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MSU / Biology / BIOL 1144 / What do stems and roots have in common?

What do stems and roots have in common?

What do stems and roots have in common?


School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology II
Professor: Thomas holder
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Biology
Cost: 25
Name: BIO 1144 Sec 03 Test 2 Bundle
Description: Hey! So like I did for test 1, this is the test 2 bundle which is basically all of my notes in one bundle. This has all the material needed for test 2! I hope this helps!
Uploaded: 02/19/2016
19 Pages 66 Views 2 Unlocks

Shoot: Leaves and Stem  

What do stems and roots have in common?

 photosynthesis support leaves and transport  


1°Growth = elongation  

Shoot tip:  

• Bud- inside is the SAM (Shoot Apical Meristem)  

• Shoot- I.s. (Inside the bud)  

Bud = New shoot  

Node = Any point  

along the stem  

where a leaf, bud  

or branch arises  

Internode = The  

region between  

two nodes;  

Elongation occurs  

within these

(Brooker, et al. 722)

What's another name for hormones?

Leaf C.S.

Dicot Leaf  

• Net venation  Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the father of epidemiology?

Stems: 1°Growth - mostly above ground  

Monocots  If you want to learn more check out When is the pre-civil war happen?

• 1°Growth (elongation)  


 -scattered VBs  


• Vascular Bundles  

Monocot Leaf  

• Parallel venation  


• 1°growth (elongation)  

• 2°growth (expansion)  

 - ringed VBs (-pith, -cortex)

VC and CC both retain cell division properties to produce "rings" of 2°tissues inside/outside of the cambium  ring  

• VC and CC are Lateral Meristem (expansion)  

 = 2°growth (2°tissues)  


• Inside  

What are the effects of gibberllins?

◦ 2°xylem =wood; (conducts H2O/minerals)  

• Outside  

◦ 2°phloem = inner bark (conducts solutes)  


• Inside  • Outside  If you want to learn more check out What is the study between music and other aspects of culture?

Periderm = outer bark  

Replaces epidermis and cortex  

2°Growth in Stems (dicots)  • Stem (after 3 years 2°growth)  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between generalization and discrimination?

Begins late 1st year

Comparison between Plant Organs:  

• Leaves - 1°Growth only  

◦ Divot - net venation  

◦ Monocot - parallel venation  

• Roots - monocots - 1°  

◦ Dicots - 1° & 2° (most)  

• Stem  

◦ Monocots -1°  

◦ Dicots - 1° & 2° (most)  

• Roots - endodermis and pericycle  

◦ Monocot - pith and cortex  

◦ Dicot - cortex (xylem @ cortex)  

• Stems  

◦ Monocot - scattered VBs -no pith or cortex  ◦ Dicot - pith and cortex, VBs in ring  Don't forget about the age old question of Define agriculture.

1°Growth = Elongation (Apical Meristems- cork cambium)  • 1°tissues  

2°Growth = expansion (vascular cambium - cork cambium)  • 2°tissues

Regulation of Plant Growth  

• Hormones - "chemical messengers"  

◦ Travels from one place to another to initiate a response  

◦ Mostly internal; transported in phloem tissue  

◦ Interact with external environmental factors  

‣ Temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture  

◦ Growth, seed germination, flowering, fruiting, shedding leaves, color loss leaves  ◦ Growth Inhibiting  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the unemployment types?

‣ Mostly in fall/winter  

◦ Growth Promoting  

‣ Mostly in spring/summer  

◦ All hormones require ATP energy for transport.  

5 Hormones  

• Auxins  

◦ Produced in shoot tips, leaves, fruits, and seeds  

◦ Growth promoting hormones  

◦ All hormones require ATP energy investment for transport (phloem)  

◦ Effects  

‣ Promote cell elongation  

‣ Promote stem elongation  

‣ Promote stem expansion  

‣ Promote the development of fruit  

‣ Inhibits bud development  

‣ Inhibits the abscission (a layer of cells develop and a part snaps off) of leaves, flowers, fruits  • Cytokinins  

◦ Growth promoters  

◦ Produced in seeds, fruits, and roots  

◦ Effects  

‣ Promotes cytokinesis and cell division  

‣ Promote the development of buds  

‣ Inhibit leaf senescence (loss and breakdown of chlorophyll; change in color)  

(Brooker, et al. 717)

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