KNR 180: Exam #1 Study Guide
KNR 180: Exam #1 Study Guide KNR 180
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelyn Charlton on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KNR 180 at Illinois State University taught by Brittany Crosby in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see First Aid and CPR in Kinesiology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
KNR 180 Exam #1 Study Guide Chapter 1 When a person’s heart stops and they are without oxygen: 4 minutes= death Number of people that experience a nonfatal injury that requires medical care: 1 in 4 Purpose of first aid: to TREAT what you see (yourself and others) – NOT to diagnose Who must you gain consent to treat: victim’s consent or parent or legal guardian of victim (if victim is a child; consent is implied if parent or guardian is not present) Types of consent: expressed or implied What to do if a victim refuses treatment? o Explain: his or her condition what you intend to do why it is necessary. o Call 9-1-1. o Try again to persuade the victim to accept care o Stay with the person A police officer is the only person with the authority to restrain and transport a person against that person’s will. Breach of duty: o An act of omission is the failure to do what a reasonably prudent person with the same or similar training would do in the same or similar circumstances. Not doing something you should have that causes harm. o An act of commission is doing something that a reasonably prudent person would not do under the same or similar circumstances. Doing something you shouldn’t have that causes harm. Purpose of Good Samaritan laws (i.e. they protect first aiders who do what?) o Good Samaritan laws protect the rescuer: acting during an emergency. acting in good faith with good intentions. acting without compensation. not guilty of malicious misconduct or gross negligence toward the victim. o Grant immunity against lawsuits Touching another person without his or her consent is known as battery. Chapter 2 Series of actions that a bystander should make upon first arriving at a scene (ordering question): o Recognize the emergency. o Decide to help. o Call 9-1-1 if EMS is needed. o Check the victim. o Give first aid. Why bystanders are less likely to offer help in public (LIST OUT THE REASONS): o lack knowledge o are confused about what is or isn’t an emergency o think someone else will act o it’s easier to just avoid the situation o are uncomfortable stepping out of their comfort zone Types of personal protective equipment & what they protect against: o Most common PPE – gloves (to protect the victim and responder from infectious diseases), breathing barrier (protect the victim and responder from diseases), eye protection o Gowns/aprons (protection from bodily fluids) Stages of the grieving process (ordering question): o Denial o Anger o Bargaining o Depression o Acceptance Chapter 3 Functions and composition of the body systems o Most important organs: Lungs Heart Brain Spinal cord o Circulatory system Blood—carries nutrients, oxygen, and infection fighters Heart—pumps blood through the vessels to body; powerful, hollow, and muscular Blood vessels (arteries and veins) o Nervous system This system keeps the body in touch with the outside world Nerves control all our muscles o Central nervous system—the brain The brain is a highly specialized organ that requires considerable oxygen Spinal nerves at different levels regulate activities of various parts of the body Impulses go in and out o Skeletal system 206 bones Bone is living Give structure and protection Facilitates movement Creates red blood cells o Muscular system o Respiratory system Mechanics of breathing Inhalation—diaphragm contracts Exhalation—diaphragm relaxes o Oxygen from air is made available to the blood through the respiratory system. o Respiratory rates are controlled by the brain Cyanosis: a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood Difference between arteries & veins o Arteries—oxygenated elastic, muscular tubes that pump/spurt blood away from the heart o Veins—deoxygenated; carry blood back to the heart (blood flows back to the heart) Difference between red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets o Red blood cells—carry oxygen o White blood cells—prevent infections o Platelets—essential for blood clot formation Part of the body that’s vulnerable to injury if a victim has a back or neck injury: spinal column Different types of muscle: o Voluntary muscles (controlled by the person) also known as skeletal muscles o Smooth muscles (very little control by the person) o Cardiac muscle (found only in the heart) Chapter 4 Purpose of each of the 5 parts of the victim assessment (scene size-up, primary check etc) and the order in which they are performed (matching question and an ordering question) o Scene size-up Purpose: to assess the environment for your safety and for others’ safety Check for hazards, violence or weapons, and dangerous substances o Primary check Purpose: to assess the victim for obvious life-threatening conditions Check for circulation, breathing/airway, and severe bleeding o Check responsiveness Purpose: Assessing the victim’s responsiveness can give you insight as to whether or not the victim has experienced brain damage Alert victim, tap victim’s shoulder, ask the victim “What’s your name? Do you know what’s going on?” Shout in both ears o Secondary check Purpose: to assess secondary (physical) conditions For a responsive victim: Ask if he or she can feel or wiggle the fingers and toes. For an unresponsive victim: Check spinal cord with Babinski reflex text (take a pen and) use the pen to put pressure in a j- shape around the heel—curling of toes is normal; fanning or splaying of toes is abnormal) o Signs and symptoms Purpose: to further assess the victim’s physical condition Signs—things that the responder can see, feel, hear, touch, smell Symptoms—things the victim feels and describes—what is their chief complaint? RAP-CAB (checking a responsive victim) o R = Responsiveness (assess) o A = Activate EMS (call 9-1-1) o P = Position (position the victim on his/her back) o A = Airway (open the airway) o B = Breathing (assess) o C = Circulation (assess) Method used for opening the airway of an unresponsive victim: head tilt chin lift Indications of a breathing problem o Snoring—airway partially blocked (usually by tongue) o Gurgling (breaths passing through liquid)—fluids in throat o Crowing (noisy creak or squeak)—spasm of the larynx; foreign body o Wheezing—spasm or partial obstruction in bronchi (asthma, emphysema) o Occasional gasping breaths (known as agonal respirations)—breathing after the heat has stopped Positioning of victims (unresponsive, not breathing & unresponsive, breathing) o Unresponsive, not breathing: position the victim on his back o Unresponsive, but breathing: Haines (recovery) position Arm position: keep left arm straight, extended above the head; right arm crosses the chest under the left cheek Leg position: bend the right knee and pull it across the body (this will roll the victim towards you) DOTS o D = Deformity o O = Open wounds o T = Tenderness o S = Swelling Purpose of medical identification tags: to identify a medical condition or allergies the victims may have Triage & order of treatment for victims: the process of prioritizing multiple victims o Immediate care o Delayed care o “Walking dead” o Dead Chapter 5 Difference between a heart attack and cardiac arrest o Heart attack—heart muscle tissue dies due to blood supply reduction or cessation o Cardiac arrest—heart stops beating Steps for identifying and treating an unresponsive adult (ordering question): o Recognition and action o CPR o AED o Advanced care o Post-arrest care When to call 911 if alone with an unresponsive adult, child and infant victim: o Unresponsive adult: call 9-1-1 immediately o Unresponsive infant or child: give 30 compressions and 2 breaths before calling 9-1-1 Difference in chest compressions between adults, children and infants o Adults: at least 2”; 2 hands o Children: about 2”; 1 hand o Infant: 1.5”; 2 fingers Technique for the Heimlich maneuver o Locate navel o Fist with the thumb side against the victim’s abdomen (above the navel) o Grasp the fist with your other hand o Thrust inward and upward (in a scooping motion) Technique for Heimlich maneuver on an obese victim: place your hand at the base of the breast bone and thrust your hand Chapter 6 Victim’s chance of survival greatly improves through what: early CPR and AED (earlier = greater chance for survival) When is defibrillation most effective: when the pads are placed correctly on the victim and no one is touching the victim while the AED analyzes the heart rhythm Difference between ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia o ventricular fibrillation—most common abnormal heart rhythm in cases of sudden cardiac arrest in adults o ventricular tachycardia—heart beats too fast to pump blood Using an AED (steps) o Power on the AED o Remove clothing or jewelry o Place pads on victim o Stand clear o Analyze heart rhythm o Shock advised o Stand clear o Press shock button o Perform CPR o Follow AED prompts!! Considerations to remember when using an AED: o Water o Children (size of pads) o Medication patches o Implanted devices (such as pacemakers) Chapter 7 Perfusion vs hypoperfusion o Perfusion—adequate blood and oxygen are provided to all cells in the body o Hypoprofusion—the cardiovascular system collapses and fails; blood circulation decreases and eventually ceases Sides of the perfusion triangle o Heart o Blood (content function) o Blood vessels (container function) Stages of shock o Compensated shock Compensation for blood loss o Decomposed shock Late stage of shock Falling blood pressure o Irreversible shock Final stage terminal General care for victims in shock: o Monitor breathing o Position the victim No spinal injury: Put them in the shock position (lying down flat on their back with head raised) Unresponsive/stroke: Put them in the Haines position Victims with breathing difficulties, chest injuries, or heart attack: Place the victim in a half-sitting position Suspected injury or leg fracture: Keep the victim completely flat (back and head to the ground) o Seek immediate medical care o Loosen tight clothing o Handle with care (watch out for splint bone or joint injuries) General care for anaphylaxis o Call 9-1-1 immediately o Administer epinephrine o Monitor breathing Care for psychogenic shock (fainting) o If someone feels like they’re about to faint, have them lie down or sit down—do NOT have them place their head between their knees o If someone faints: Check for breathing Begin CPR and call 9-1-1 if necessary Keep the victim flat Check for possible head and spine injuries Raise legs 6 to 12 inches unless an injury is suspected Chapter 8 Amount of blood loss that can lead to shock or death when lost rapidly o Loss of 1 quart in adult o Loss of 1 pint in child Hemorrhaging: Loss of a large quantity of blood in a short amount of time Difference between arterial, venous, and capillary bleeding o Arterial—spurting o Venous—flowing o Capillary--oozing What effects clotting time (i.e. what can slow clotting time): temperature Care for external bleeding: o Protect yourself with gloves! o Expose wound o Apply pressure Sterile gauze Direct pressure (5 minutes) Do not remove dressings o Use a pressure bandage tightly over dressing—wrap roller gauze tightly over dressing o Do not cut off circulation to or apply direct pressure to protruding bone fractures, skull fractures, or embedded objects Difference between internal and external bleeding o External—blood can be seen o Internal—blood cannot be seen (typically more life-threatening) Chapter 9 Types of open wounds (including the types of amputations) o Abrasion—top layer of skin is removed; painful with little or no bleeding o Laceration—cut with jagged, irregular edges; tearing away of skin tissue o Incision—smooth edges o Puncture—deep, narrow; high risk of infection o Avulsion—flap of skin torn loose o Amputation—cutting or tearing off of body part Guillotine (clean-cut, complete) Crushing (crushed or mashed off) Degloving (skin is peeled off) Care and cleaning of open wounds o Using gloves, expose the wound o Clean the wound o Apply direct pressure for 5 minutes with sterile gauze o Do not remove blood soaked dressings, add more if needed o Wrap with compression bandage Tetanus and when shot is most effective following injury o Tetanus is caused by toxin-producing bacterium that affects the nervous system o Tetanus causes muscle contraction (lockjaw) o Victim must receive the shot within 72 hours after the injury The exception for removing impaled objects (when is the only time that an object should be removed?): when the object is blocking the airway Care for objects impaled in the eye: o Do NOT exert pressure on eye o Stabilize object o Cover undamaged eye o Seek immediate medical attention Chapter 10 How to apply dressings o It is best to use sterile, lint free dressing than is thick, soft, compressible, and larger than the wound o Wash hands and wear exam gloves o Hold dressing by one corner and place over wound Do not slide over wound Do not touch dressing o Cover with bandage Bandaging technique used for wrapping an injury to the ankle or foot o Make two straight turns around instep o Make figure-eight turn across front of foot, around ankle, and under arch o Make several figure-turns, overlapping each turn and advancing up the leg o Finish with two straight turns around leg; secure end Chapter 11 Difference between first-, second-, and third-degree burns o First-degree burns affect skin’s outer layer Redness Mild swelling Tenderness Pain o Second-degree burns extend through entire outer layer and into inner layer of skin Blisters Swelling Weeping of fluids Severe pain o Third-degree burns penetrate skin layers into the underlying fat and muscle Leathery, waxy, pearly gray skin Dry appearance BSA value (%) when to seek medical care for small second-degree burns o BSA = Body Surface Area o Refer to the rule of nines for adults o Seek medical care if the burn covers more than 10% BSA Care for large-second degree burns o Apply cold and monitor for hypothermia o Cover the burn with a dry, non-sticking, sterile dressing o Treat for shock o Seek medical care When to seek medical care for large second-degree and third-degree burns: immediately after treating the victim Scald burns: the result of contact with hot liquids o Immersion burns: area of the body is fully immersed in a hot liquid o Spill urns: liquid spills, drops, or is thrown on a person How different skin types respond to UV radiation (specifically types I & VI) o Various skin types respond differently o Type I skin – type VI skin most sensitive to burns – least sensitive to burns o Type I skin—always burns; never tans o Type VI skin—does not burn; tans deeply Care for chemical burns o Flush body portion with water o Remove contaminated clothing and jewelry o Flush for 20 minutes or longer o Cover burn o Seek medical care Different types of electrical burns o Thermal burn (flame) o Arc burn (flash) o True electrical injury (contact) What to do when an outdoor power line is the cause of electric shock to a victim o Power must be turned off o A tingling sensation signals that you are on energized ground. If this happens, raise one foot off the ground, turn around, and hop to safe area. o Do not attempt to move any wires—do NOT touch the wires.
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