Bio 1107 Test 2 Study Guide
Bio 1107 Test 2 Study Guide BIOL 1107
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 463 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Behavioral Sciences at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Unit 2 Learning Objectives Eukaryotes and the Endomembrane system As a cube or sphere increases in size, explain how its surface area and volume change. Explain how membrane transport is used to transport nutrients into and waste out of a cell. Explain whether you would use an isotope of phosphorous, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen to specifically examine protein production. Explain how membrane function limits the size cells can attain. Draw a diagram that illustrates and gives examples of how cells can use shape, metabolism, and/or organelles to overcome limits on cell size. Draw a diagram that illustrates how organelles work together in eukaryotes to produce a secreted protein and contrast this process to that which takes place to make a cytoplasmic protein. Explain how a “pulsechase” experiment works and how it can be used to examine the organelles involved in making a secreted protein. Cells and Viruses Distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Distinguish between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. Identify the basic components of a virus particle. Describe how you would distinguish between a prokaryote and a eukaryote. Explain how the cytoskeleton helps a cell to maintain and alter it’s internal organization and overall shape/structure. Describe how eukaryotic viruses are able to sneak into a host cell. Describe how new viruses are produced. Distinguish between the lytic and lysogenic life cycles of a virus. Membranes and Transport Draw diagrams of a bilayer and a micelle. Explain how the amphipathic properties of phospholipids lead to the formation of both structures. Draw a diagram that illustrates how proteins associate with membranes. Describe the characteristics of the protein that enable these interactions. Describe what is meant by the term “fluid mosaic” when referring to membranes. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: o Simple and facilitated diffusion o Active and passive transport Predict how changes in the structure of the fatty acid tails of phospholipids would affect the properties of a membrane. Predict if a given molecule is likely (or not) to diffuse across a phospholipid bilayer and why. Predict the movement of water into/out of a cell if given the initial internal/external conditions for the cell. Given the conditions inside and outside of a cell, predict how the cell could move a given molecule across the membrane. Thermodynamics, Free Energy, and Organisms Define each of the following terms: o Kinetic and potential energy o Free energy and Entropy o Exergonic and Endergonic reactions o Metabolism o Anabolic and catabolic o Catalyst o Activation energy Define the first and second laws of thermodynamics for a nonexpert. Explain what is meant when a reaction is referred to as being spontaneous or not. Predict whether a chemical reaction or process is likely to be exergonic or endergonic. Explain how organisms are able to overcome entropy and maintain or increase their level of organization. Describe what is meant by an energetically "coupled" reaction. Explain the function of ATP in facilitating energy exchanges in a cell. Draw and explain energy curve describe the change in energy for an exergonic or endergonic reaction and explain how enzymes alter this curve. Enzymes and Regulation Explain why a given enzyme is usually highly specific regarding the chemical reaction that it promotes. Define the following terms: Active site o Allosteric o Substrate o Product o Inhibitor Describe how enzymes can be turned “on” or “off” by regulators. Explain how modern medicines take advantage of enzyme specificity and regulation. In a multistep biochemical pathway regulated by several enzymes, predict the effect of altering the activity of one of the enzymes in the pathway.
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