HY Exam 1 Review
HY Exam 1 Review HY 110
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Spence on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 110 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Patrick Hurley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Comparative World Civ in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
HY 110 Exam 1 Review Possible essay questions: 5/8 will appear on the exam, ONLY REQUIRED TO ANSWER ONE QUESTION. Possible topics: 1. Advantages/disadvantages of the phalanx military formation. Also include characteristics of it and how Philip II of Macedon improved upon it. Advantages: - The phalanx was centered around unity and if a man on the frontline was killed or otherwise taken down, a member of the next row could simply step in and take his place. - The rhythm used by the soldiers ultimately gave them an advantage. When the soldiers became more skilled and better trained, they were able to maneuver and strike the opponent in a different way. - Horses and chariots could not pass due to the fact that the front was essentially a wall of spears that could stop most any incoming creature, so long as it was coming from the front. Disadvantages: - Could be very slow at times, but if the speed increased too quickly or was not controlled when it did the entire formation could be thrown off. - Only protected against frontal attacks. - If the terrain on which the battle took place wasn’t level it could prove detrimental to the formation of the phalanx because it would be difficult for the soldiers to properly maneuver if the terrain was rugged or otherwise uneven. Philip II of Macedon’s Improvements: - Philip II of Macedon was the first person to introduce the sarissa to the phalanx. The sarissa is a long spear that was typically between 1320 feet in length. It gave his army an advantage because of the increased length of the spear, meaning they did not have to be as close to their opponents and were still able to hurt/kill them while putting themselves in less danger. Characteristics: - Rectangular. - Shields in front of the bodies to protect against enemies. - Precisely organized rows of soldiers all armed with sarissas (dorys before Philip II). 2. Construct an essay on Socrates’ methods/teachings and include facts about his psyche. Compare Plato’s philosophy to Socrates’ based on how Plato’s ideas were based upon those of Socrates. Socrates’ methods/teachings: Its believed that a Socratic questioner should: - Keep the discussion focused - Keep the discussion intellectually responsible - Stimulate the discussion with probing questions - Periodically summarize what has and what has not been dealt with/resolved - Draw as many students/people as possible into the discussion. - The Socratic Method involves a shared dialogue between teacher and students. The teacher leads by posing thoughtprovoking questions. Students actively engage by asking questions of their own. Thus creating a discussion that goes between the two. Plato’s elaboration on the ideas of Socrates: Socrates' pupil, Plato, elaborated upon this theory in The Republic, where he described how the things we perceive on Earth are really composed of ideas, or forms. A form is an eternal and perfect concept, something that is strived for but never actualized on Earth, something that most people may never come to understand. Plato also valued rational introspection, similar to Socrates. 3. Explain how Darius the Great was able to sustain the Persian Empire and keep it from falling apart even though internal revolt or succession were relevant obstacles. - Internal organization and structure. - Darius the Great had the provincial treasury officials, secretaries, and garrisons answer directly to him, not to the satraps, except in emergencies. Depriving the satraps of the money and troops they needed to revolt while ensuring the defense of the satrapies. - Implemented the help of the "King's Ears". These personal agents of the king would travel to the various satraps' courts to check up on their behavior and official records. The King's Ears commanded a great deal of fear and respect, sometimes showing up with no armed escort, but still being able to put down rebellious satraps before the revolts went beyond the planning stages. - Established a road system, tying the empire together and making news and other travel happen faster. - Darius expanded on existing principles, making his civilization comparatively more advanced and prosperous. - The Persians placed an emphasis on economic prosperity. 4. Discuss the purpose of Hammurabi’s Code of Laws. Discuss its its nature, who it focused on, and how it compared to Mosaic Law that the Hebrews had. Purpose of Hammurabi’s Code: Uniformed code of laws etched into pillars called stlae to be a constant reminder of what was okay and what was not. Nature: - Detailed - Scribed on 8foottall stone - Justiceoriented Focus: - Favored older men. - Underlying thoughts of equality. - Justice for all. - Harsh punishment (Ex. Son hits father, son gets hand cut off). Comparison to Mosaic Law: - Justice. Given that the image of God is in all men, and given that the law of God is inscribed on the hearts of men, it comes as no surprise that some of the laws in Hammurabi’s Cod are just. - Civil order. If a people would apply Hammurabi’s Code and Moses, each offers insight as to how to create and sustain for civil order. 5. What were key military exploits had by Alexander the Great? Discuss his personal strengths/weaknesses and the legacy that survived him after his death. Key military exploits: - Defeated large Persian army in Issus. - Conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt. - Named capital cities after himself. - Won battle at Guagamela. - Appointed Persian governors and promoted partnership and participation. Strengths: - Merciless - Ruthless - Noble - Innovative Weaknesses: - Drunk - Quick to anger - Impulsive - Too bold Legacy: Alexander the great left a legacy by the Hellenistic Kingdoms, and also by spreading Greek culture throughout Asia, even though his empire fell shortly after his death, mostly due to political instability. 6. Construct an essay comparing Athens to Sparta. Take into account their terms of development during the Archaic and Classical periods. Discuss how their governments and societies differed, whether or not they tried to expand, and the role of women in these societies. Differences: - Population (140,000 in Athens, 100,000 in Sparta/Sparti) - Military (Service in Athens optional, service in Sparta mandatory) - Government (Democratic in Athens, Oligarchic in Sparta) - Gender roles (Girls in Athens uneducated, girls in Sparta bettereducated with more importance placed on them than in Athens) - Values (Intellect was important in Athens, strength was important in Sparta) Similarities: - Economy: strong dependency on agriculture - Location: in Greece - Type: citystate - Polytheistic 7. What does the word civilization mean? Discuss the six characteristics shared by all civilizations and include an example of the stages of civilization based on the civilizations discussed in class. Definition: An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached. Characteristics: 1. Urban focus. 2. Religion (Gods/Goddesses crucial to civilization’s success need to be worshipped) 3. Political, military and bureaucratic structure. 4. Social structure based on class, economic power. (More assets = more important) 5. Writing. (Record keeping, correspondence between different branches) 6. Monuments, artistic activity, poetry, etc. 8. According to Greek Religion, how was the world created? Discuss how the Greeks viewed their gods, the potentially moral dimensions to Greek Religion, and whether or not Greek Religion focuses more on the personal or public aspects of the relationships shared by humans and the gods. Creation of the world: - Chaos gave birth to Gaea (the Earth) and Eros. - Chaos gave birth to Erebus the darkness of the Underworldand Nyx (Night) - Gaea gave birth to Uranus (Sky) and Pontus (Sea). Uranus came first, emerging as Gaea's equal Greeks view of their gods: - Extreme respect for them - Admired them (demonstrated through rituals) - Feared them Possible moral dimensions: - Behavior - Greed (for honor/glory) - Jealousy Personal or public aspects of the relationship between humans and the gods: - More public, many ceremonies and rituals done in public. DO AN OUTLINE EX: I. Define the phalanx military formation II. Advantages (a few sentences) III. Disadvantages IV. Philip II of Macedon’s changes to the phalanx Remember to put the topic in a context by providing historical examples. EXTRA CREDIT POSSIBILITIES: Know the 10 Commandments. 1. You shall have no other gods before Me. 2. You shall not make idols. 3. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain. 4. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 5. Honor your father and your mother. 6. You shall not murder. 7. You shall not commit adultery. 8. You shall not steal. 9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 10. You shall not covet. Gods and Goddesses 1. Zeus King of Gods, Gods of thunder/lightning. Sleeps with everything. 2. Hera Queen of Gods, Goddess of marriage. 3. Hestia Goddess of the fireplace/heart. Seen as central to the home. 4. Demeter Goddess of the harvest/of the crops. (Series). 5. Poseidon God of the sea, earthquakes, building of city walls, and horses. 6. Apollo God of archery, music, medicine, plague, and prophecy (always unlucky in love). 7. Artemis Goddess of huntresses. 8. Aries God of war. 9. Aphrodite Goddess of love, sex, and beauty. 10. Hephaestus God of blacksmiths, beneficial fire, and volcanoes. 11. Athena Goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and just warfare. 12. Hermes Messenger God, God of thieves and merchants. 13. Dionysus God of wine. 14. Persephone Goddess of Springtime ** All live on Mount Olympus except Hades. 15. Hades loves Persephone. God of the underworld.
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