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General Music History Study Guide for Exam 3

by: Nicole Rossi

General Music History Study Guide for Exam 3

Marketplace > Rowan University > Music > > General Music History Study Guide for Exam 3
Nicole Rossi
GPA 3.9

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Study guide for Exam 3
General Music History
Robert Weintraut
Study Guide
Music, General Music History
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Rossi on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Rowan University taught by Robert Weintraut in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Music History in Music at Rowan University.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
EXAM 3 study guide Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)  born in Bonn Germany, and was born into a musical family  his father, Johann=drunken mess, grandfather, Ludwig=good influence  he studied keyboard and improvised his playing (father didn’t like that)  by age 14, he earns income for the family (150 fl’s - half of what his dad is making)  sent to Vienna, came back two weeks later, mother dies, sister dies; stopped composing 5 yrs.  returned to Vienna for good and studied counterpoint (used in Fugue, point against point) Beethoven’s Early Period (1794-1800): • lots of productivity/growth; Symphony I, Sonata (D Major), “Spring” Sonata (piano/violin); focus on piano (chamber, piano concerto, solo) Beethoven’s Middle Period (1800-1815): • develops individual style; end oriented; focus on development (2nd part of Sonata Allegro); motivic development (motives: small phrases); Symphony III “Heroica” (1803), o.p 57 string quartets; his one and only Opera (“Fidelio”); 801: going deaf (loud noises=hurt, soft noises=can’t hear) • 1810’s: almost no hearing, people have to scream to talk to him; 1820’s: completely deaf • his death is unknown (sifalus, or lead poisoning); Symphonies 3-6, piano sonatas 4-26 Beethoven’s Late Period (1815-1827): • Symphonies 7-8 are transitional; Symphony 9: most important (composed from 1822-1824); “Diabelli” variations; late string quartets; miss Solemis mass; Symphony IX, IV, schreken fanfair; wrote 9 symphonies in total Symphony IX:  one of the best known works in the Classical Era; his greatest piece; first to use voices in a symphony(last movement); 4 movement symphony Romanticism: (1820-1900); rebellion; emotion; supernatural; nature-industrial revolution Rise in Urbanization:  Industrial Revolution: creates social/economic standards; steady rise in middle class (no more aristocracy); rise in urbanization; standardization of elements (virtuosic); improved transportation (tours/concerts); more of the people wanted music now  Romanticism: expands/challenges age of reason; can’t be defined by singularity; broadens human experience; dissatisfaction with the real world, leads to interest in fantasy; strive for better standard of living, focus on expression/individuality Characteristics of Romanticism:  function/purpose of music was to express emotion; individuality of style (music= unique); supernatural (unexplained); explore inner lives-fantasy; unconscious mind/dreams; fascination with both fantastic and diabolic; nostalgia (sad longing of something in the past); interested in middle ages (chivalry, romantic, love); old myths and folk core in music; literature reflects medieval adventures (heroics); admiration of Palestrina (saver of polyphony); fascination of nature; physical world is used in all arts as a reflection of the heart; natures power were intriguing (unexplained, mystical) Pre-Existing Forms in Music:  Symphony: (Brahms/Berlioz/Tchaikovsky break Classicism); harmonic development/exploration end oriented (Beethoven); themes present in all movements; vocal and solo music at climax  Opera: still primary venue; more dramatic opera; heroic/epic topics;  Italian Opera: Verdi-composer, stays closes to Classical; aria and recitative most important; more drama, better character and plots  French Opera: ballet-greater part in Opera; 3 Styles: grand opera, lyric opera, comic opera; spoken dialogue  German Opera: most important; 2 Styles: romantic (german legends, focus on supernatural, some dialogue) and music (wagner, influenced by symphony, all arts are truly equal); Light Motif: a single theme/motive with a certain character  Concerto: more virtuosic  Sonata Form: similar organization from Classical/principle; no longer theme 1 ending  Lieder: art song, primary form; more intimate, folk-like melody (usually strophic or through composed); Germanic- Heine, Schiller, Goethe- common poetry; composers: Scheubert, Schumann, Brahms New Romantic Forms: Symphonic Tone Poem: 1 mvt orchestral work; Franz Liszt Program Symphony: orchestral; multi-movement; each mvt with its own descriptive title or full narrative; tells a story Concert Overture: lyrical melodies; medley of tunes not associated with Opera Ballet: French form; Russian/ East European composed Character Pieces: Solo Piano- short works, programmatic, single mood, ternary form Franz Schubert: (1797-1828); born in Vienna; wrote +600 Lieders, 9 symphonies, 22 piano sonatas, 17 Operas, 6 masses Robert Schumann: (1810-1856); tried to become a concert pianist, failed, taught at Leipzig conservatory; spoke against Classicism; music is without form; known for his small works Romantic Piano Music: piano most popular instrument; Concert Pianists: new job, a classical pianist who regularly performs as a soloist in concert performances; rise in virtuosity(great skill in music or another artistic pursuit.) Frederic Chopin: (1810-1849); born in Poland; moves to Paris; music is polish nationalism; mini works; uses pedals on the piano Franz Liszt: (1811-1886): born in Hungary, moves to Vienna, ended up in Paris, virtuosic concert pianist; settles in Germany; used symphonic Tone poem Program Symphony: multi movements; orchestra tells story; mvts are like chapters; Idée Fixe: fixed idea, program symphony; set idea or motive attached to a character; created by Hector Berlioz Romantic Orchestra: 75-120 people, conductor Hector Berlioz: (1803-1869); French Romantic conductor; goes to Med School and drops out; music is rhythmically driven; orchestration Symphonie Fantastique: Berlioz’s story of his love for his first wife; 1830; Italy; 5 mvt piece Neo-Classicists: look back, use their forms Felix Mendelssohn: (1809-1847); german; conducted St. Matthew’s Passion; sticks to Classical forms; elegant balanced expression; almost no program Johannes Brahms: (1833-1887); Hamburg, Germany; by 13 performing to earn income; moved to Vienna; freelance; student of Schumann; music is romantic in expressiveness (no program music); uses cross rhythms (hide meter); 4 symphonies Giuseppe Verdi: (1813-1901); born in Italy; dominant form in Opera; wrote for the people; started with a patron; both children die, wife dies, more serious works now Richard Wagner: (1813-1883); german; grew up in theater; goes to Paris; returns to Dresden; exiled from Germany for 12 years; writes essays; Oper Und Drama, Music Drama, “Ring”: 4 music dramas Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: (1840-1893); father works for the gov’t; works in law; at age 23 quits; conservatory of St. Petersburg; 2 years of education and masters it; style is similar to Schumann, Berlioz; melodies are lyrical; Slavic, modal harmonies; Swan Lake, The Nutcracker Suite Ballet Post Romanticism: Germany, Austria, Italy Giacomo Puccini: (1858-1929); successful; more than Verdi; Impressionism (1890-1915): portrait called “impression sunset” by Claude Monet Claude Debussy: (1862-1918): French, non-tonal, break forms, left classical forms behind; no melody RANDOM FACTS:  idee fixe: fixed idea- fantasique- berlioz  rise to urbanization= industrial revolution  patronage system dies = public concert halls are a thing now  symphony 9 is unique = choir  transportation= people can travel to concerts now  Schubert known for lieds, art song, elfking  two neoclassists: Mendelsohn, Brahms  Symphonic Tone Poem (1 mvt.)- Liszt  Wagner spent 12 yrs in exile; music drama- everything is more equal; liet motif  Liet Motif: for opera; Idee Fixe: for program music  Biggest difference in romantic/neoclassists: classical form  Character piece: short piano piece; programmatic; 1 mvt; Chopin SONGS/COMPOSER:  Symphony Fantasique: Hector Berlioz  Elfking: Franz Schubert  Symphony 3: Johannes Brahms  Die Walkure: Richard Wagner  Rigoletto: Giuseppi Verdi  Nutcracker Sugar Plum Fairy: Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky  Madame Butterfly: Giacomo Puccini  Prelude to afternoon of a faun: Claude Debussy


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