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by: Michael Mitchell


Marketplace > BSCI207 > BSCI207
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This comprehensive study guide will cover implications of limits of diffusion and bulk flow and gas exchange in animals, all the material covered on our next exam this coming Friday, save for Monda...
Principles of Biology III - Organismal Biology
Leo Shapiro
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Mitchell on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSCI207 at a university taught by Leo Shapiro in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
th  Study Guide for   Exam #2 BSCI207  , Dr. Shapiro, University of Maryland, on   Friday, March 11  IMPLICATIONS OF LIMITS OF DIFFUSION (2/24/16) Countercurrent Exchange: fluids moving in opposite directions exchange heat. o BRAIN COOLING Helps brain not to overheat Cool blood comes from folded nasal passageways Even seen in some fish Endothermy: tissues warmed by metabolic heat production o Regional Endothermy: Tuna and other fish (along with other animals) Maintain heat in only a portion of the body Red swimming muscles Isothermal line: (where body temp. =ambient temp.) Tuna maintain temp. at slightly above this. Thermoregulation: maintenance of a relatively constant body temp. o Opah fish CELL MEMBRANES o Size and charge affect permeability and diffusion rate Getting ions and molecules across the cell membrane… Transport Proteins: carrier proteins, channels, and pumps TYPES of TRANSPORT o PASSIVE TRANSPORT (NO ENERGY REQUIRED) 1. Diffusion Across Membrane (NO TRANSPORT PROTEINS) 2. Facilitated Diffusion (Channels and carrier proteins) o ACTIVE TRANSPORT (ENERGY REQUIRED IN THE FORM OF ATP) (Pumping  AGAINST concentration gradient) 1. Protein pumps (Eg. Sodium­Potassium) Respiratory Pigments: blood proteins that combine with 02 to greatly increase the amount of 02  that can be dissolved in the blood. o Vertebrates have hemoglobin in red blood cells Icefish hold 02 without hemoglobins 02 higher solubility in cold water Higher metabolic rate in cold water o Human Erythropoietin (EPO) doping GAS EXCHANGE AND BULK FLOW IN ANIMALS (2/26/16 through 3/4/16)  Partial pressure: hypothetical pressure of a gas if it alone occupied the volume of the gas  mixture at the same temperature. Partial pressure = % volume  x  total pressure  Partial pressure and concentration NOT the same, but CORRELATED: C=KP     and   C/P=K Where P=partial pressure, C=concentration, and K=solubility constant specific to gas, solvent, and temp.  Lower temp. = higher K  CO2 VS O2 o C02 more polar than 02  Dissolves easier in water (polar)  Creates carbonic acid in water  Higher temp. = less 02 available  02 availability is a limiting factor for metabolism in warm water  Gases will diffuse from a region of higher partial pressure (P) to a region of lower P o **HOWEVER… CAN diffuse from lower C to higher C IF P is higher where C is  lower.**  DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS o Bubble of inert gas (eg. N2) form in blood and tissue when gases come out of solution  too quickly from drop in ambient pressue.  C02 in an opened can of soda o The “bends” can affect divers breathing pressurized air rising to the surface too quickly.  Water pressure increases by around 1 atmosphere for every additional 10 meters below sea level, ADDITIONAL TO THE 1 ATMOSPHERE OF PRESSURE OF THE AIR.  Take a breath at surface, descend to 20 m depth…   Your lungs would shrink! (compression)  Could you breathe off a 20 m hose from the surface?  No, because the air pressure you’re breathing wouldn’t be able to fill your lungs  at the 20 m water pressure (1 atm. air vs. 3 atm. water). You couldn’t breathe.  Why divers have to breath pressurized air to match water depth.  If total air pressure in diver’s lungs at 20 m depth is 2 atm…. o What is partial pressure of N2? In lung air at this depth? Air is 78% N2.  (0.78) * (3 atm.) = 2.3 atm.  Free Diver Decompression Sickness o N2 increases with depth, but a free diver will not experience decompression sickness  until after multiple consecutive dives.  Bends, Caisson disease (workers in air filled tunnel below water) Symptoms: bends (pain in joints), creeps, chokes, staggers, etc.  Nitrox: mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (different than that of air) o Less danger of bends, more danger of O2 toxicity (takes hold faster than the bends),  pulmonary damage, etc.  Should NOT fly in a plane after dive…  Air plane in an airplane is not equilibrated to sea level. BULK FLOW: ANIMAL CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS AND GAS EXCHANGE  OPEN circulatory system o Blood is not fully contained in vessels, at one point moves freely across organs and  muscles  CLOSED circulatory system o Blood completely contained in blood vessels.  Arteries: FROM heart.  Veins: TO heart.  Arterioles o Muscular walls that contract and relax to direct blood flow.  NARROWING OF ARTERIES: o Narrowing diameter by 1/4 affecting flow rate?? Raise percentage to the fourth! o 0.75^4= 1/3 of the original flow rate (not ¾). o This is an ESTIMATE  Circulatory Systems: o FISH:  One circuit (heart to gills (oxygenate) through system, back to heart)  Blood loses velocity, slow moving o MAMMALS AND BIRDS:  Double Circuit (heart to lungs (oxygenate), back to heart, through system, back  to heart.  Moves freshly oxygenated blood faster through system  Heart with four chambers, 2 atriums and 2 ventricles o CEPHALOPOD  3 hearts  2 pumping through pulmonary, 1 through systemic o AMPHIBIAN AND NON­AVIAN REPTILES  Two atria and one partially divided ventricle  Both oxygen rich and depleted blood enter and leave (blood mixes)  Systole: ventricles contract  Diastole: ventricles relax  Artery Walls: stabilize blood pressure HEMOGLOBIN AND O2 IMPORT  Alveoli in lungs have high PP, and so lowly saturated blood takes up the 02 built up in the lungs  Oxygen Dissociation o Hemoglobin molecule has evolved 02­binding properties that make it oxygenate well at  o2­ PP in lungs. o O2 BOUND TO HEMOGLOBIN DOES NOT HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH O2  PP IN BLOOD  Only for molecules freely diffused in blood o A partially oxygenated hemoglobin is MORE LIKELY to bind to o2 than to a completely deoxygenated hemoglobin  O2 binds with an iron atom in globin protein  When BREATHING, fresh air mixes with stale air in center of lungs, and so PP at the O2  exchange surface is below the environmental air o As O2 diffuses, PP in the blood rises  HOWEVER, the O2 PP in the blood leaving the exchange remains lower than the O2 PP of the exhaled air.  Most terrestrial vertebrate lungs have tidally ventilated lungs. o Air enters and exits the same way  Pneumonia: Infection (bacterial or viral) in lung o Inflames lungs, filling alveoli with fluid rather than air 3/7/16 NOTES and 3/9/16 NOTES to come! GOOD LUCK ON THE EXAM!!


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