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TULANE / Psychology / PSYC 1010 / Define teratogen.

Define teratogen.

Define teratogen.

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Melinda fabian
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Fabian PSYC 1000: 15-19 Feb Notes
Description: Chapters 5 and 7
Uploaded: 02/19/2016
7 Pages 39 Views 3 Unlocks
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CH 5: Developing Through Life Span


Define teratogen.



Major Issues of Developmental Psych

Nature and nurture – how do our inherent traits interact with our experiences

Continuity and stages – what parts of development happen abruptly vs.  which parts happen over time

Stability and change – which traits are stable through our whole life and  which are not

Widest smilers in yearbooks – most likely to enjoy enduring marriages

Prenatal Development

Zygote – conception to implantation (10 days – 2 weeks)

Embryo – weeks 3-8 (organogenesis completed by 8 weeks) Fetus – week 9 until birth

Fetal Life

Teratogens – substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the  developing embryo or fetus (alcohol, smoking, drugs, STDs, illnesses)

Inborn Skills (Competent Newborn)


What is the difference between generalization and discrimination?



If you want to learn more check out Define gross domestic product (gdp).

Reflexes – responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned (rooting  reflex, sucking reflex, crying)

Habituation – a way to ask infants what they see and remember, your brain  shifting attention away from things you do not need to notice, unconscious,  “getting used to it” (babies became bored with red triangle then got excited  when they saw a yellow triangle; confirms that babies can see color)

Babies have an inherently strong attraction to human faces Newborns can distinguish their own mother’s smell

Infancy and Childhood

Maturation – referring to biologically-driven growth

In general, sequence of motor development is universal

Brain cortex overproduces neurons, connections among neurons proliferate,  pruning process eliminates unused connections


What is pavlov's legacy?



Cognitive Development

Cognition – mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,  remembering, and communicating

Jean Piaget

Cognitive development theory – children are internally motivated to make  sense of their experiences, children grow by maturation and learning through interacting with their environments Don't forget about the age old question of How to understand unemployment?

Had a stage theory of cognitive development that it was a discontinuous  process

Felt that kids in their sensorimotor stage (newborn to 2 years old) did not  think abstractly but there was no technology to improve it

Now there is evidence that kids can notice violation in physics (gravity) and  babies stare longer and with surprise when numbers do not make sense  

Maturing beyond egocentrism We also discuss several other topics like What are the stresses major branches of learning?

Theory of mind – the ability to understand that others have their own  thoughts and perspective

Autism spectrum disorders

Children with disorders on the autism spectrum have difficulties establishing  mutual social interaction, use language and play symbolically, displaying  flexibility with routines

Have trouble mental mirroring

Social development

Attachment – emotional tie to a person

Origins of attachment – experiments with monkeys suggest that attachment  is based on physical affection and comfortable body contact, not being  rewarded with food (babies need physical touch)

Adolescence

Transition period from childhood to adult

Puberty – brain stops automatically adding new neural connections and  “rewires” to become more efficient (pruning, coating well-used connections  in myelin to speed up nerves)

Emotional limbic system gets wired for puberty before frontal judgment  center of the brain gets wired for adulthood

Adolescents may understand risks and consequences but give more weight  to potential thrills and rewards

Adolescence: Parent and Peer Relationships

Peer relationships take center stage during adolescence

Adolescents still see parents as primary influence in career, religion, and  politics If you want to learn more check out Where do their own views come into play?

Most parent-adolescent conflict is over minor daily life issues (like cleaning  room)

Attachment relationship changes but is still needed

Well-Being Across Lifespan

Life-satisfaction is a pretty stable trait

Older people attend less to the negative and more to the positive, more  likely to have accumulated many mildly positive memories, increased state  of competence and control

CH 7: Learning

Learning – process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or  behaviors

Associative Learning

Classical conditioning – learning that two stimuli go together Operant conditioning – behavior and consequence

Cognitive learning

Mental learning

Occurs when observing events and behaviors of others, using language to  acquire information (like in class)

Behaviorism

Watson – proponent of classical conditioning

BF Skinner – operant conditioning

Mental life less important than behavior

Ivan Pavlov

Salivation in dogs

Before conditioning – neural stimulus (ring a bell, no salivation)  unconditioned stimulus and response

During conditioning – ringing bell and giving dogs food

After conditioning – begin to salivate upon hearing the bell, attracted to  sound

Acquisition  

Initial stage of learning/conditioningWe also discuss several other topics like How decisions are influenced?

Association between neural stimulus (NS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) –  food is given when bell rings

Unconditioned response (UR) gets triggered by CS (conditioned stimulus) –  drooling is triggered by bell

NS must be before US

Extinction

Diminishing of a conditioned response

If food stops appearing with bell, CR decreases

Spontaneous Recovery

Return of CR despite lack of further conditioning

Generalization and Discrimination

Generalization – tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by  related stimuli, MORE stuff makes dogs drool (scratching triggered drooling)

Discrimination – learned ability to respond only to specific stimuli, LESS stuff  makes dogs drool (slightly different pitches did not make dogs drool)

Pavlov’s Legacy

Insight about conditioning – it occurs in all creatures

Studying objectively

Idea of triggers

John B Watson: Playing with Fear

Nine month old not afraid of white rat

White rat brought out with scary clanging sound

Nine month old then developed fear of rats and other soft and furry things Operant ConditioningWe also discuss several other topics like How do you express doubt or uncertainty using the subjunctive?

Adjusting to the consequences of our behavior so we can learn what works  and what doesn’t work

Act of chosen behavior (“response”) is followed by a reward or punishment

Reinforced behavior is more likely to be tried again; punished behavior is less likely

Thorndike’s Law of Effect

Puzzle box – cats were rewarded with food if they solved the puzzle Cats took less time to escape after repeated trials

Law of effect – behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more  likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less  likely

B.F. Skinner Operant Chamber

Extended Thorndike’s principles

Pioneered more controlled methods of studying conditioning

“skinner box” – allowed detailed tracking of rates of behavior change in  response to different rates of reinforcement

Reinforcement

Only feedback from environment that makes a behavior more likely to occur Positive (adding) reinforcement – adding something desirable

Negative (taking away) reinforcement – ending something unpleasant, NOT  punishment

Shaping Behavior

When a creature is not likely to randomly perform an exact behavior, you can reward any behavior that is close to the one desired

Discrimination

Ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a  response

Dogs rats and even spiders can be trained to search for very specific smells  from drugs to explosives

How Often to Reinforce?

Skinner experiments with reinforcements in different patterns or schedules to determine which worked best to establish and maintain a target behavior

Continuous reinforcement – reward every time, subject acquires desired  behavior quickly, good to establish but not maintain behavior

Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement – give rewards part of the time, target  behavior takes longer to be established but persists longer without reward,  good to maintain but not establish

Operant Effect: Punishment

Punishments – opposite effect of reinforcement, consequences make target  behavior less likely to occur in the future

Positive punishment – adding something unpleasant

Negative punishment – take away something pleasant

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