Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide FNR 252
Popular in Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
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FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 1: INTRODUCTION AND FROG CALLS Emily McCallen Kate Pochini Herps PFEN G004 PFEN G004 Instructors firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Dr. Ken Kellner PFEN 126 firstname.lastname@example.org Birds Dana Nelson Patrick Ruhl ClassSchedule Section 004 Herps Open Lab TH 1:30 – 3:20 Labs: Jan. 12 – Feb 19 th Specimens and Questions Practical: Feb. 23 and 25 th Herps: Friday Section 006 Birds 9:30 –11:30 Kate T 1:30 – 3:20 1:30 – 3:30 Emily Labs: March 1 – April 15 th Birds: TBD Practical: April 19 and 21 st Snakes of the Central and Northeastern RequiredT exts United States The Sibley Guide to Birds Salamanders of Indiana Turtles of Indiana MacGowan. Purdue David Sibley. 2014. The Extension. 126 pp. Sibley Guide to Birds, MacGowan and Williams. MacGowan, Kingsbury Second Edition. Knopf. Purdue Extension. 94 pp. and Williams. Purdue 624 pp. ISBN-10: Extension. 64 pp. 030795790X; ISB-13: 978- 0307957900. OrderingT exts Herp Texts Education store for online ordering: https://mdc.itap.purdue.edu/default.asp Physical store for in person purchasing: MMDC Bird Texts Online, Local bookstores Grading Herps quizzes (5 x 20 points each) = 100 points A+ ≥ 582.0 points Point rounding: Herps practical exam = 200 points A = 558.0-581.9 points A- = 540-557.9 points According to standard Birds quizzes (5 x 20 points each) = 100 points B+ = 522.0-539.9 points practice Birds practical exam = 200 points B = 498.0-521.9 points B- = 480.0-497.9 points TOTAL = 600 points E.g., 539.94 = 539.9 = B+ C+ = 462.0-479.9 points 539.95 = 540.0 = A- C = 438.0-461.9 points EC Points = 2 per assignment C- = 420.0-437.9 points 2 per quiz D+ = 402.0-419.9 points 10 per practical D = 378.0-401.9 points 64 total D- = 360.0-377.9 points 10 additional F = < 360 points ClassTime Before Class • Print off lab notes, worksheets, and powerpoint Quizzes • Will start at 1:30 • Pencils and quizzes only • 10 stations, 60 seconds at each station • 2 minutes after stations are completed to go to unfinished stations • Won’t be given extra time if you’re late PowerPoints Lab Specimens/ Worksheet Checkout MissedAssignmentPolicy May makeup labs and quizzes if: 1.) Legitimate excuse and documentation and 2.) E-mail both TA and Dr. Kellner by 6:00 p.m. Thursday AcademicDishonesty Academic dishonesty, including cheating, will earn a zero for the offense.nt on the first offense and a zero for the course on the second Includes: copying, wandering eye, use of non-medical device, possession exams.rse materials while taking quiz, etc. Bring only pencil to quizzes and Protect yourself: know what constitutes academic dishonesty: .html//www.purdue.edu/studentregulations/student_conduct/regulations Disability In this course, each voice in the classroom has something of value to contribute. Please take care to respect the different experiences, beliefs and values expressed by students and staff involved in this course. We support Purdue's commitment to diversity, and welcome individuals of all ages, backgrounds, citizenships, disability, sex, education, ethnicities, family statuses, genders, views, races, religions, sexual orientations, socioeconomic statuses, and workitical experiences. To make accommodations: •Contact me within first two weeks so we can make arrangements •Documentation from Disability Resource Center (DRC) required Emergencies In the event of a major campus emergency, course requirements, deadlines and grading percentages are subject to changes that may be necessitated by a revised semester calendar or other circumstances beyond the instructor’s control. Here are ways to get information about changes in this course. •Purdue.edu •Blackboard •Instructor emails EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS – A MESSAGE FROM PURDUE To report an emergency, call 911. To obtain updates regarding an ongoing emergency, sign up for Purdue Alert text messages, view www.purdue.edu/ea. There are nearly 300 Emergency Telephones outdoors across campus and in parking garages that connect directly to the PUPD. If you feel threatened or need help, push the button and you will be connected immediately. If we hear a fire alarm during class we will immediately suspend class, evacuate the building,o and proceed outdoors. Do not use the elevator. Hall If we are notified during class of a Shelter in Place requirement for a tornado warning, we will suspend class and shelter in the first floor restrooms. 1 floor restrooms If we are notified during class of a Shelter in Place requirement for a hazardous materials release, or a civil disturbance, including a shooting or other use of weapons, we will suspend class and shelter in the classroom, shutting the door and turning off the lights. Please review the Emergency Preparedness website for additional information. http://www.purdue.edu/ehps/emergency_preparedness/index.html Justacouplemorethings………… E-mails • Always e-mail both TA and instructor • Put FNR 252 in subject line of all e-mails Quizes • 30% id to species • 30% id to family or order • 40% natural history Naming • Both common and Latin names must be spelled correctly and capitalized properly • Latin names must be italicized (typing) or underlines (writing) • Herps : must know common and Latin names (e.g., spotted turtle, Clemmys guttata) + ~ 15 Anuran calls • Birds: must know common names (e.g., Great Blue Heron) and calls (~ 20/week) INTROTOHERPS(PlusFrogCalls) T erminology Herpetology: Root from the Greek word “herpton” which means something that crawls. The branch of biology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles. Herpetofauna: The amphibians and reptiles living in a particular geographic area. Herps: Informal way of saying amphibians and reptiles. MoreT erminology Ectothermic: lack internal temperature regulation, rely on environmental heat sources A• Typically lay eggs which hatch into larvae • Larvae breath air via gills (aquatic) • Metamorphosis into adults that breath air via lungs/skin (terrestrial) • Moist skin without scales • No claws on their feet • Lay unshelled eggs R• Hatch from shelled eggs (amnion) • Young miniature adults • Scaly skin • Clawed feet V ertebrateSpeciesNumbers Amphibians ~ 7,500 Reptiles ~ 9,500 Mammals ~ 5,500 Birds ~ 10,000 Fish ~ 30,000 ClassificationofExtantAmphibians 3 Major Lineages: frogs, salamanders, and caecilians Order Gymnophiona (caecilians) •10 families; 200 species •Pantropical •Least known of all living amphibians (fossorial lifestyle) •Blunt, bullet shaped heads attached to long cylindrical, limbless bodies (worm-like) Salamanders Order Caudata ◦ 10 families; 675 species. ◦ Three clusters Sirens: 2 tiny, but fully developed forelimbs and no hind limbs Primitive salamanders: External fertilization Advanced salamanders: Internal fertilization ◦ Most are secretive, avoid direct sunlight, active at dawn and dusk FrogsandT oads Order Anura • Three clusters6,509 species Archaeobatrachia (ancient) Mesobatrachia (intermediate) Neobatrachia (advanced) • Most abundant and widely distributed amphibians ClassificationofExtantReptiles Two ancient lineages representing four orders: Order Testudines (turtles) • 14 families; 260 species • Jaws lack teeth (replaced by horny jaw sheaths) • All have bodies encased in bony shells Order Crocodylia (crocodilians) • 3 families; 23 species Order Sphenodontida (tuataras) • 1 family; 2 species • Lizard-like reptiles of New Zealand Squamates Order Squamata (lizards and snakes) 57 families; 9,400 species Highly diverse order, representing three suborders Suborder Lacertilia (lizards) • 27 families; 6,000 species • Most abundant and diverse reptilian group • Three to four species within Indiana Suborder Amphisbaenia (worm lizards) • 6 families; 180 species • Fossorial lifestyle Suborder Serpentes (snakes) • 18 families; 3,500 species FrogCalls Anurans most vocal group of herps Several types of vocalizations Generally only males call • Advertisement : Species specific call to attract mate • Release : When amplexus occurs with two males • Aggressive : Other males invading territory • Alarm: Given just before leaping to safety • Distress: Loud wailing cries to induce predator to drop https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/Frogquiz/index.cfm?fuseaction=main.lookup easternspadefoot (Scaphiopusholbrookiholbrooki) Explosive, nasal sound Sounds like the call of an immature crow Repeated every 5-10 seconds Americantoad (Anaxyrusamericanus) Musical trill Somewhat resembles a policeman’s whistle Individuals may vary slightly in pitch Lasts from several seconds to 30 seconds or more Fowler’ stoad (Anaxyrusfowleri) Buzzy, nasal trill cryingds like a baby seconds from 1-5 northerncricketfrog (Acriscrepitans) Series of metallic notes Sounds like a cricket or like 2 steel marbles striking each other Often starts out slowly, then increases in speed, then slows down again easterngraytreefrog (Hylaversicolor) Short, loud, resonant trill Slower and more melodic than Cope’s gray tree frog Last about 0.5 second and is repeated every few seconds springpeeper (Pseudacriscrucifer) Series of sharp, high-pitched, piercing peeps Repeated about once per second A chorus may sound like sleigh bells jingling westernchorusfrog (Pseudacristriseriata) Ascending series of rapid clicks Sounds like a fingernail running over a toothed comb Repeated every 1-2 seconds greenfrog (Lithobatesclamitans) Vigorous, throaty “gunk” Resembles twang of loose banjo string Usually a single note Sometimes given in a series that drops slightly in volume and pitch Americanbullfrog (Lithobatescatesbeianus) bass notes low, deep, loud Sounds like a foghorn Calls usually isolated Sometimes occur in a chorus of cattle mooingds like herd northernleopardfrog (Lithobatespipiens) Deep, rattling, uneven snore Sounds like a finger or balloonubbing against a Lasts about 3 seconds or longer wood frog (Lithobatessylvaticus) Series of several harsh notes in rapid succession Sounds like a duck quacking Often repeated several times mink frog (Lithobatesseptentrionalis) Found in MI Series of 4 raps or clops Sound like horse’s hooves on a cobblestone street by striking two sticks together FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 2: CAUDATA (SALAMANDERS) CaudataCharacteristics Distribution • Temperate, forested regions of northern hemisphere • Limited by moisture and temperature Morphology and Physiology • Cylindrical bodies, distinct heads, most have well-defined limbs • Skin moist and usually smooth • Larvae and adults have long tails , often rounded or flattened • Adults can regenerate tail and limbs when lost Diet • Carnivorous and sometimes cannibalistic Lifestyle ◦ Most biphasic • Some species fully aquatic, other fully terrestrial or arboreal • Generally secretive, avoid direct sunlight, crepuscular or nocturnal • Paedomorphosis has been observed in all families SalamanderReproduction Typically have biphasic life cycle • Fully aquatic and terrestrial variants Most internal fertilization • Spermatophore deposition • Phermonal cues used for reproduction • Often require elaborate courtship behavior Almost all species oviparous • Sometimes see egg guarding behavior WhatamI? Lizard Salamander Scales Ear opening No scales Claws No ear opening No claws Tadpole Salamander Enclosed gills Larva No legs External gills 4 legs Terminology some salamanders which increase the surface area off the skin for water absorption. Characteristic of the Ambystomatidae family. Nasolabial Grooves - Grooves that run from the nose to the mouth. Characteristics of the Plethodontidae family. environment, rather than set inside the pharynx and covered by gill slits. Set on a frill of stalks protruding from the head. TerminologyContinued Mental Glands- Circular glands found on the chin of some male salamanders. Seen in the Plethodontidae family. Paratoid Glands- Permanent glandular structures behind the heads of some salamanders. These glands contain toxins used to deter predation. Nuptial Pads- Rough keratinized pads found on the chest or limbs of some male salamanders which allows the to maintain a grip on the female during amplexus. FamiliesCovered ◦Cryptobranchidae (genus Cryptobranchus) ◦Sirenidae (genus Siren) ◦Ambystomatidae (genus Ambystoma) ◦Amphiumidae (genus Amphiuma) ◦Plethodontidae (genera Desmognathus, Eurycea, and Plethodon) ◦Proteidae (genus Necturus) ◦Salamandridae (genus Notophthalmus) Cryptobranchidae Only 3 species (only one present in North America) Large, aquatic Nocturnal, hide beneath submerged rocks Not great swimmers, walk on bottom of streams External Fertilization Flattened body with 4 limbs, lack eyelids No external gills, subcutaneous respiration Folds along sides of body, keeled tail Long-lived hellbender (Cryptobranchusalleganiensis) Diet • Adults: crayfish, fish • Larvae: aquatic insects, earthworms Distribution • Southern and Eastern United States Habitat • Fast-flowing, cool, streams and rivers Reproduction • Mate from August – September • Males act as “Den Master” • Males guard nest &feature=youtu.bebe.com/watch?v=c_Uyz1W1erI hellbenderID • Large • No external gills in adults • Circular gill opening on each side of neck • Flat head and body • Wrinkled, fleshy fold of skin on each side of the body • Small, lidless eyes • Sex can only be distinguished during breeding season Sirenidae Strictly North American Aquatic, eel-like, neotenic Elongate bodies, small front limbs, no hind limbs Lidless eyes, teeth replaced by beak-like horny sheath Paired external gills Can survive droughts by burrowing in mud Can cross land on rainy nights lessersiren (Sirenintermedia) Diet • Aquatic invertebrates, incidental aquatic vegetation consumption Distribution • Southern United States Habitat • Warm, shallow, quiet waters • Ditches, sloughs, ponds, swamps Reproduction • Breed in early spring • One of the few vocal salamander species • Don’t know mode of fertilization lessersirenID • Long, slender eel-like body • No hind legs • Tiny front legs, each with 4 toes • External gills, 3 gill slits • Brown to black , sometimes olive green • Laterally compressed tail with pointed tail Ambystomatidae Found throughout most of North America “Mole” salamanders because they stay underground except during spring and fall migrations Stout-bodies, robust limbs, thick tails, prominent costal grooves Short blunt heads, protruding eyes Most species have aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults Neotenic forms fully aquatic Internal fertilization Hybridization Jeffersonsalamander (Ambystomajeffersonianum) Diet • Earthworms, slugs, and insects Distribution • Northeastern United States and Southern Canada H• Moist, upland, hardwood forests • Under debris near swamps and ponds Reproduction • Hybridizes with blue-spotted • Mates from December – January • Extensive Courtship JeffersonsalamanderID •Gray, brown, black on dorsal surface •Lighter shade on belly •May have silver or blue specks on sides and limbs •Slender (for an ambystomatid) •Long, wedge-shaped snout •Distinctive long toes spottedsalamander (Ambystomamaculatum) Diet • Earthworms and other invertebrates Distribution • Eastern United States Habitat • Moist, deciduous forests • Need ephemeral pools for reproduction Reproduction • Mate from March-April • Developing egg masses green from symbiotic algae • Explosive breeders spottedsalamanderID •Stout •Wide snouts •Dorsal color black, bluish black, or slate orange spots from head to tailto •Spots do not extend to sides or belly •Belly color is slate gray (with no spots) marbledsalamander (Ambystomaopacum) Diet • Earthworms and other invertebrates Distribution • Southeastern United States Habitat • Deciduous forests with moist soil Reproduction • Fall breeders • Females lay eggs in sheltered depression that fills with rain water • Females guard eggs until they hatch marbledsalamanderID •Dorsal crossbands on black backgrounds •Silvery gray on females •White on males •Crossbands variable, sometimes incomplete •Belly or lower sides are black •Body is stout •Male more brightly-colored than female easterntigersalamander (Ambystomatigrinum) Diet • Earthworms and other invertebrates Distribution • Central United States Habitat • Varied including bottomland forests, conifer stand, open fields, and grasslands Morphology • Largest terrestrial salamander • Neoteny common in western populations Reproduction • Mates from February - March • Hybridizes with small-mouthed salamander easterntigersalamanderID •Grey, green, or black •Yellowish dorsal spots irregular in shape and distribution •Spots extend well onto sides and belly •Have large, lidded eyes •Short snouts •Thick necks •Sturdy legs •Long tails easterntigersalamander(neotenic)ID •External gills •May be confused with a mudpuppy •5 toes on hind feet Plethodontidae Largest salamander family (2/3 of world’s species) Occurs in North America, Central America, Northern South America, and Europe Lungless (respiration through skin and lining of mouth) All have nasolabial grooves Generally occupy cooler, moister habitats than ambystomatids Most small with narrow bodies Many species skip aquatic larval stage northernduskysalamander (Desmognathusfuscus) Diet • Insect larvae and adults, earthworms Distribution • Northeastern United States Habitat • Wooded seeps, spring, and rocky creeks Phylogeny • Belongs to subfamily Desmognathinae Reproduction • Aquatic larvae northernduskysalamanderID •Body color gray or brown, with darker marking •Angled jaw •Hind limbs stouter than forelimbs •Keeled tail •Base of tail usually lighter than rest of dorsum and bordered by dark scallops •Belly lightly mottled with gray or brown •Pale line from eye to angle of jaw southerntwo-linedsalamander (Euryceacirrigera) Diet • Small invertebrates Distribution • Midwestern and Southern United States Habitat • Wooded brooks, springs, seeps, and rocky creeks Life History • Some populations neotenic Reproduction • Mate from April-May • Aquatic larvae southerntwo-linedsalamanderID •2 dark lines border a broad, light middorsal stripe •Often breaks up into dots or dashes on tail •Dorsal color always yellowish •Middorsal stripe usually peppered with black spots •Tail keeled and laterally compressed long-tailedsalamander (Eurycealongicauda) Diet • Insects Distribution • Midwestern and Eastern United States Habitat • Caves, springs, and surrounding forests Reproduction • Mate from late fall to early spring • Aquatic larvae long-tailedsalamanderID •Body yellow, orange, or red •Belly yellow •Only yellowish salamander with vertical black marking on the tail cavesalamander (Eurycealucifuga) Diet • Insects Distribution • Midwestern and Southern United States Habitat •limestone or other calcareous rocked • Excellent climbers with prehensile tail Reproduction • Mate in summer or early autumn • Aquatic larvae cavesalamanderID •Tail longer than body •Orange to reddish orange bodies •Pale unmarked ventral surface •Irregularly space black dots and dashes on dorsal surface •Long limbs easternred-backedsalamander (Plethodoncinereus) Diet • Insects D• Midwestern and Eastern United States • Common and abundant Habitat •forestsconiferous and deciduous • Burrows underground during dry weather Reproduction • Mate in fall • Young direct developers easternred-backedsalamanderID Long, slender body Mottled salt-and- pepper belly Lead-backed and red-backed variants Lead-back uniformly light gray to black (may be orange, yellow, or light gray) stripe on mid-dorsal line form base of head to tail Proteidae Occur in central and eastern North America and Southern Europe Fully aquatic, neotenic, moderately sized Broad flat head, large external gills, compressed tails, and well developed limbs Internal fertilization Females guard eggs mudpuppy (Necturusmaculosus) Diet •invertebratesall fish, aquatic Distribution • Eastern North America H• Permanent water including lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams Reproduction • Mates in fall • Females lay eggs the following spring mudpuppyID •Large body •4 feet, each with 4 toes •External gills retained in adults •Dark stripe through eye •Body gray or rust-brown to black •Dorsal surface often with scattered dark spots •Grayish belly with dark spots Salamandridae Eastern and Western North America, Europe, Africa and Asia Skin typically thick and granular rather than smooth Granular surface due to the presence of numerous glands that secrete toxins Many species brightly colored Indistinct costal grooves Internal fertilization easternnewt Notophtalmusviridescens Diet • Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates Distribution • Eastern North America Habitat • Aquatic stages ponds and small lakes, marshes, ditches, and quiet portions of streams • Terrestrial stages in damp forests Reproduction • 4 life stages: egg, aquatic larva, terrestrial eft (subadult stage), aquatic adult easternnewtID •Granular skin •Up to 21 red spots present during all life stages •green with a yellow ventral surface •with small black spotspered •Red eft is bright orange-red to dull red orange • During breeding season male develops swollen vent and a keeled tail FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 2: ANURA (FROGS AND TOADS) AnuraCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Most widely distributed amphibians ◦ Most require moist or wet habitats Morphology and Physiology ◦ Lack tails as adults ◦ __________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ◦ Most have well developed eyes and ears ◦ Most have distinct voices and vocalization Diet ◦ Carnivorous adults (and many tadpoles) Lifestyle ◦ ___________________________________________ Terminology Metatarsal tubercle - ___________________ ______________________________________ Spade - Enlarged metatarsal tubercle adapted for digging Parotoid gland - Round or roughly oval gland at the back of the head, behind the eye TerminologyContinued Tympanum – The ear opening in reptiles and amphibians Lateral line - System of tactile sense organs unique to aquatic vertebrates Amplexus –________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ EvenMoreT erminology Cranial crest – Elevated ridge-like structure on the skull Toe pads – Enlarged disc-shaped swellings at the base of the toes Dorsolateral ridge –________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Vocal sac –The calling apparatus on most male frogs FamiliesCovered • Scaphiopodae (genus Scaphiopus) • Bufonidae (genera Anaxyrus) • Hylidae (genera Acris, Hyla, and Pseudacris) • Ranidae (genus Lithobates) Scaphiopodae __________________________ Large tubercle on outside edge of each hind foot Spend most of the year in soil Toad-like body Teeth in upper jaw ___________________________ easternspadefoot (Scaphiopusholbrookii) Diet •Worms and insects Distribution •Southeastern United States Habitat •Areas with sandy or loose soil •_______________________________ Reproduction •Explosive breeders easternspadefootID •____________________________ •Reduced parotoid glands •Yellowish line originates behind each eye and runs down back •Usually an additional line on each side of the body •External eardrum apparent •Skin smooth compared to a toad Bufonidae True toads _____________________________ _____________________________ Short limbs Warty skin Horizontal pupils Many species terrestrial or fossorial Generally lay eggs in paired strings in water Americantoad (Anaxyrusamericanus) Diet • ________________________________________ Distribution • Eastern United States and Canada Habitat • Use a wide variety of habitats • Require moisture and shallow water to breed Reproduction • ________________________________________ • Females lay up to 8,000 eggs AmericantoadID •Two dark, hard tubercles on each hind foot •Elongate parotoid glands and prominent cranial crest •_____________________________ _____________________________ •Chest and anterior abdomen usually spotted •Light mid-dorsal stripe may be present Fowler’ stoad (Anaxyrus fowleri) Diet • Insects and other invertebrates Distribution • Eastern United States Habitat • ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Reproduction • Mates from May-June • Females lay up to 10,000 eggs Fowler’ stoadID _________________________________ •Parotoid glands elongate and touch adjacent cranial crest •Largest dark spots on back contain three or more warts •Chest and abdomen usually unmarked •Light mid-dorsal stripe may be present Hylidae Tree frogs, cricket frogs, and chorus frogs Occur in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia Toe pads usually present __________________________ northerncricketfrog (Acriscrepitans) Diet • Small aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates Distribution • ________________________________________ Habitat • Open edges of permanent ponds, bogs, lakes, and slow moving streams Reproduction • Mates May-July • Females lay up to 400 eggs singly or in small clusters northerncricketfrogID •_______________________________ •Dark-pigmented triangle or V-shaped mark present between the eyes •Dark stripe on rear of thigh often raggedly-edged •Hind toes extensively webbed with small toe pads easterngraytreefrog Cope’ sgraytreefrog (Hylaversicolor) (Hylachrysoscelis) Diet • Insects and larvae Distribution • ______________________________________ Habitat • Anywhere with suitable breeding ponds adjacent to trees and shrubs Reproduction • Mates April-May • ______________________________________ • 10-40 eggs per cluster graytreefrogID •Highly variable coloration and markings •One or more irregular blotches often visible on the back •Light spot usually present below each eye •Concealed surfaces of hind legs bright orange and mottled with black •___________________________________________ •Skin slightly warty •Large toe pads springpeeper (Pseudacriscrucifer) Diet • Insects and spiders Distribution • Eastern United States and Canada Habitat • Breeds in ponds, ditches, and marshes • ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Reproduction • Mates March-June • Females lay up to 1,000 eggs singly or in small clusters springpeeperID •________________________________ ________________________________ •Large toe pads •Belly white, yellowish, or creamed color westernchorusfrog (Pseudacristriseriata) Diet • ________________________________________ Distribution • United States and Canada Habitat • Marshes, meadows, swales, and other open areas near water Reproduction • Mates February-April • Females lay up to 1,500 eggs • ________________________________________ westernchorusfrogID •Usually has three dark stripes on the back •Middle stripe often forks into 2 stripes posteriorly •Dark stripe through eye often present •______________________________________ •Small toe pads •Venter is whitish, but a few dark spots may be present on the throat and chest Ranidae True frogs Occur on all continents except Antarctica Diverse family _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ greenfrog (Lithobatesclamitans) Diet • Invertebrates and smaller vertebrates Distribution • Eastern United States and Canada H• Edges of permanent bodies of water R• _________________________________________ • Females lay up to 7,000 eggs • Eggs may be attached to submerged aquatic vegetation greenfrogID •___________________________ ___________________________ •White venter usually with mottling under legs and head •Dorsolateral ridges do not reach groin •Center of tympanum elevated •Usually green on upper lip •Large body Americanbullfrog (Lithobatescatesbeianus) Diet •Anything they can fit in their mouth Distribution •Wide ranging in the United States Habitat •Permanent bodies of water •_______________________________ Reproduction •Mates May-July •_______________________________ •Eggs float on surface of the water AmericanbullfrogID • Green dorsum, sometimes with gray or brown mottling •Whitish venter, often mottled with gray •No dorsolateral ridges •______________________________ ______________________________ •Extensive foot webbing •Sometimes has dark bands on upper legs northernleopardfrog (Lithobatespipiens) Diet •Invertebrates and smaller vertebrates Distribution •Northern United States and Canada Habitat •_______________________________ ________________________________ Reproduction •Mates March-June •Females lay up to 6,500 eggs deposited as globular clusters northernleopardfrogID • Brown or green dorsum •2-3 rows of spots between dorsolateral ridges •_______________________________________ •Numerous spots on sides •Ridges continuous to groin and lighter than dorsum •Light line from nose to shoulder •Often dark spots on snout and above each eye woodfrog (Lithobatessylvaticus) Diet •Insects, worms, and mollusks Distribution •Northern United States and Canada Habitat •Moist woodlands with abundant vernal pools Reproduction •Mates very early spring •___________________________________ •Females lay up to 3,000 eggs woodfrogID •Robber’s mask •__________________________ •Coloration and markings variable •Light stripe on upper jaw •Prominent dorsolateral ridges •Belly white, may have dark mottling •__________________________ minkfrog (Ranaseptentrionalis) Diet • Crayfish, invertebrates, and small fish Distribution • ___________________________________________ Habitat • Cool, permanent water • Lakes, ponds, sluggish streams Reproduction • Mates in May-July • Females lay up to 4,000 eggs • Clusters sink to the substrate to hatch minkfrogID •Large tympanum •Eyes slightly turned upward •Area above upper lip usually green •Dorsolateral ridges variable •Dorsum may be spotted or mottled •__________________________ __________________________ FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 4: CROCODYLIA AND TESTUDINES (CROCODILIANS AND TURTLES) EarlyFeedback • Not enough time for notes • Talk to fast • No time for questions ExtraCreditOpportunity 10 additional extra credit points Pick any herp species not covered in class Send to me two days before day of class Next two weeks of class 1-2 slides 2-3 minutes Natural History and ID characteristics CrocodyliaCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Tropical and subtropical ◦ Southeastern North America, South America, Africa, Asia and Australia Morphology and Physiology ◦ Long, laterally compressed tail ◦ Four-chambered heart ◦ Well-developed limbs ◦ Dorsal and sometimes ventral armor Diet ◦ Carnivores Reproduction ◦ Oviparous ◦ Temperature dependent sex determination T estudinesCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Tropical and temperate regions of the world ◦ Not very cold tolerant Morphology and Physiology ◦ Bony shell with horny shields ◦ Sharp horny beak, no teeth Diet ◦ Most adults omnivorous, some herbivorous ◦ Many young carnivorous Reproduction ◦ Oviparous T estudinesSuborders Pleurodira ◦Fresh water species ◦New Guineaemisphere: South America, Africa, ◦More primitive, less diverse (about 60 sp.) ◦Neck retracted by bending sideways Cryptodira ◦Variable lifestyles ◦All continents except Antarctica (all NA turtles) ◦Less primitive, more diverse (about 200 sp.) ◦Neck retracted straight back Terminology Carapace- Dorsal (upper) part of shell Plastron- Ventral (bottom) part of shell Scutes- Modified scales over carapace and plastron Transverse hinge- Hinge on plastron used to close shell. May be 1 or 2. T ypesofScutes Gular---- Good Humeral---- Herp Pectoral---- Pupils Abdominal---- Attend Femoral--- Friday Lab Anal---- Always! FamiliesCovered ◦Crocodylidae (genus Crocodylus) ◦Alligatoridae (genus Alligator) ◦Chelydridae (genus Chelydra) ◦Kinosternidae (genera Kinosternon and Sternotherus) ◦Emydidae (genera Chrysemys, Clemmys, Emydidea,Graptemys, T errapene, and Trachemys) ◦Trionychidae (Apalone) Crocodylidae Occur worldwide in freshwater and near-shore marine habitats Lingual salt glands Not all mandibular teeth fit in mouth Long, tapering, narrow snout Americancrocodile (Crocodylusactus) Diet •Vertebrates Distribution •United States – Southern Florida Morphology •Males may reach up to 20 feet, females rarely exceed 12 feet Habitat •Fresh water habitats – rivers, lakes, reservoirs •Brackish estuaries and swamps Reproduction •Mating from January – March •30 – 70 eggs laid April - May AmericancrocodileID •Long, narrow snout •Upper jaw larger than lower Alligatoridae Occur in freshwater habitats in North and South America and Asia No lingual salt glands All mandibular teeth fit in mouth Wider jaws and shorter heads Americanalligator (Alligatormississippiensis) Diet •Vertebrates Distribution •Southeastern United States Morphology •Males may reach up to 15 feet, females rarely exceed 10 feet Habitat •Fresh water swamps, lakes, rivers, and marshes Reproduction •Mating from April - May •20 – 50 eggs laid in vegetation covered nests AmericanalligatorID •Adult body black •Young have light barred markings •Broad rounded snout •Upper jaw about the same size as the lower jaw Chelydridae North America, South America, and Asia Large heads and bodies, long tails, and stout limbs Flattened carapace with 3 ridges Reduced plastron Aquatic Carnivorous and nocturnal snappingturtle (Chelydraserpentina) Diet •Generalist Distribution •Eastern United States, Canada, Central and South America Habitat •Fresh water systems including bays, mucky ponds, lakes, and streams Reproduction •Mating from April - November •Females deposit up to 80 eggs snappingturtleID •Massive head, powerful hooked jaws •Small cross shaped plastron •Tail saw-toothed on upper surface and as long as carapace •Young have three prominent ridges on carapace Kinosternidae North and South America Generally small (up to 6 inches) Carnivorous Aquatic bottom walkers Hinged plastrons Barbells on chin and throat easternmudturtle (Kinosternonsubrubrum) Diet •Insects, mollusks, tadpoles, crustaceans Distribution •Southern United States Habitat •Calm, shallow ponds, marshes, and ditches Reproduction •Mating from April - June •Females deposit 2 - 6 eggs easternmudturtleID •Plastron relatively large •2 transverse hinges •Pectoral scute triangular •Carapace smooth, oval, and domed •Head may be spotted, mottled, or streaked with yellow •Short tail •Males blunt spine at tail tip and scaly patches inside hind legs easternmuskturtle (Sternotherusodoratus) Diet •Insects, leeches, snails, crayfish, small fish, and tadpoles Distribution •Eastern United States Habitat •Permanent fresh water with slow current and soft bottom Reproduction •Mating from April – May •Nest May - July •Females deposit 1 - 9 eggs easternmuskturtleID •Plastron relatively small •One transverse hinge •Pectoral scute squarish •Carapace, oval, dome, smooth or with 3 ridges •2 light stripes on head •Short tail •Males tail is longer and stouter with blunt claw-like tip, concave plastron, and scaly patch inside hind leg Emydidae Widespread and dominant in United States North America, South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia Diverse in morphology, natural history, and ecology Most species aquatic or semi-aquatic Basking behavior paintedturtle (Chrysemyspicta) Diet •Aquatic insects, crayfish, mollusks, and algae Distribution •United States and Southern Canada •Most widespread turtle in North America Habitat •Permanent fresh water with slow currents, soft bottoms, and aquatic vegetation Reproduction •Nest May - July •Females deposit 3 - 20 eggs paintedturtleID •Carapace black or olive, oval, smooth, flattened, and unkeeled •Red bars or crescents on marginal scutes •Yellow plastron, no hinges •Yellow and red stripes present on neck, legs, and tail •V-shaped notch flanked by cusps on upper jaw •Females short claws, males long spottedturtle (Clemmysguttata) Diet •Algae, aquatic vegetation, worms, mollusks, crustaceans, and amphibian eggs Distribution •Eastern and Northern Midwest United States and Southern Canada Habitat •Clear, shallow waters with soft bottoms, and aquatic vegetation Reproduction •Nest late May - June •Females deposit 1 - 8 eggs spottedturtleID •Carapace unkeeled and black with yellow spots •Head, back and legs may have yellow or orange spots •Plastron is yellow with black pigment along outer border of scutes •Males eyes brown, thick and long tail, jaws dark •Females eyes orange, thin tail, jaws yellow and unmarked Blanding’ sturtle (EmydIdeablandingii) Diet •Aquatic vegetation, insects, crustaceans, tadpoles, small fishes, and amphibian eggs Distribution •Northern Midwest and Eastern United States and Southern Canada Habitat •Clean, shallow waters with soft bottoms, and aquatic vegetation Reproduction •Mating from April - November •Nest in June •Females deposit 6- 2 1 eggs Blanding’ sturtleID •Light spots on carapace that may run together to form bars or streaks •Bright yellow chin and throat •Plastron has 1 hinge •Plastron yellow with large, black blotch at outer rear edge of scutes •Upper jaw notched in front creating “smile” northernmapturtle (Graptemysgeographica) Diet •Snails, clams, crayfish, and some plants Distribution •Midwestern United States Habitat •Ponds, river, and lakes with abundant vegetation Reproduction •Mate spring and fall in the water •Nest May - July •Females deposit 6 - 20 eggs northernmapturtleID •Carapace moderately low, keel that may have small knobs •Carapace may have map-like series of markings •Serrated rear marginal scutes •Yellow spot behind eye •Unmarked plastron in adults •Head and legs have whorls and wavy lines easternboxturtle (T errapenecarolinacarolina) Diet •Snails, insects, berries, fungi, mushrooms, slugs, and worms Dis•Eastern United States Habitat •Open woodlands, pastures, and marshy meadows Reproduction •Mate spring and fall •Nest June - July •Females deposit 3 - 11 eggs easternboxturtleID •High, domed, slightly keeled carapace •Plastron with broad hinge •Upper jaw with down-turned beak •Four toes per hind foot •Variable markings •Males concave plastron, red eyes, thick curved hind claws, thicker tail, vent beyond edge of carapace •Females flat plastron, brown eyes, thin straight hind claws, thinner tail, vent beneath edge of carapace ornateboxturtle (Terrapeneornataornata) Diet •Beetles, slugs, caterpillars, and grasshoppers Distribution •Central United States Habitat •Sandy areas of plains and prairies dominated by grasses Reproduction •Females deposit 2 - 8 eggs ornateboxturtleID •High, domed, usually no keel •Plastron with broad hinge •Upper jaw with down-turned beak •Four toes per hind foot •Light lines radiate downward on carapace, mid- dorsal yellow stripe often present •Plastron radiating yellow lines on dark background •Sexing same as with eastern box turtle redearedslider (T rachemysscriptaelegans) Diet •Young- carnivorous •Adults- herbivorous Distribution •Central United States Hab•Quiet waters with muddy bottoms and basking sites Reproduction •Mating from March – July •Nest May – July redearedsliderID •Broad, reddish stripe behind eye •Rounded lower jaw •V-shaped notch in upper jaw not flanked by cusps •Oval, olive or brown, carapace with yellow bars, stripes, and eye-spots •Plastron yellowish, often with dark smudge in center of each scute •Head, neck, and legs dark with stripes •Rear, marginal scutes slightly serrated Trionychidae North America, Africa, Asia Leathery skin without scutes Long, tubular, snorkel-like snout on slender head Fully aquatic, good swimmers Pharyngeal respiration spinysoftshell (Apalonespinifera) Diet •Aquatic insects, crayfish, and fish Distribution •Central United States Habitat •Large streams, reservoirs, ponds, and lakes with sandy or muddy bottoms Reproduction •Mate in deep water in late spring •9 – 40 eggs per female spinysoftshellID •Carapace soft, leathery, no scales or scutes, and flattened •Two dark-bordered light stripes on side of head •Feet strongly streaked and spotted •Projections on upper surface of carapace •Dark eye-like spots (males) or brown and olive blotches (female) on carapace FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 4: SQUAMATA SUBORDER SERPENTES (SNAKES) SquamataCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Largest extant order of reptiles ◦ Lizards and snakes ◦ All continents except Antarctica Morphology and Physiology ◦ Skins with horny scales or shields ◦ Moveable quadrate bones ◦ Many species with venom Diet ◦ Most carnivorous Reproduction ◦ Males have hemipenes, a bi-lobed reproductive organ ◦ Viviparous , ovoviviparous, and oviparous species ◦ Some species can produce asexually through parthenogenesis SuborderSerpentesCharacteristics Distribution ◦Every continent except Antarctica Morphology and Physiology ◦Limbless ◦2-part tongue ◦No external ear opening ◦Fused eyelids with spectacle ◦Single functional lung Reproduction ◦Most oviparous Terminology Aglyph– Snake with non-specialized teeth. Opisthoglyph– Snake with rear fangs. Lack hollow fangs. Inject venom by grasping and chewing prey. Elongated fangs at front of jaw. Inject venom by striking. Solenoglyph– Snake with hinged fangs. Elongated fangs at front of jaw. Inject venom by striking. TerminologyContinued olfactory sense organ .liary anus. May be divided (double) or single. Loreal pit – Deep depression on either side of the head in pitvipers. Opening to an infrared detecting organ. FamiliesCovered ◦Colubridae (genera Coluber, Pantherophis, Opheodrys, and Pituophis,) ◦Natricidae(genera Nerodia, Regina, Storeria, and Thamnophis) ◦Dipsadidae (Diadophis and Heterodon) ◦Viperidae (genera Agkistrodon, Crotalus, and Sistrurus) Colubridae Occur on all continents except Antarctica Tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones Most of the world’s snakes are colubrids Extremely diverse and polyphyletic blueracer (Coluberconstrictorfoxii) Diet •Small mammals and birds Distribution • Midwestern United States Habitat •Open habitats including hardwood and pine forests, brushy areas, grasslands, and meadows Reproduction •Mate April – June •3 – 32 eggs laid in a concealed nest from June - July •Eggs hatch August – September blueracerID •Large, slender body •Plain blue dorsum •Often a darker area extends posteriorly from eye •Chin and throat are white and non-spotted •Belly white or blue and paler than back •Young with mid-dorsal blotches •Smooth scales •Anal plate divided grayratsnake (Pantherophisspiloides) Diet •Mammals and small birds Distribution •Central and eastern United States Habitat •Variable include wooded or scrub areas, ed
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