Study Guide for Quiz 5
Study Guide for Quiz 5 GEOL1005
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL1005 at George Washington University taught by Catherine A. Forster in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Historical Geology in Geology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Your Inner Fish Sir Charles Bell o Structure of the hand was “perfect” o Complex and ideally arranged for the way we live o Designed perfection could only have a divine origin Sir Richard Owen o Anatomist in the mid 1800s o Described the first gorilla o Coined the name “dinosaur” for a new kind of fossil creature o Began to see important patterns in the seeming chaos of life’s diversity o Pattern to the skeleton of a human arm Similar to pattern of bones in the human leg o Found exceptional similarities among creatures as different as frogs and people o All creatures with limbs have a common design Differences lie in the shapes and sizes of the bones and the numbers of blobs, fingers and toes There is a fundamental design in the skeleton of all animals Charles Darwin o Provides explanation for Owen’s findings o Share a common ancestor Mid 1800s anatomists began to learn of mysterious living fish from southern continents o Lepidosiren paradoxa One of the first discovered by German anatomists Looked like a normal fish Behind its throat were large vascular sacs lungs Name means “paradoxically scaled amphibian” Other fish with lungs were found lungfish Thomas Huxley and Carl Gegenbaur Found lungfish were a cross between an amphibian and a fish Fins of lungfish have at their base a single bone that attaches to their shoulder Humerus o Eusthenopteron Fish found from fossils from Quebec, 380 million years old Mix of features between amphibians and fish Had the one bone-two bones part but in a fin 1920s Gunnar Save-Soderbergh o Explore the east coast of Greenland for fossils o Enormous deposits of Devonian rocks o Fossils had fish-like heads and tails, yet they also had fully formed limbs (fingers and toes) and vertebrae that were extraordinarily amphibian-like o Named Ichthyostega soderberghi o Acanthostega gunnari Jenny Clack Revealed full limbs Limb was shaped like a flipper (like a seal) Earliest limbs arose to help animals swim, not walk Had fully formed digits real wrist and no fin webbing Primitive limb 1995 Ted Daeschler and Neil Shubin o Finds sliver of fin belonging to a large fish in a fossil o Lots of bones o This fish had the same pattern that Owen thought of o Fin had full set of webbing, scales and fish-like shoulder Deep inside were bones that corresponded to much of the “standard” limb 2004 expedition o Three chunks of rocks Devonian of Ellesmere Island Each contained a flat-headed animal o Fred Mullison and Bob Masek fossil preparators Bob pulls out a particular small bone in a big fin of “The Fish” What makes it different a joint at the end that had spaces for four other bones Looked like a wrist bone Fred uncovers a whole fin Just at the end of the forearm bones, the fin had that bone This bone attached to four more Fish with a wrist Part fin, part limb o Fish is called Tiktaalik All the joint surfaces were extremely well preserved Has a shoulder, elbow and wrist composed of the same bones as an upper arm, forearm and wrist in a human Was specialized for a rather extraordinary function Capable of doing push-ups Elbow capable of bending like outs Wrist able to bend to make the fish’s “palm” lie flat against the ground Had chest muscles in abundance Likely built to navigate the bottom and shallows of streams or ponds Flop around on the mudflats along the banks Fins capable of supporting the body Structure of the rock layers and the pattern of the grains in the rocks themselves have the characteristic signature of a deposit that was originally formed by a shallow stream surrounded by large seasonal mudflats Virtually every fish swimming in these 375 million year old streams was a predator of some kind Earliest creature to have the bones of our upper arm, our forearm, even our wrist o That creature was a fish Most of the major bones humans use appear in animals tens to hundreds of million of years before Humans can rotate our thumb relative to our elbow o One forearm bone, the radius, rotates along a pivot point at the elbow joint o At the end of our upper-arm bone, the humerus lies a ball o Ball-and-socket joint allows the rotation of our hand o Tiktaalik end of the humerus forms an elongated bump onto which a cup-shaped joint on the radius fits When it bent its elbow, the end of its radius would rotate relative to the elbow Our knees and elbows face in opposite directions o Different situation exists in fish o Eusthenopteron knee and elbow face largely in the same direction We start development with limbs oriented like this One big difference is the position of our hips o Legs do not project sideways They project underneath our bodies o Our pelvis became bowl shaped, our hip socket became deep, our femur gained its distinctive nect
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