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by: Cassandra Miller

studyguidefortest1.pdf CC 205 1

Cassandra Miller
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This study guide covers a few themes that repeat in different myths.
Mythologies of the World
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassandra Miller on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CC 205 1 at Ball State University taught by King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Mythologies of the World in Classical Studies at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 02/19/16
Flood myths Mesopotamia (Babylonian) flood 2000s BC Told by Utnapishtim to Gilgamesh then is written in the epic of Gilgamesh "a secret": distance between the gods and humanity The gods were unknown and unknowable They are divided, arbitrary and mysterious  Some care about humanity  Most are either indifferent or hostile to human  Only immortals can know the matters of the gods Came first The people had many gods - each had divided functions The great flood was the result of a whim of the Gods Enlil or Ellil (a God) was mad that there were too many people in the world so he devised a plan to make a flood to kill them all The other gods were terrified and sad when the flood began Ea is the trickster God - he sent a message to Utnapishtim in a dream to build a boat. The boat only took 7 days to build The story goes on and on about the precious metals that were on the boat It was filled with animals, the mans family, and the crafts people who helped build the boat The flood lasted 6 days and 7 nights A swallow, a raven and a dove were sent out to find land The boat ended up being anchored to a mountain A sacrifice was made to all the gods besides Enlil. They are compared to flies being drawn to the sacrifice This hints that the gods were seen as greedy, thoughtless, and out for their own good The Mesopotamian people did not respect their gods Enlil vs Ea: Utnapishtim and his wife are made immortal Israel (Hebrew): Noah It is clearly based on the older Babylonian one but it emphasizes the idea of humanity's sinfulness Yahweh regrets creating humanity The flood is a punishment Noah is saved by Elohim for righteousness and nonviolence so that humankind can be reborn in a cleansed state It is harsh but constructive Elohim commands for one pair of each kind of animal Yahweh commands seven pairs of each clean kind and one pair of each unclean kind - only clean animals can be sacrificed Yahweh sends the rain. This flood lasted 40 days and 40 nights Elohim states that rains come over the earth for 150 days A raven and a dove were sent out to see if there was land three times Once the water drained the arch was on a mountain Noah sacrifices (One of each animal was sacrificed) Elohim commands Noah to be fruitful and multiply Permits the eating of meat Enacts the death penalty Creates a rainbow to symbolize covenant Common Pattern Powerful male god decides to destroy humanity All of humanity is destroyed in the flood Except for a particularly pious man and his family are saved in a board The boat comes down onto a mountain There is a sacrifice made to the gods The earth is repopulated by the survivors Greek Myth Zeus and Lycaon and the wickedness of mortals Zeus (Jupiter) hears rumors that mankind was very wicked He disguised himself as a man and came down among them Greeks practiced hospitality He witnessed Lycaon (a tyrant) commit murder and cannibalism He fed the person to Zeus Zeus turns Lycaon into a wolf and decided to flood the earth Etiologies of the wolf Testing and offending the gods brings punishment Iris (messenger god) and Neptune (God of the sea) helped with the flood Those who were not killed died of starvation Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha were saved from the flood In a small boat That ended up in the mountains where Dephi is later located Doesn’t give a time period for the flood Deucalion and his wife wept over the loss of every other human They went to the temple and prayed to the goddess Themis (goddess of justice) Deucalion made a sacrifice The goddess ordered "Go away from my temple, cover your heads and unloose the fastenings of your garments, and toss the bones of the great mother behind your back" This was interpreted into the mother being earth and stones being her bones Understanding the riddles of gods brings success The stones thrown over their back transformed in to human beings "Hence we are a hard race and used to toils and offer proof of the origin from which we were sprung" Emphasis on the Gods working together Greeks are considered older and different than all other humans - etiologies of different human races Deucalion and Pyrrha is also had their own son, Hellen (Greeks are called Hellas) Nature Divinities Demeter Mother Goddess and Fertility Goddess Associated with children not household She is a sexual goddess Brings life out of the womb and the soil She is the sister of Zeus, Hera, Hades, Daughter with Zeus is Persephone Son with someone else, Plutus (wealth) The myth of Demeter and Persephone Persephone and Demeter are picking flowers in a field Zeus gave Persephone to Hades as a wife Cronus captured her from earth Demeter searched the earth for 9 days When she found out she left Olympus and disguised herself as human on earth Wanders to Eleusis Two people offer her lodging and something to drink Demeter nurses Demophoon (the peoples son) Demeter gives the baby something to become immortal Metaneira - the mother is enraged when she catches Demeter putting Demophoon in the fire The kid is not immortal but close to the gods Because Demeter is depressed she has stopped crops form growing Zeus sends Hermes to persuade Hades to let Persephone go - gives Persephone a pomegranate to eat Demeter and Persephone are reunited Because she ate the pomegranate she must live with Hades part of the year Etiology for seasons This explains winter Triptolemus Acts a culture hero Works on behalf of Demeter to bring agriculture to humanity Roman Counter part of Demeter - Ceres Grain Earth goddess not mother goddess Associated with the common people Takeaways Fertility and nurturing of the ground, fertility and nurturing of humanity Person death, agricultural death Dead animals fertilize the ground so plants can grow The cycles of nature The independence of nature from civilizing control The limits of negotiation among gods Japanese culture Shinto is the most common religion Based on locality, Kami (mysterious reality), nature, hierarchy Emphasizes shrines being made out of nature (wood) Emphasizes honor between people and hierarchies 80 thousand shrines to gods Care deeply about preserving nature Japanese: Amaterasu and Susanowo Amaterasu - sun goddess Shinto cult consider her to be the ancestor of the Japanese emperors This story is told by Padraic Colum Struggle between male and female creator gods Amaterasu is ruler of the heavens and sky She is benevolent and caring but has the ability of violence Took care of the harvests, plants, people, temples Her bother, Susanowo is ruler of the seas and storms Unruly and wild Tormented people and destroyed crops One day they made a truce They exchanged tokens Amaterasu gave jewels Susanowo gave his sword They drank from the high heaven's river, the Yasu and put the tokens in their mouths From Amaterasu was born a son From Susanowo was born gods of growth and power Harvest were plentiful for a while Amaterasu claims that all of the children are technically hers This upset Susanowo so he came forth from the waters again and destroyed crops and threw people around Amaterasu hid in a cavern and refused to come out The other 8 million gods cut off Susanowo's beard and took away his powers A god, Ohkuninushi, came and took his daughter and prized possessions Susanowo and his family lit a fire outside of Amaterasu's cavern and danced and sang in joy They brought Cocks, the birds of the high land Finally she came out Susanowo planted the hairs of beard by a mountain and they became the forest of Kii He became lord of the forest He slayed dragons in the forest He saved a woman from a dragon(snake) and she became his wife He gave the sword he used to Amaterasu and their relationship was mended Takeaways Hierarchy and familial relations as parts of nature Human dependence on the irregularity of nature The importance of social harmony Japanese interest in mirrors Magical Corn Mother From the Penobscot native Americans There was only an All-maker A young was born of the sea, wind, and sun A woman was born from a dew drop on a leaf They conceived the people of the earth People farm and they are happy so the All-make goes away3 As the amount of people increased the amount of animals decreased until the people ran out of food The first mother was sad so the father went in search of the all-maker The first mother was killed and drug by her sons After 7 days they returned to find green land and plants Her fruit (flesh) was sweet Her bones were buried and in their place grew a plant They burned the plants leaves to make their prayers effective The children remember their mother when they smoke and eat corn so she is living over and over again Takeaways Shows a symbiotic relationship between humanity and the earth Drama in the potential for damaging the earth An ideal family A self-sacrificing mothering figure Etiology of the transition form hunter-gatherers to agriculture Civilization Hephaestus, the Divine Artisan God of creative fire and divine smith, metalworkers Also god of all fire He is said to be ugly Becomes lame when Zeus throws him from Olympus Can only walk because he fashioned himself gold leg braces He is a support god Child of Zeus and Hera or born of only Hera Major role is to create things of extraordinary beauty and utility Shield of Achilles Houses for all of the gods on Olympus He showed his power best when he evaporated a river in order to save Achilles A gathering at Zeus and Hera's house He comforts Hera in order to avoid abuse from Zeus By telling the story of how he was thrown from Olympus making himself seem pitiful He pours sweet nectar into everyone's cups at this gathering The other gods laugh at him His wife is Aphrodite - strange and tempestuous marriage The union of the beauty and deformed The intellectual and sensual Aphrodite cheats with Ares Demodocus sings a song about Hephaestus's sorrow Hephaestus is so mad when he finds out his wife is cheating that he goes to his black smith shop and begins making unbreakable chains He used them to hang the bed from the rafters The chains were so fine no one could see them Hephaestus pretended to travel to Lemnos Ares went to Aphrodite and they went to the bed to make love They were trapped by Hephaestus's device Hephaestus yells to the gods to come look Everyone laughs about the whole situation and doesn’t take pity for Hephaestus He ends up letting them go and they both run off Erichthonius Poseidon tells Hephaestus that Athena loves him When Athena comes to Hephaestus for weapons he is very nervous and tried to hug her She pushes him off of her but he ejaculates on her thigh when she wipes it off it goes into the dirt and Erichthonius is born His is an early king of Athens Therefore Hephaestus and Athena are the mother and father of Athens Charis is another god that Hephaestus is married to She much less popular than his other wives and is the best fit for him Takeaways Reflects the (usually low) status of metal workers in Ancient Greece God who is always trying to serve and please Vulcan and Hephaestus are very different but the closest match between Greek and Roman Gods Romans lacked a craftman god Theme: Sexuality can lead to frustration or happiness Aphrodite – Greek Homeric Hymn: Zeus, Anchises Aphrodite brings feelings of irreversible attractions Zeus makes Aphrodite fall in love with Anchises Aphrodite disguises herself as a mortal Anchises sees the woman and falls in love right away Aphrodite shows herself to Anchises He is really scared Anchises wants to be immortal Aphrodite refuses She makes him old right away Tells him not to brag or Zeus will strike him down with a thunderbolt In one version Zeus tries Aphrodite blocks it with her girdle but Anchises is still hit some and made lame Illicit attraction: you are not supposed to indulge Sexual activity outside of the bond of marriage Ares: Aphrodite was his first sexual encounter outside of marriage Hermes: the night after being caught with Ares she made love to Hermes Helen of tray and Paris: Aphrodite gave Paris the most beautiful woman of the world Aphrodite breaks up Helen's marriage by making her fall in love with Paris This was the cause of the Trojan war Apache: the Vagina girls – native American There were no vaginas except for in this one house Four girls actually had human bodies with vaginas Men would go to the house and be kicked into it by the girls' father, kicking monster Then the girls would eat him because their vaginas had teeth Killer-of-enemies went to the house and out smarted kicking monster One inside he gave the girls medicine that puckered their lips and removed their teeth This made vaginas into what they are today Cupid and Psyche Physche is a beautiful mortal She is sent to a mountain top to marry a serpent monster because she is too beautiful to find a husband Cupid (Eros) falls in love with her Gives her a palace to live in but tells her she may not look at him and find out how he his Her sisters convince her that he is the serpent monster She prepares a knife and lantern to kill him When she goes to look at him she realizes it is cupid and is in love but she accidently burns him with wax Cupid goes to his mother Aphrodite (Venus) Psyche searches for Cupid Both of her sisters end up jumping over cliffs She is given impossible tasks Collect a heap of mixed grains - an ant helps her Collect thick golden fleeces from dangerous sheep - a reed helps her Collect water from a stream guarded by a dragon - the eagle of Jupiter helps her Finally she had to take a box to Persephone in the underworld A mountain tells her directions She ends up looking in the box and falling into a deep sleep Cupid saves her and she is turned immortal They get married Family rivalries Japanese: Amaterasu and Susanowo Amaterasu - sun goddess Shinto cult consider her to be the ancestor of the Japanese emperors This story is told by Padraic Colum Struggle between male and female creator gods Amaterasu is ruler of the heavens and sky She is benevolent and caring but has the ability of violence Took care of the harvests, plants, people, temples Her bother, Susanowo is ruler of the seas and storms Unruly and wild Tormented people and destroyed crops One day they made a truce They exchanged tokens Amaterasu gave jewels Susanowo gave his sword They drank from the high heaven's river, the Yasu and put the tokens in their mouths From Amaterasu was born a son From Susanowo was born gods of growth and power Harvest were plentiful for a while Amaterasu claims that all of the children are technically hers This upset Susanowo so he came forth from the waters again and destroyed crops and threw people around Tensions with Athena Poseidon and Athena (his niece) Athena is calm/civilized - Poseidon is the wildest god Competed to be the Patron of Athens Athena gives an olive tree Poseidon gives horses Athena wins but Poseidon is the second important Patron Trying to overthrow Zeus Hera, Poseidon and Apollo tie Zeus up Thetis is a sea nymph She tells a one hundred handed monster to save him Zeus strings up Hera by golden bracelets from the sky Apollo and Poseidon are forced to build the wall of Troy


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