Introduction to Sociology Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology Study Guide SOCY 1001 001
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Gabriella Andreoni Cori
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Sperling on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 1001 001 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Andrea Harr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
+++ These terms were given to me by Andrea to know for the first test+++ +++Words in bold are the people who came up with the idea+++ Chapter 1- The Sociological Imagination Sociology- the study of groups of people in society Sociological Imagination- C. Wright Mills- Being aware of the social forces that shape our lives and define who we are as individuals 4 Components that Define Society- 1. Systematic Study 2. The individual 3. Society 4. The consequences of difference Functionalist Perspective (Functionalism) - The sociological approach to explaining how society is structured Micro vs. Macro Sociology- Micro- study of small groups of people; i.e. face to face interactions Macro- study of large groups of people; i.e. classroom interactions Conflict Perspective (macro) - mostly about power; states that social behavior is best understood when there is tension between groups Interactionist Perspective (Symbolic Interactionism) (micro) - sociological explanations of society as a whole as they interact on a daily basis Personal Sociology- recognizing the individual impact we have on society as an individual Chapter 2- Sociological Research Scientific Method- a systematic series to researching a specific problem Operational Definition- turning an abstract concept into something we can understand Causal Logic (causation) - a relationship where one variable makes another variable change; one variable causes something to happen Correlation- two variables coincide with each other; either positive (one goes up the other goes up or vice versa) or negative (one goes up and the other goes down) Validity- degree to which something truly reflects the variable being studied Reliability- degree to which something can produce consistent results Chapter 3- Culture Cultural Lag- period of time of adjustment from one culture to another Diffusion- spreading of culture from a beginning point Material vs. Nonmaterial Culture- Material- physical characteristics of distinct culture found in objects Nonmaterial- values, norms, etc. of a culture Nonverbal Communication- gestures, facial expressions, and other ways of communication other than speaking Norm- an established standard that most individuals of a society partake in; i.e. eye contact when speaking Folkway- norms, little concern when the boundaries of a norm is violated Mores- norm that is necessity in a society Sanction- either a reward or punishment concerning a norm Subculture- a smaller part of a culture with distinctive mores, folkways, and values; i.e. high school Culture shock- feelings of not belonging in a certain culture when interacting with another culture Ethnocentrism- tendency to feel that one’s own culture is dominant over others, and that their ways of culture are superior to others Culture relativism- seeing another culture through the perspective of their own Culture Universe- a trait common to most other culture in the world Chapter 4- Socialization Socialization- the process of acquiring attitudes, values, and behaviors for a specific culture over a person’s lifetime Self- knowing who we are based on social interactions; distinct from other people Looking-glass Self- Cooley- theory that states we act how we are based on the view others have on us Goffman- Dramaturgical approach- a view where people are actors trying to put on a successful performance Impression Management- altering our physical appearance in order to please others around us Gender roles- expected behaviors, attitudes, and activities regarding males and females (respectively) Life Course Approach- research where scientists study social factors that influence people from birth until death Anticipatory Socialization- people “rehearse” for future social interactions, jobs, and social relationships Resocialization- process of getting rid of certain behaviors and acquiring new ones Sandwich Generation- occurs when an individual lives with someone of an older generation and a younger generation Chapter 5- Social Structure and Interaction Social Structure- “skeleton” of society; consists of the roles individuals have and how they interact with one another Ascribed Status- people are usually born with their status without regard for their unique characteristics that may have them in another status Achieved Status- status that we can change; i.e. getting a better job Role Conflict- 2 or more social statuses conflict; i.e. when a parent has a job, and their kid gets sick Gemeinschaft- often in rural areas and the individuals living in the community have strong relationships Gesellschaft- often in urban areas and relationships are not as strong
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