Study Guide - Exam 2 - Cultural Anthropology (Part 1)
Study Guide - Exam 2 - Cultural Anthropology (Part 1) ANT2410
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
AP Environmental Science
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT2410 at University of Florida taught by Crystal Felima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 163 views.
Reviews for Study Guide - Exam 2 - Cultural Anthropology (Part 1)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/19/16
Study Guide – Exam 2 Ethics and anthropology Notions of right and wrong Concerns about our intentions towards others, institutions, governments… Human Terrain System Kinder, Gentler Warfare? Increase cross-cultural understanding Reduce kinetic force (a euphemism for military action involving lethal force) Human Terrain program ended. (2007-2014) Ethics: Do no harm Get informed consent and appropriate permission Make your results accessible Protect and preserve our records Maintain respectful and professional relationships Methods and Fieldwork Fieldwork Anthropologist immersed in daily life culture (for data) Ethnographic fieldwork: Provides description and explanation Boas and Malinowski proponents of fieldwork Makes anthropology unique Data Gathering Techniques Participant-Observation: o Researcher gains deep insight, develops rapport with participants. o Cultural immersion o Weaknesses: Smaller research sample Data can be hard to code or categorize Time-consuming Recording Participants might act differently because of presence Interviewing o Informed consent o Participant or Collaborator of informant Not research subject o Unstructured: Yes, or no answer - no script. o Structured: May have a script, question about what you are expecting. o Semi-structured: Both Census Taking Mapping Document Analysis Collecting Genealogies Photography Ways to collect Ethnography Live Field: Social networks Notes Recorder Common issues in Fieldwork Gaining acceptance Selecting (appropriate) data-gathering techniques Understating the laws of the country (don’t go to jail) Taking precautions against bias Ethics and Anthropology: “Do no Harm” Areas of responsibility for anthropologists: The people under study The local communities The host governments and their own government Other members of the scholarly community Organizations that sponsor research Their own students. Malinowski Founder of modern social anthropology. He thought anthropology was biased and prejudicial, also that anthropology methods of relying on what someone said about a culture was flawed He stopped being an observer but a participant observer by learning the language and immersing himself in the culture like contemporary anthropology. Malinowski noticed the natives had societies as complex as our own. He exposed the cultural relativism. All humans purpose has a function. Rituals satisfy our basic needs He called this theory functionalism. “New Humanism” Religion and Beliefs Religion: A set of beliefs in supernatural forces and beings directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve problems (all founded on a belief in the supernatural) Magic: Supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims. o Imitative (voodoo dolls) o Contiguous (accomplish through contact) Witchcraft: inborn, involuntary, and often unconscious capacity to cause harm to other people. Sorcery: performance of certain magical rites to deliberately bring about harm. Anthony Wallace 4 principal patterns of religious organization based on what he calls cults. Cult: forms of religion that have their own set of beliefs, rituals, and goals. Every religion in the world is a cult (according to him) Four religious organizations o Individualistic (less specialized): The least complex. Individuals intentionally seek out spirit and supernatural powers to protect and help them in their endeavors Vision quests are common o Shamanistic Part-time religious specialists (shaman) intervene with the deities on behalf of their clients. Shaman gain their skills: Apprenticeship or training Enduring sacrifice and hardship Miraculous life experience o Communal Societies in which groups of people conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community. Rites of passage Rites of solidarity (enhance social integration) Frequently seen in agricultural societies. o Ecclesiastical (more specialized) Highly complex religious systems The defining feature is that full-time religious practitioner (priests) Priestsconduct ritual that occur at regular intervals. Can have combination of priests and shamans Contrasting Priest and Shaman A priest does not necessarily have a face to face relationship with the spirit world but must have competence in conducting ritual. A shaman’s powers come by “divine stroke”, a priest’s is inherited or is derived ritual knowledge (inherited and passed on) Shamanistic rites are “non-calendrical”. The priest ceremonies are often calendrical. Religious Specialists Healer: A religious specialist who concentrates on healingeither priest or shaman Herbalist: Specialist in plant derived cures. May prescribe medicines. Diviner: A religious specialist who specializes in divination. Spirit Medium: A vessel of the transhuman entity. Prophets: someone who communicates the words and will of the gods to the community (intermediary) Religion’s social functions o Control o Conflict resolution o Ethics (Western ideology) o Reinforces group solidarity Religion’s psychological functions o Cognitive (it makes you understand unexplainable things) o Emotional (reduces anxiety) Ritual: Patterned, recurring sequence of events Secular (non- religious) Religious Ritual: Symbolic behavior through which religion comes alive. General Description of Ritual Perspective Ritual: Required to be performed either by a religious text, a deity/religious authority or dictated by tradition. Situation/Crisis Rituals: Arise “as needed, in times of crisis (i.e. prayers because of terrorist attacks) Periodic (also Calendrical): Performed on a regular basis as part of a religious calendar. Occasional rituals performed when a particular need arises as in marriage and death or to bring about change, or to ensure survival (wedding, service) Ritual Classification (Simple) Rites of passage: mark transition points in the lives of individuals (Bar Mitzvah) Rites of solidarity: maintain group equilibrium and solidarity. 5 Ritual Classification by Anthony Wallace Ideological Rituals Technological Rituals Therapy Rituals (herbs) Salvation Rituals change the way you are (i.e. Baptism) Revitalization Rituals return back to your old ways (i.e. Amish) Violence as Ritual Fundamental to human social existence Central to theories regarding the nature of society. Cultural expression, practice, and/or performance. Unite a community. Functions of Ritual Reinforce social bonds Relieve social tension Deal with life crisis Celebrate life cycle events Ritual is also a way a society remembers o Through habit o Through bodily practices Fundamentalism : Religious movement characterized return to fundamental principles, including resistance to modernization and emphasis on certainty through a literal interpretation of scriptures Believe that religion is relevant to everyone o Everyone believing in a certain type of god (Theo-normalcy and privilege) o Heteronormative (disregard atheists and agnostics) Arguments Against Organized Religions Split rather than unify society (race, sexual orientation, gender) Focus on the outer, institutional form of the religion than its inner spirit Those in religious power have the ability to dominate/manipulate the faithful May be harmful Potential center of political power. Religion and Conservative Force Religion acts as a conservative force (inhibits change) Major contributor to social change. Mechanisms for Change Acculturation: Culture receives traits from dominant society Assimilation: Dominated culture changed because of outside influenceno identity influences that it ceases to have its own distinct identity. o Indian Americans Syncretism: A fusing of traits from two culturesform something new (permitting retention of the old transforming it into a new form) o Example: African Diaspora Religions, Haitian Vodou, Candomblé, Santería. o Introduced by Melville j. Herskovits Religious Pluralism Different religious belief systems working together. *Differs from* Religious tolerance each person is entitled t his own set of beliefs without judgment or conformity to some cultural or societal standard (freedom of religion) Belief in Humanism Philosophical meanings based on equality, human rights, and social justice. Results of life are chosen by the person, not supernaturalism (self- determination). Person as a whole. Self-esteem, personal growth, the achievement of human potential. New Age: Appropriated ideas, themes, symbols, and ways from religious practices everywhere (Native Americans, Australians Aborigines, East Asian religions) New Religious Movements Denomination: A religious group differs on a few points form the mainstream religion Sect: A new branch of a mainstream religion, involving new revelations, new scriptures, and a new leader. Change in a belief system can lead to the inclusion of marginalized groups. Ritual Murder Symbolic act. Symbolic codes represent a way of life, a common identity and a worldview. Honor Killings o Shedding of blood to get rid of the strain on a family’s or communities honor. o Someone “dishonoring” his/her family is enough to trigger an attack on his/her life. Symbols: Shared understandings about the meaning of certain words attributes, or objects. Symbolic or Interpretive Anthropology Re-evaluation of cultural anthropology as scientific enterprise Function Meaning Materialist theories Idealist theories Grand theories Issues of culture and interpretation Individual actions shape culture Meaning in definitions of culture. Symbolic anthropology: not a tightly organized or clearly bounded “school” A “project” that sees decoding of public symbols as key activity of anthropological analysis Two major approaches: Clifford Geertz: function of symbols in culture Victor W. Turner: function of symbols in society. Culture (group of ideas, values, behaviors) ≠ Society (group of people) Agreement among “Symbolicists” Culture is a symbolic system Culture is used to create and convey meanings since that is the purpose of symbols. If meanings are the end products of culture, then understanding culture requires understanding the meanings of its creators and users. Victor Turner Talks about property of symbols… Condensation o Many things & actions are represented in a single symbol. Falls under the same domain Unification o Many distinct meanings are interconnected & unified. Polarization o The symbol typically possesses two distinct poles of meaning, one normative (moral rules of society) and the other sensory (natural and physiological process) Polyvalence o Multiple meanings can link into many domains of the culture and at a variety of levels. Decode symbols by triangulating between three main bodies of information: 1. External form and observable characteristics 2. Interpretations from the local people 3. Significant contexts worked out by the anthropologist. Cross Cultural Definition of Art Art should… 1) …be creative, playful, and enjoyable and may not be practical or useful 2) …produce emotional response 3) …be transformational. 4) …communicate 5) …highlight unique skill Differences in Art Forms Lifestyles and settlements Social differentiation Division of labor Random Acts of Culture: Surprise shows to perform so that people can get access to art. Functions of art Emotional Gratification for the individual Contributes to social integration Social control Preserving or challenging the Status Quo. Graphic and Plastic Arts The Western notion refers to painting, sculpture, printmaking & architecture. The anthropological definition also includes such art forms as weaving, embroidery, tailoring, jewelry making, and tattooing and other body decorations. Music as Symbol Used to get across the desired meaning of a ritual Can be interwoven in the learned traditions of a culture. o In order to bridge the music symbolism gap between cultures, some artists are employing syncretism (fusion of elements from 2 different cultures) to help convey meaning. Ethnomusicology: Study between music and other aspects of culture. Four Major Concerns of Ethnomusicology: Ideas about music Social structure of music Characteristics of the music itself Material culture of music. Sacred Art Formed from myriad of religious symbols. Not art for art’s sake (i.e. not based on creative urges of the artist). Art as collection of symbols meant to convey religious message. Body Decoration, Modification, and Adornment satisfies aesthetic, cultural, society, and group wants/needs May demonstrate: Social position Gender Occupation Eroticism Body decoration: Scarification Piercing Lip Plate Tattoos Body Paint Accessories Physical Alternations Body Decoration, Modification, and Adornment Satisfies aesthetic, cultural, society, and group wants/needs may demonstrate: Social position Gender Occupation Eroticism Body decoration: Scarification Piercing Lip Plate Tattoos Body Paint Accessories Physical Alternations The Nature of Language System of symbolic communication using sounds and/or gestures, able to be understood by all members within a society that share the language. Meanings of any word arbitrary. Signal: An instinctive sound or gesture that has a natural or self-evident meaning. Human Communication Systems Capable of sending infinite number of messages Speaking of events from the past or in the future (displacement) Language is transmitted through tradition Open system of communication Phonological structure, grammar. Linguistic Anthropology Descriptive Linguistics: o Phonology o Grammar o Morphology o Syntax Language is constantly changing Diachronic analysis Historical linguistics: The study of how languages change over time. Language in a Socio–Cultural Setting Sociolinguistics: Relationships language vs. society Gendered Speech: Distinct male and female speech patterns Ethnolinguistic: Study of relationships between language and culture, and how they mutually influence and inform each other. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language influences perception. Language establishes mental categories that affect the ways people conceptualize the real world.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'