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Human Sexuality Exam 2

by: AnnaCiara

Human Sexuality Exam 2 2110

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Psychlogy > 2110 > Human Sexuality Exam 2
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Exam 2 material with added reading notes from three chapters.
Psychology of Human Sexuality
Seth Kalichman
Study Guide
PSYC 2110
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by AnnaCiara on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
PSYC 2110 Exam 2 Study Guide I. Human Sexual Arousal and Response Desire: psychological wanting and incentive for sex Arousal: physiological response to external cue as well as bodily sensations Both can arise from internal and external factors Internal factors = central arousal system: from emotional/cognitive parts of one's own brain External factors = peripheral arousal system: external sensations from skin, genitals and any sense organ that go to brain Dual control model: balances of both excitatory and inhibitory brain processes control sexual arousal and desire.  Made by Erick Janssen and John Bancroft of the Kinsey institute (Indiana University) Plethysmograph: instrument used to quantify/measure sexual response in both males and females.  Males: penile strain gauge is placed around penis and blood flow is measured during sexual arousal (erection)  Females: device inserted into vagina that measures blood flow in vaginal walls as indication of sexual response Masters and Johnson Four-Phase Model of Sexual Response  Findings may be inaccurate because they only researched people who could reach orgasm. Findings may also be more male-centered and not an accurate depiction of female sexual responses.  BOTH male and female sexual responses are driven by changes in o 1) Vasocongestion- engorgement of vascular/sexual tissues o 2) Neuromuscular tension  MALE: 1. Excitement a. blood flow into genital region and exiting blood from genital region b. Start of male erection as blood flows into corpora cavernosa c. Urethral diameter widens d. Testes elevate while scrotal skin tightens e. Occasionally erect nipples 2. Plateau (with continued stimulation) a. Penis reaches full erection b. Testes enlarge and go closer to body c. Swelling of the glans (also during orgasm) 3. Orgasm: peak after plateau a. Physiologic release of vasocongestion and neuromuscular tension b. Ejaculation typically occurs and typically occurs during this phase i. Orgasm and ejaculation can happen on their own without the other ii. Expulation of the seminal fluid c. Testes are fully elevated now d. Contraction of vas deferens, ejaculatory muscles, prostate and anus e. Swelling of the glans f. Heart rate and blood pressure peak g. Spontaneous orgasm may occur during adolescence without physical stimulation (ex: noctural emisson also known as wet dream) 4. Resolution a. Return to the pre-excitement state b. Increased exiting blood flood c. Neuromuscular tension decreasing d. Scrotum relaxes, scrotum drops e. Erection disappears ***Refractory period*** f. Occurs after orgasm g. The recovery time needed ONLY IN MALES before starting the sexual response cycle again h. Lengthens with age i. Vary for each individual and within that individual's context j. No refractory period for females = multiple orgasms are possible  FEMALE: 1. Excitement a. Vasocongestion results in vaginal lubrication b. Lengthening of inner third of vagina c. Uterus pulled upward d. Labia (majora, minora) and clitoris enlarge because they are engorged with blood e. Nipple becomes erect, superficial veins become more visible, size increase of breast 2. Plateau a. Swelling of outer third of vagina (forming the orgasmic platform) and inner two-thirds extends b. Clitoris stars to retract under clitoral hood c. breast size and blushing may occur d. heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure 3. Orgasm a. Heart rate and blood pressure peak b. Muscular contraction in vaginal walls and uterus c. Many ways to achieve female orgasm i. Uterine orgasm from stimulation of cervix ii. Blended orgasm from both clitoral and vulvar stimulation and the uterine orgasm d. Grafenberg spot (G-spot) i. area on outer third of vagina's anterior wall ii. near edge of orgasmic platform iii. high innervated structure iv. small but plays important role in female sexual arousal e. Ejaculation i. Skene glands inside urethra may be similar to prostate glands in males ii. Non-urine fluid may be expelled from urethra during orgasm iii. Spontaneous orgasm may occur during adolescence without physical stimulation f. Variations in female orgasms: 3 distinct patterns all normal all may occur i. likely to experience all three or one more than other ii. no refractory period iii. 1- excitement, plateau, orgasm, 2nd orgasm, resolution iv. 2- excitement, up and down plateau, no orgasm, resolution v. 3- fast excitement straight to orgasm then resolution 4. Resolution a. Uterus returns to pre arousal position b. Changes in vaginal walls return to prearousal c. Clitoris was pulled back under hood and now is relaxed Kaplan's 3 phase model 1. Desire phase (***not seen in Master and Johnson model***) a. Psychological emotion 2. Vasocongestive phase (~excitement and plateau phase of Masters/Johnson) a. Vasocongestion in pelvic region b. Increased muscular tension in body 3. Orgasmic release phase (~orgasm and resolution phase of Masters/Johnson) Intimacy-based model of female sexual response cycle a. emotional and physical satisfaction-->emotional intimacy-*-> sexual stimuli--*>sexual arousal--*>arousal and sexual desire--> emotional and physical satisfaction * spontaneous sexual drive Kegel exercises  Exercise to strengthen the pubococcygeal (PC) muscle surrounding the vagina (exercises can also be done by men)  Can help gain control of bladder/urination  Can help strengthen orgasm  Can help restore vagina/uterus to pre-delivery state  Voluntary contracting muscles in pelvic girdle II. Sexuality in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence Psychosexual development: the learning and discovery of one's own personal gender identity, gender role, sexual orientation, and sexual behavior based on both biologically and experience based factors. Freud's theories: 1. 3 elements of our personality/parts of our psyche a. Ego - secondary process, reality principle, conscious b. Id- primary process, pleasure principle (meeting needs however possible), primitive part of our personality, primarily unconscious, impulsive (almost on what drives us and what our instincts are) c. Super ego- perfect principle, social relations, moralistic (your moral self that looks at what is right and wrong), ego ideal, conscience i. in contrast with Id because look at morals when getting what you need 2. 2 parts of our self a. thanatos - dark side that is destructive, death instinct b. libido- life giving part, life instinct 3. Stages of psychosexual development a. Oral stage (birth - 1 year old) i. Infant explores the world through sensation and placing objects in mouth ii. Infant's libido (sexual instinct in this context) in centered in mouth b. Anal stage (1-3 years old) i. Libido moves to the anus ii. pleasure and gratification during toilet training iii. control of anal sphincter is important feature at this stage c. Phallic stage (3-5 years old) i. Children become aware of sex differences ii. Child will identify with same sex parent iii. Oedipal complex 1. little boy has to switch with identifying with mother to identifying with father to learn culturally expectations for men 2. father experienced as aggressor before this point to the little boy (both competing for mother) 3. get over castration fear iv. Electra complex little girls don't have to switch, stay identifying with their mother 1. in competition with mother for father's attention and intensifies during this stage 2. never really gets resolved 3. penis envy - unconscious jealousy for little girls to have for little boys who have more power than them 4. freud's theory was unable to explain female development d. Latency period i. Concept may be dated to Freud's time/society ii. Idea that sexual energies are lowered for a period e. Genital stage i. Libido is in sex organs ii. begins around puberty Social learning theory (Albert Bandura): learning of values by children is done by observing people  behavior is regulated through reciprocal determinism  Triangle of E, B and P all influencing each other  E= environmental manipulation  B= behaviors with intended consequences  P= self-talk and altered outcome expectancies  Derived from Conditioning Theory (BF Skinner)  Conditioned stimulus: repeated same erotic words during intercourse  Conditioned response: saying the words (not during intercourse) may result in a sexual arousal  Reinforcement: pleasure, reward, removal of unpleasant stimulus done to initiate wanted behavioral response  Generalization: applying responses to other similar situations  Avoid this by using discrimination Labeling:  Children have a sense of their gender identity then pre-label themselves to better understand their sexual orientation and sexual expectations.  Adolescents self-label their sexual orientation based on societal groupings.  Social-labeling defines one's sexual orientation and how that sexual orientation is perceived by society (may effect one's validation in society). Scripting theory  Made by sociologists Gagnon and Simon  Sexual drive is more culturally rooted than biologically  Social scripts - learned responses to various social cues.  Sexual scripts - patterns of sexual behavior Psychosocial Development  Idea from Erik Erikson o you acquire one of these or the other then you can LEARN to achieve the other o it's not fixed at 5 years old like how freud said o erikson says you can change  8 Stages of life (crises) that are involved in development: 1. trust vs mistrust INFANT a. Trust one's self and surroundings 2. autonomy vs shame and doubt TODDLER 2-3 year olds a. potential shame about not being independent enough 3. initiate vs guilt PRE-SCHOOLER 3-5 year olds a. potential guilt about one's motivations 4. industry vs inferiority GRADE SCHOOLER 6-12 years old a. overlays with latency period b. industry=basic social tasks or chores or homework, our role in our family and school 5. identity vs role confusion TEENAGER a. this is the stage erik focused on - coined the term "identity crisis" b. psychosocial moratorium i. place to experiment and try things ii. ex: college c. role experimentation i. try things out during adolescence to form our identity ii. if we don't experiment to try to figure out our role then we experience role confusion (the negative outcome of this stage) d. masturbation is nearly universal during adolescence i. Frequency of adolescent masturbation often carries into adulthood --> lifespan masturbation e. sexual orientation and gender identity likely emerge during adolescence f. adolescents likely have poor judgments of real consequences i. no experience ii. exploring and experimenting but often seen as "risk takers" 6. intimacy vs isolation YOUNG ADULT 18-30s years old i. intimacy vs isolation ii. intimacy is forming family, bonding and formulating a career iii. intimacy is about the close relationships (marriage and family relationships including kids) iv. successful resolution for the need for intimacy v. sharing of self is intimacy (must have good identity formation to have good intimacy) 7. generativity vs stagnation MIDDLE AGE ADULT a. having family in terms of kids and careers b. generativity - having sense that time is limited, consider legacy that will be left behind c. mid life crisis 8. integrity vs despair OLDER ADULT 60+ years old a. integrity and despair b. life review c. feeling good about accomplishments in life = integrity d. despair comes with regrets about life Infancy and sex  Inappropriate to ask children of their sexual feelings and behavior because they are seen as innocent --> makes research on this topic difficult  Male fetus and newborn can experience erection and possibly orgasm  Evidence of vaginal lubrication in infant females  Sense of intimacy can be developed during infancy Equal status contact: idea that people tend to chose a long-term mate based on them having similar age, race, social class, education, religion etc. Cohabitation: sexually active couple in a relationship choose to live together without getting married  cohabitation effect: couples who cohabitate end up with higher divorce rate than couples who did not cohabitate and have lower marital satisfaction  new research may prove this wrong Sex in marriage  Western cultures expect sex to be a part of marriage  Sexual desire in married is connected with marital satisfaction  Bigger gaps in the number of each person's sexual partners over life may result in low marital satisfaction and commitment  In the US, married and cohabitating partners have more sex and younger and older people have the least sex  single people have less sex than cohabitating and married couples Divorce  Couples now wait later than ever to get married  Over half of divorced people try marry again  ~40% of 2nd marriages end within 10 years III. Sexuality and Aging  there are cultural differences in sexuality with aging  high variations  age gaps between partners vary  social status is big part of partner selection in USA  strong preference for females to have male partners to have higher social status o can be opposite  special sexual problems and patterns of aging  things go more slowly, general slowing in development and sexual response o developmental pattern that is normal but can sometimes be seen as a problem (ex menopause)  nothing grows as fast as fetus and childhood growth Sexual effects of illness  illnesses - high blood pressure and diabetes  side effects of medications


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