ANT 215 Study Guide 1
ANT 215 Study Guide 1 ANT 215
Popular in Origins of Civilization
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Week 4 European Neolithic (7000-3000/2000) Mesolithic of Europe: Dramatic shift in temperature, still have H/G but concentrated by sea shores, river valleys, forest clearings Combine hunting with reliance of fishing/plants (this pattern was successful) Neolothic (6500 BC) Introduction of agriculture in 6500 BC; farming comes from southeast Asia 8500 ya; colonizing farmers along fertile crescent moving towards Europe (Greece, southern areas) Spread of agriculture: span of 30 years, farmers spreading all over to eastern/western fringes of land by 4000 BC; this movement occurs while still utilizing hunter-gatherer lifestyle; increase population, increase surplus, more likely for conflict Beer hypothesis: why the h/g groups there developed farming; they would have accidently developed by creating brews that use natural yeast to make beer Megaliths: most famous Stonehenge; also form of burials Spread to Europe: migration from SW Asia to Europe; independent inventing, h/g obtaining own practices; diffusion—borrowing of information between two societies, ideas, technology Ice Man Movie 9/1991: body of man coming from ice Body was carbon-dated to 5300 years ago Scientists decided to defrost the body; it could be damaged by human bacteria from the nurses or from the frozen body (could be released when thawed) Identified shoe that was left on the frozen body (grass/skin/fur) Had knife, bow, and arrows (flint heads), copper headed axe (proof of ability to craft metals) Found with unfinished equipment: arrows with no heads X-rays lead to finding of arrow head in the back of Ice Man Bled to death very quickly Physical aspects: softer hands—herder, tattoos, muscle strength in legs Copper-axe makes people believe he had some type of significance, the weapon itself was very symbolic to power Likely he was running days before his death from pollen found in intestines and throat; conifer and other pollen meaning he went up down and back up the mountain to his death; right hand had deep cut, possibly from hand to hand combat with knife The fact that the arrow was removed but the symbolic axe was left suggests that caution was being taken by the killer to not be identified Blood was found in the blood matter of the brain, suggesting he was hit before dying, last moments must have been traumatic After doctor examined scan of body, noticed hallow organ (stomach), but it was not in the normal place because of his position, it ended up much higher than normal; found stomach and located food within it (ibex—wild goat, and earliest grains) Indicates that people were just making the transition, with some development of growing own food Found lymes diseases DNA in the DNA of ice-man Swelling in the knee indicates arthritis DNA markers revealed he had brown eyes Had DNA marker for heart disease: Calcium deposits in arteries indicates heart disease Genes indicate lactose intolerance: was able to early in life but he could not as an adult Ate very large meal, balanced of meat and plants; the large meal that was left in his stomach does not suggest he was on the run Convinced the man was killed by someone he knew, possibly from the same group he belonged too, never saw it coming as it was from behind Week 5 Neolithic in Europe Shift to farming from 7000-3/2000 BC; wheat and barely, used sheep, pigs, cattle; grapes and olives from Mediterranean; use of plow by 3000 BC—spread rapidly across Europe Transition to farming: • Occurred much earlier than we know (7000BC) • Existed in Near East • People from Turkey expanded by “island hopping” and making their way to Europe • Greece is one of the first areas that are believed to adopt farming 2 Argissa-Magoula (6000BC—8000 ya) • Migrated from SW Asia • Small rectangular buildings, differed from buildings in Turkey o Steep pithed roofs, wall painting, openings for doors and windows (lacked in Catahuyuk) o Used clay (mud-brick) to build houses, formations of tells: occupation mounds, building atop of other structures resulted in mounds Franchthi Cave (Greece) • One of earliest evidence for farming (7000BC) • Good preservation, focus of red deer to domesticated sheep/goats • Wheat and barely; polished sickles suggest harvesting • 75 people to community Dennell’s 3 stage for spread of agriculture • First stage: End of Mesolithic, wild cereal grains were spreading into SE Europe; use of wild grains • Second stage: forest expansion, reduces surface for wild grains to grow; H/G already uses cereals in diets, started to burn sections of forest to encourage growth of certain grains • Third stage: spread of trades; well integrated systems of domesticated plants and animals; animals eating, providing fertilizer for soil, helping plants grow Intro to Agriculture • Mostly local developments were adapting to this new technology Bandkeramik Culture (5600-4000BC): first villages of farmers in Central Europe; know as “Linear pottery culture”; 40-60 individuals living in villages • Long houses made of timber • Making one style of pottery and using a certain style of axe; not much variation • Pottery: decorated and inscribed lines and designs • Polished stone axes, suggested harvesting of grains • Practice single grave burials; very few group burials • Sites located in forest clearings, on top of terraces where soil is well drained Milk Revolution (6 millennium BC): original members of Linear Pottery culture/location were first lactose-tolerant; pottery vessels contained residue of milk products; genetic changes allowing to digest milk products th Pig genetics: studied domesticated pigs and found Near East ancestry, by 4 millennium BC starts to use wild pigs to domesticate their own in Europe; new domesticated pigs are replacing the domesticated pigs with SW Asia ancestry Village Structure 3 • *long houses, 16-23 feet wide, 130 feet long (largest is 230 ft in length) • Suggested larger houses were help for lineages with prestige • Walls around villages, thatched roofs, pens for domesticated animals • Post of houses were larger pieces of timber from forests Spread of Bandkeramik: H/G still flourished and people of the outskirts interacted with them which sometimes brought conflict; start to see walled settlements, suggested armed warfare between cultures; Talheim Germany (5000BC): site that provides proof of violence; pits inside houses has violent attack marks, generally on back side of body, probable that they were killed in raids; violence in Austria and Belgium Hunter-gatherer populations: • Acting as agriculture groups, by 3000BC most adopted this style • 4000 BC: finding burials of megalithic tombs, continued to 1000 BC o large stone slabs, marked the territory of farming communities • Megaliths: large stone monuments in Spain/Portugal & N. Europe o Some weighed over 30 tons; suggesting importance and large source of energy, people must have enough time to devote to their construction, supports surplus idea • Iberian plaques: carved stones that are found at megalithic tombs, discovered over 1100; trying to study designs to find the lineage of plaques • Menhir: large standing stones, single or linear; largest in France—75 ft tall, 350 tones; contains graphics • Henge: circular structure made of stone/timbers with ditch/bank around them • Megalithic tombs (graves): often go back to bury more o Dolmen(portal) : round in structure, 4750-4300BC); would roll stones on top of logs to move them and have a structure there already to help assemble, then topped o Gallery: covered with earth when done to create mounds; often bring more people after created o Passage: (3800-2500BC) long passage rooms that are aligned with sun (equinox, winter solstice) Saxe Hypothesis #8: a group designates power over land and resources by maintaining burials, acts as a way to mark territory and identify group living there Week 6 New World Food Production Consequences of Agriculture 4 • Settlements: Most farming communities lived in permanent villages, settlements become larger and constructed more durably; changing daily life as house roles take greater importance; more privacy within homes, H/G societies rather open; household can accumulate/hide surplus—certain households have more and gain importance; houses/villages give sense of identify for individuals, same with ethnicity; surplus of food needs food storage/pottery • Social complexity: adapting new way of life and some people gain more authority than others based on status and amount of goods; obsidian for ornaments; families with more possessions pass them down, hereditary leadership • Material culture: pottery is very important (heavy, fragile, difficult to transport— evidence of egalitarian society) • Warfare: violence increases as population increases from territoriality; villages become more densely packed; household obtain wealth and others raid and steal, violence between agriculture groups; evidence of mass graves • Agriculture intensification: population become so large that the environment cannot sustain, either go back to H/G or intensify efforts; cutting down more forests for cultivation o Irrigation: costs high, large labor force needed, constant maintenance § Storing rain/flood water in tanks—released into fields (canals built) § Moving water from rivers to fields by using canals (costal Peru, early Mesopotamia) o Plowing: requires animals to pull plows, but humans could also use homemade; increases the amount of land that can be farmed and increases productivity; cost of feeding animals and keeping them warm in cold months—human attention and additional labor o Terracing: occurs in rough/mountainous terrains; increasing areas of farming by creating artificial tiers of dry-stone walls that allow planting of crops on top; can act as stabilizing slopes/limiting erosion (Andes, Philippians, Greek/Roman farmers); cost of human labor to build structure and transform landscape Evidence of Agriculture • Recovery plant seeds themselves, phytoliths (natural occurring silica in plants allowing identification of plant it came from) • Genetic structure of plants Domestication in New World • Longer for agriculture to spread o Geographical barriers in N/S America restrict ease of farming § Creates lag in sedentary communities • Fewer animal domestication, more reliant on plants o Environments limited animals that were available for domestication (alpaca, llama, turkey, rabbit, honeybee) 5 • Relied on hunting meat Old World: horse, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs New World: extinct, bison, big-horn sheep, mountain goats, extinct *New world animals are harder to domesticate Why did domestication precede sedentism in Mesoamerica? Why did it take so long for maze and other domesticates to become the largest part of their diet? Maze/corn (most important domesticate): plant productivity and plant genetics; Near East contained cereals grains in dense patches, allowed H/G to settle near them, while in N/S American people focused on teosinte grass that was original corn; teosinte was not as abundant and when tried to domesticate it took much longer Teosinte lack a cob, maize is man made and doesn’t occur in the wild by itself; 4300 BC—first cobs discovered, but very small in size, low number of kernel rows (4-6); maize pollen found in pottery containers or tools suggest that domestication of maize occurred in 6700BC (microfossil); spreads everywhere by 200 AD after domsticated Mesoamerica • Main domesticate: maize, beans, squash, chili (early as 9500 BC) o Domestication occurs first before sedentism (sedentism occurs approx.. 1600 BC) • Sites: o Guila Naquitz Cave: south of Tehucan Valley; found pieces of acorn, cactus fruits, hackberries, and also squash/beans; evidence of cobs of teosinte in various deposits dated to 4400 years ago; although wild form it shows characteristics of domestication—plants from this site are older that Tehacan valley (nearly 700 years) o Tehuacan Valley (mesoamerica): 5000 year old corn cobs; sedentary life around 4000-3000 years ago; evolution showing increase in size § Sequence from 12 cave sites • 10,000-7000 BC: very migrant groups of 2-3 families focused on hunting/gathering and depended on seasonal plants; also jackrabbits, birds, and turtles • 7000-5000 BC: shift from microbands to macrobands—larger congregation of people coming together (especially in winter), population growth, earliest evidence of domesticated squash, earliest use of ground stones to process plant foods • 5000-3400 BC: earliest domesticated maize, as well as beans; domesticated plants made up 14% of their diet, ground seeds • 3400-2300 BC: first major change in settlements—permanent base camps; pottery being produced, domesticated foods 30% 6 • 1500-850 BC: located near river valleys, fully sedentary villages with house, public buildings, and sharp increase in population; agriculture makes up 40% of their diet • “Food trinity”: provides amino acids for diet, all plants supported each other (maize supports beans, beans hold nitrogen, squash holds soil in place) • Plant domestication was more important to animal domestication; no real origin of domestication because all over the world cultural developments create unique adaptions within specific environments South America • Main domesticates: Llamas, tomatoes • Root vegetables o Potatoes plant is poisonous • Camelids domesticated—extinct everywhere besides this location; llamas were first used for meat and hides and shit as fertilizer; by Inca empire they were primary transport animal in Andes mountains; Alpacas used for meat and hides, domestication 4000-5000 BC and became important source of wool; textiles in South America come form these animals; raised Guiana pigs as food and religious purposes, domestication around 4000 BC; Muscovy ducks domesticated although not as an important source, mainly used eggs in costal regions—domesticated by 100 BC o Textiles became source of wealth • Transition to Agriculture o Social changes: permanent year round settlements, year round crops, growth of towns and complex division of labor o Origins of complexity: accelerated change in population and social organization; SW Iran population increased by 600% percent; small farming villages to first civilizations—highly stratified societies arise (priest, merchants, armies, kings); agriculture spurs these changes o Political organization: H/G organized in bands; bands to states change the degree of power in types of societies § What is power? • Persuasive power: convincing people to do something; common among H/G • Cohersive power: ability to influence and make people do things in more complex societies (agriculture, chief societies) o Bands: composed 25-30 people, technology is simple, exchange is simple among groups (egalitarian—no formalized leaders, those in positions are successful hunters/personal achievements; purpose to serve people rather than themselves) o Tribes: 100-3000 people, more sedentary (subsistence pattern: horticulture) tend to fields in one area; practice polygamy (men have more than one wife), leaders “Big Men” society—leaders become by obtaining more wealth by the 7 surplus produced by horticulture (more you give away, the higher status you have; public giveaways to redistribute to others) o Big Men societies: the more people give away, the more motivation to tend to fields and produce larger surplus and more frequent/common public giveaways Complex Societies: Chiefdoms and States Complex societies: status differences are institutionalized; groups that are higher legally ranked Differences in wealth and power are now permanent Social stratification: divided to have and have nots Political centralization: power in concentrated in small group of rulers Suggested that only agriculturally based societies became complex societies Chiefdoms Chiefs have informal relationships with each other and only interact when needed, while each chief has a more formalized relationship to members of their society Population growth—5,000 to 50,000; exceed carrying capacity of the land they vacate (to offset begin to have surplus of resources) Chiefdom: political economy that organizes thousands of people through hierarch of leaders or under a single ruler—more material goods, craft specialization Political control of production in one person—chief Chiefs: leaders who own, manage, and control basics of economy and special access to goods that are being redistributed *can be numerous chiefs Authority vested in office/lineage not the single man; they begin obtaining more land, has prerogative to exercise authority • Hereditary position (not charismatic), based on kinship, rules governing succession o Patrilineal: oldest son of the chief becomes next chief (primogeniture) o Matrilineal: chief’s sister’s oldest son • Rights o Good judgment/respond correctly o Good administrator o Can be extractive: recruit people to military service/tribute (requires population to pay him) • Sumptuary rules/taboos o Separating higher status from lower status individuals o Those with higher status receive better products, due to better relationship to chief and lineage (marked by jewelry, clothing, tattoos, language/dialect) o Taboos against marrying a lower status individual • Social stratification, chiefdoms are kin based o Ranking is based on proximity to chief 8 *Kinship ranks everything Issue of surplus • Politics/economy strongly related • Subsistence—reliable food sources (horticulture/agriculture) • Food storage: necessary for social/political/economic stratification • Property ownership: identified with decent lineages/individuals o Land becomes exclusive to tribe/lineage over time o Unlike H/G, land is now owned by certain family • Boundaries o Well marked territories o Keep exchange within chiefdom o Specialized production: how are they kept within chiefdom § Redistribution: pooling of resources that go to the chief that then disperses to the rest of his people § General reciprocity still sometimes used § Ex. Indians on NW coast “Potlatch” that is a form of redistribution, seems wasteful but competition between chiefs; redistribution—hierarchal • Law/Religion: interconnected for chiefs, laws are institutionalized (organized) rewards and punishments; chief has the power to make judicial decisions o Form of religion varies from H/G, tribes; religion legitimizes the power of the chief (Cahokia—civilization in US, structured by tying chiefs to supernatural occurrences, chiefs had more knowledge and impressed the rest of the population) o Human sacrifice: when chiefs died the wives would be sacrificed to join them, wives would be very honored to do so • Surplus: used to conduct work, construct public works, increase craft specialization, build roads/mounds, pay an army • Art/Agriculture o More extensive artwork, monumental architecture (Natchez, Cahokia, NW coast, pyramids, mounds) • Instability: chiefdoms are unstable because other chiefs want more power than others, quest for power; lesser chiefs are always trying to take power from the higher ranked chiefs; constant warfare within chiefdom—rising and falling of various chiefs Kwakiutl—Chiefdom-level foragers (h/g) Blend of traits between tribes and chiefdoms. Each member ranked within family, family ranked within lineage, and lineages ranked within clans, clans ranked in tribes. Class society. Specialized leadership based on heredity. Rights for designs, songs, mask as form of status symbols. Permanent government structure. Constructed totem poles (shows clan founder and history) Rugged terrain and mild climate, beaches containing villages with dense forest behind them. Sea as main source of food, “with the sea”, avenue of travel. Only domesticated dog, no agriculture. Environment was so rich in resources, they could not over-collect and would always have surplus by hunting, gathering, and fishing. Only collected food in the summer (6 month 9 period to sustain other 6 months). Plant foods, deer, bear, elk, berries. 30 independent political entities—each with own winter town (where they’d go to perform rituals, became source of identity) Potlatch as validation of becoming chief (1. Sat based on rank 2. Provide entertainment, distribute gifts after—higher ranked received first and more) Power: in hands of clans/numayms, chiefs work to represent them Warfare: intra-Kwakiutl, professional soldiers (supported by group), slaves (products of war, used for labor/status symbols); much smaller scale, raids against own, done for revenge or gain prestige Social organization: primary family unit is lineage (ambilineal—choose mother/father side, allows to choose highest ranked) 3 classes • Nobles: dances, ceremonial songs, married among each other • Commoners: large amount of population, lack songs, dances, names, masks (all things that are ranked, they don’t have) • Slaves Status symbols: copper, flattened foreheads (signals wealth, expensive process), arranged marriages (bride-price: paid to brides father for marriage inside family; fictitious marriages: man could marry higher ranked object to raise his level of ranking) Animism: everything has power in nature Ceremonial year(2 halves) Summer: secular—gathering Winter: ceremonial People are still around in 15 tribes and still holding contemporary potlatchs Week 6 Readings Ubaid Period (5900-4200 BC) KEY POINTS Long distance trade and communication, religious authority, practicing irrigation CHARACTERISTICS • Development of irrigation agriculture from Euphrates river to grow cereals • Period named after key site Tell al-Ubaid in southern Iraq • Tell Awayli had mud-brick buildings, grain storage, and pottery classified as Ubaid o type • Eridu, located in southern Iraq, contained temples dedicated to the water god o The temples began as single room buildings that were built atop one another; contained alters and solid platforms (offering of fish to gods) 10 o Sequence of temples show that during Mesopotamian times temples were significant in religious practices; preists were in charge of land/labor management, food distribution, and religious practices/rituals o Cemetery at this site uncovered 200 graves of individuals containing goods (pots, jewelry, food) and lizard-headed figurines (possibly religious) • Tell Madhhur: east-central Iraq; domesticated house with rooms containing pots and tools made of stone/clay giving evidence for domestic activities o Similar sites: Tell Abadeh, Kheit Qasim • Tepe Gawra: constructed 5200 BC with three temple structures o Large quantities of clay sealing’s for containers and storerooms indicate the temple was a collection/distribution place for the divinity • Susa: contained Ubaid-type pottery in an excavated cemetery show wide range of activity and interaction • Nearly 50 sites near the Persian Gulf contained Ubaid pottery and other artifacts; analyzing the pottery suggest they were made in Lower Mesopotamia and moved hundreds of kilometers to the Persian Gulf; painted Ubaid-pottery was replaced with unpainted pottery of the Uruk period Uruk period (4200-3000 BC) CHARACTERISTICS • Large-scale communities engaging in warfare, craft production, administration and social involvements • Practicing irrigation agriculture created society that dominated and exploited their environment to give surplus of cereals, flour, fish, wool, and textiles • Temples were critical at the time to accept the surplus for gods and redistribute to temple workers • Rise of civilization was dependent on surplus from the land which allowed development of mechanisms to distribute what they had; became increasingly articulated through hierarchy control (by 2900 BC known as dynasties composed of Kings/Queens) • In Early and Middle Uruk (4200-3500 BC) large settlements developed but by the Late Uruk (3500-3000 BC) population shift from abandoning northern site of Nippur and moved to southern Uruk o By 2900 BC Uruk was size of a modern city; shift could be from change in river courses of Tigris/Euphrates • Tell Brak: several mass graves with evidence of violent conflict between communities • Hamoukar: was thriving settlement that was sophisticated but had thousands of sling balls giving evidence to another attack o Evidence from 2 sites show violence was part of the route on the way to urbanism • Uruk: classified as first genuine city, population of tens of thousands o Large temples and residential buildings, open spaces for gatherings, production zones, and housing (first detection of multiple functions within settlement) 11 o Eanna precint: mud-brick buildings with decorative clay cones and colored heads; size and layout of buildings suggest used as temples as well as communal spots or residential buildings of priests/officials o Anu temple: series of temples built on terrace; White Temple found burial of lion and leopard cub for ritual; also found in Tell Uqair showing spread of cult o Had clay tablets with early writings in form of wedges allowed multiple languages to identify; script called “proto-cuneiform” and pictographic signs Tepe Yahya • Cities in the plains used their surplus of resources as a means of trade for minerals not present in their area; trade networks encouraged development of specialized production • Located SE Iran; 3100-2800 BC proto-elamite present with 27 tablets with inscriptions based on economic issues—first developed in Lower Mesopotamia suggesting an influence on this region • Collapsed around 2800 BC, became center for produced carved vessels made of chlorite; these items were found in Ur, Bactria and along the Persian Gulf 12
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