultural appropriation is the adoption or use of elements of one culture by members of another culture. 12. The Eugenics Movement is the use of scientific justification to classify one racial or ethnic group as superior or inferior. There are several examples of this in America. One example is the Virginia code in 1705. They made slavery racial and said that only a non-Christian, foreign-born person could be a slave. With this they said that Christians were better than non-Christians, and they could categorize people as inferior or superior because of that. Another example is the sterilization campaign that happened in the United States in the early 1900s and carried on for many years. 33 states made the decision that certain people should be sterilized so as to not carry on their line. People who were disabled or not very smart were the types of people they chose to sterilize. These people who categorized based on unfair qualities and made to be inferior. 13. Endogamy is marriage within your race. There used to be laws against interracial marriage (Ex: “the loving story” video). People thought that the races shouldn’t mix together, but intermarriage is growing at a steady rate now. About 15% of new marriages are interracial. 14. Reparation is when the government delivers an apology or compensation to a large group of victims for a past injustice. Usually, the injustice was done under a prevailing law. One example in the United States is when the government apologizes to the Japanese victims who were put in internment camps after the Pearle Harbor bombing. This reparation was more about honor than compensation, although they did pay the surviving victims $20,000 apiece. Another example was in Rosewood, Florida. Many people’s homes were destroyed by a racial mob, and the police didn’t do anything about it. Years later, the government paid reparations and repaired the homes. The example given above about the people who were sterilized against there will is another example of reparations. There were 60,000 victims who were affected by this and after so many years they are finally being compensated. All of the victims who are still living have received $57,000 compensations apiece. While this won’t make up for what’s been done to them, it should help. Reparations allow for reconciliation with the group that has received injustice.
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