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UGA / History / HIST 2112 / When is the pre-civil war happen?

When is the pre-civil war happen?

When is the pre-civil war happen?


School: University of Georgia
Department: History
Course: American History Since 1865
Professor: Rohrer
Term: Spring 2016
Cost: 25
Name: World War I and the Red Scare
Description: These notes discuss WWI: how it started, how it ended, and why the US became involved as well as noting the Red Scare.
Uploaded: 02/19/2016
5 Pages 57 Views 1 Unlocks

World War I and the Red Scare

When is the pre-civil war happen?

• Pre-Civil War: 1913

o Segregation, racism, labor unrest, and urban poverty still exist – social upheavals o Some improvement of the past

▪ New labor/consumer laws

▪ Women suffrage  

▪ New faith in science

▪ Presence of hands on federal government

▪ Life is/can be better – confidence

▪ Reform was not slowing down

▪ Warms and vilence were relics of the past

• “war is now obsolete”

• “there will never be another war in Europe again”

I. Intro to WWI (1914-1918)

• Great Britain, France, Russia (Allies)

In what year does palmer prove how crazy he is about red scare?

• Germany, Austria Hungary (Central Powers)

• Most bloody and destructive war in world history yet

• “modern” industrial war

• 1914-1918: millions died

o ex. 20,000 died in a single day at a battle If you want to learn more check out What is the study between music and other aspects of culture?

• “total war” – millions of deaths committing entire society and all resources • majority of fighting in France

• June, 1914 – Austria Hungary arch duke (part of royal family) was killed by  Serbian

o Why Europe? – alliances  

▪ Germany and Austria Hungary

▪ Great Britain and France

▪ France and Russia

What are the two impactful laws?

▪ Etc.

• Imperialism, competing political ideas quest for power – imperial war • We will not enter war until 1917

o Join side of allies – victorious

II. WWI and Its Effects on the United States

• The Great Migration

o Many industrial jobs

▪ Factories in North and Mid-West

▪ Attract thousands of Americans, especially African Americans

• Close to ½ of African American population leave the south  

for jobs

• The Decline of Progressivism

o WWI led to death of progressivism

▪ Bloody war made it seem naive

▪ Worldwide death of progressivism after two decades of  Don't forget about the age old question of Define teratogen.
If you want to learn more check out Define agriculture.


▪ Lost generation of young men in Europe and 112,000  

Americans died

o Woodrow Wilson

▪ World peace ideas at end of WWI

▪ The 14 Points

• Classic progressive ideas

• Planned for united nations

o League of Nations (UN did not exist yet)

▪ Architect for World Peace

• Receives little support for 14 Points especially from Europe

• Kills idea of progressivism in international affairs

• The Red Scare Don't forget about the age old question of What are the unemployment types?

o Started with Anti-German sentiment during WWI Don't forget about the age old question of What are the stresses major branches of learning?

o 1917-1920

o Witness repression and violence in Germany

o 1919-1920

▪ thousands of Americans arrested, jailed and deported for left  

wing support  

• unconstitutional laws

• prohibit WWI revolt, capitalism, etc.

o biggest mass violation of US rights

III. The Anti-War Movement in WWI

• Those who don’t support US entrance to WWI

• “Progressive Doubters”

o felt war interfered with cleaning up problems at home

▪ poverty competition, and inequality need more energy

o scared progressivism would die

o gap between war supporters said and social realities at home

o contradicting – making the world democratic, yet suffering at home o Alice Paul – white house protests

▪ Mobs, sent to psychiatric wards

• Isolationists and Anti-Imperialists If you want to learn more check out What is a requirement to be a senate?

o Isolationists

▪ Believe that we should avoid foreign entanglements

▪ Tragic mistake to get involved

o Anti-Imperialists

▪ Did not believe in taking over land

▪ Our moral obligation to avoid imperialist wars

• Labor Protestors

o Strongest voice

o Socialists and hard core labor unions

o Even though jobs were increasing due to war

o Although there were more jobs produced from war, it also hurt  

American workers

▪ Inflation

• No gains in wages

▪ Capped wages

▪ Greater hours

▪ Government suspense safety regulations, work hour limits,  

laws against child labor

o 1916-1920

▪ over one million workers go on strike

o rich man’s war, poor man’s fight

o Eugene Debs

▪ Anti-WWI activist

▪ Power struggles between imperialistic, capitalistic and  

exploited European powers

• Loyalty (pro-WWI Americans) becomes political issue

o Anti-WWI were ridiculed, abused, harassed, killed – “dangerous” to  America

IV. The Reaction to Anti-War and Far Left-wing Activities

• “left” – feminists, laborers, progressives, anti-WWI activists, communists • Anti-German Feelings and “Nativism”

o German Americans told to kiss the American flag at gun point

o Burnings

o Sauerkraut ???? Liberty cabbage

o At least one lynching

o 100% American support

o American protective league  

▪ 250,000 members

• funding from government

o society and government were anti-German

• U.S. Legislative/ Executive Reactions

o Post Office Censorship

▪ Refuse to mail newspaper/magazine critical to war/draft

o Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917

▪ Act requires foreign language newspaper in US must submit  

English versions about things regarding the war to government  

before publication

• Expensive

• Put many out of business

• Committee on Public Information (CPI)

o Woodrow Wilson

▪ Propaganda organization

o Anti-German/Anti-Left-Wing

o Why war was necessary

o Pro war, anti-German terrorist groups

• Two Impactful Laws

o Espionage Act of 1917

▪ Mission posed by Congress

• Sentences up to 20 years and $10,000 fine for persons  

“aiding the enemy”, “disallow recruitment of soldiers” etc.

▪ 6,000 Americans detained

o Sedition Act of 1918

▪ Oppose harsh penalties using harsh/abusive language about  

government, the flag, soldiers, etc.

• 1,500 arrested

• 10,000 hurt badly by this law

▪ Liberal Union members were anti-war

▪ Federal government monitors their mail and arrests some  


• Supreme Court Reactions

o Anti-democratic laws

o Shenk vs. United States (1919) Supreme Court Case

▪ It was okay to repress one’s speech if the conditions were right

• Challenges first amendment rights

V. Palmer Raids (as part of Red Scare)

• Letter Bombs mailed to 30 government officials

o Sent to anti-communists

o Many discovered and disarmed

o Some blew up

▪ A. Mitchell Palmer – attorney general of US

o Felt communists from across seas sent these

• A. Mitchell Palmer, J Edgar Hoover and the “radical Division” o Investigate and arrest communists

o Several small raids to union headquarters

o Arrest several hundred and deported

• “Red Ark” deportations

o sent them to Russia

o 1919-1920

o most raids committed by federal government

• January 1920: some 10,000 people arrested

o over 10,000 Americans arrested

o many searches are illegal – no warrants

o arrested people received no bail and/or illegal representation – illegal o 5 socialism government officials thrown out of office

▪ made socialists scared

▪ federal government suddenly has so much power

• Mitchell’s May Day Warnings and the end of the Scare

o 1920 – Palmer proves how crazy he is about Red Scare

o May Day (May 1st, 1920) announced that huge communist uprising  will occur and US needs to act before this happens with more arrests

o May Day 1920 – nothing happens

o Red Scare finally dies down

▪ Throws country into terror and suppress discussion –

legislature at the time – see danger of Red Scare

VI. Effects Linger

• 1920’s – conservatism (right) vs. 19-teens – progressivism (left)

• union membership declines

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