BIO 1144 Sec 03 Test 2 Study Guide
BIO 1144 Sec 03 Test 2 Study Guide BIO 1144
Popular in Biology II Thomas Holder
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jaren Davis on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Biology II Thomas Holder in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Biology II Test 2 Study onlinequizlet.com/_214c52 1.Abscisic Acid ◦Growth inhibitor 10.Calcium ‣ Component of cell walls ◦Found in the mature ‣ Regulator of membrane and enzyme leaves, dormant buds, and activities seeds ‣ Involved with membrane permeability 2.Androecium Male household 11.Calyx •Collection of sepals 3. •Protection of the At Sink •Companion cells unload unopened bud sucrose (ATPexpenditure) •Sucrose converted to 12.Calyx and "sterile" modified starch for storage in root Forolla leaves. cortex 13. Chlorine Involved with ion balance and oxygen •Without sucrose, water production during photosynthesis potential changes, higher 14.Copper Activator or component of many enzymes water potential in STM (pressure) 15. Corolla •Collection of petals •Water moves fromSTM to •Collection of petals adjacent xylemby osmosis •Function:attract pollinators 4.At Source •Companion Cells "pump" sucrose intoSTMs (ATP 16.Cytokinins ◦Growth promoters expenditure) ◦Produced in seeds, fruits, and roots •As source concentration 17.Dicot Leafhas net increases in STMs, water _______ potential decreases within STM (pressure) (H2O venation concentration) 18.dicots primary growth (elongation) •Adjust xylemhas higher secondary growth (expansion) water potential than STMs; ringed vascular bundles H2O moves intoSTMs by 19.Diffusion The movement of molecules along a osmosis concentration gradient fromhigh tolow •Bulk flow of sucrose concentration (higher pressure tolower pressure) 20.Effectsof ‣ Inhibits cell elongation Abscisic Acid ‣ Inhibits alpha-amylase secretion by the 5.Auxins ◦Produced in shoot tips, aleurone layer leaves, fruits, and seeds ‣ Promotes the production of storage ◦Growth promoting compounds in seeds toprevent early hormones germination ◦All hormones require ATP ‣ Promotes leaf senescence (leaves change energy investment for color) transport (phloem) •Trying topromote growth 6.Boron ‣ Associated with 21.Effectsof ‣ Promote cell elongation membrane structure Auxin ‣ Promote stemelongation ‣ Necessary for nucleic acid ‣ Promote stemexpansion synthesis ‣ Promote the development of fruit 7.Both retain cell division Vascular and Cork ‣ Inhibits bud development propertiesto produce "rings" of Cambium ‣ Inhibits the abscission (a layer of cells develop and a part snaps off) of leaves, secondary tissues inside/outside ofthe cambium flowers, fruits ring 22.Effectsof ‣ Promotes cytokinesis and cell division 8.Bud new shoot Cytokinins ‣ Promote the development of buds 9.Bulk Flow The movement of ‣ Inhibit leaf senescence (loss and breakdown of chlorophyll;change in color) molecules in response to pressure or gravity from high tolow concentration 23. 33. EffectsofEthylene ‣ Interacts with the three growth inside cork cambium periderm= outer bark promoting hormones toregulate 34.inside vascular cambium secondary xylem= wood cell size and shape ‣ Promotes the abscission of 35.In stems, primary growth above leaves, fruits, and flowers isabove or below ground? ‣ Promotes fruit ripening 36. 24.EffectsofGibberellins ‣ Promote stemelongation by cell Internode the region between twonodes; elongation occurs within these elongation ‣ Promote cell division 37.Iron Necessary for chlorophyll ‣ Promote the breakdown of food production reserves in germinating seeds 38.leaves primary growth only 25.Embryo sac iswithin nucellus;integuments 39. _______ and _______ inside Maganese ‣ Enzyme activator ‣ Part of the chloroplast ovary ofpistils membrane 26.Ethylene ◦Growth inhibitor ‣ Involved with oxygen release ◦Might not be a hormone in the chloroplast ◦A gas released fromthe plant 40.Magnesium ‣ Enzyme activator 27.Food Breakdown •Intake of h2O causing swelling ‣ Component of chlorophyll ◦Cracking of seed coats 41.Molybdenum Necessary for nitrogen fixation •Embryosecretes Gibberellins and absorption •Gibbs transported toAleurone •Aleurone layer secretes enzyme 42.Monocot Leafhas________ parallel ◦(Alpha - amylase) > breaks down venation starch 43.Monocots primary growth (elongation) •Starch ---> Glucose ---> yields scattered vascular bundles ◦ATP(biological energy) for growth 44.Nitrogen Component of coenzymes, proteins, nucleic acids, and •Embryodirects process! ◦Cues fromH2O chlorophyll •Advantage of seed plants! 45.node any point along the stemwhere 28.Gametophyte ◦Pollen (sperm) a leaf, bud, or branch arises generation (1N) ◦Eggs 46.Osmosis The diffusion of water across a 29.Gibberellins ◦Found in plants selectively permeable membrane ◦Growth promoting hormones ◦Produced/found throughout 47. outside cork cambium replaces epidermis and cortex the plant 48.outside vascular secondary phloem= inner bark ‣ Highly concentrated in seeds cambium 30.Growth From Seed Breaking of Dormancy 49.Ovule Development •Ovule = future seed Requires: Seedling Plant ◦Enclosed within ovary of pistil Internal Development (carpel) Plant Nutrition ◦1 tomany per ovary 31.Hormones "chemical messengers" •Ovule attached tocentral axis 32.Importance ofH2O ◦Photosynthesis of hollow ovary or toovary wall ◦Always "enclosed" ---> ◦Support for plant organs angiosperm ◦Conduction ◦Cell elongation •Within ovule is 1 large 2N cell ◦Megaspore mother cell ◦Nearly all chemical reactions involve water 50. Pedicel •=stalk ‣ Some require water, some •4 sets of mod.leaves produce water arise fromthe ◦Average plant cell ---> 90%water receptacle ◦Primary solvent for most substances 51. 59. Phosphorous ‣ Component of nucleic acids Sexual Cycle: ‣ Pollen formation - sign anther of stamen ‣ Component of biological energy molecules Male ‣ Anther - bilobed with 2 pollen chambers per ‣ Component of coenzymes lobe ‣ Component of phospholipids ‣ Anthers C.S. 52.Pollination •Transfer of pollen froman anther toa 60.Shoot Tip bud and tip stigma 61.Sink ◦The storage site or the site where sugar is •Self-pollination quickly needed ◦The transfer within the same flower or the same plant 62.Solute The chemical in solution of lesser quality that is usually dissolved •Cross Pollination ◦Transfer of pollen between plants 63.Solution Mixture of twoor more compounds •Pollinating Agents (Mechanisms) - transfer 64.Solvent Compound in a solution, usually in the 53.Potassium ‣ Functions as enzyme activator;involved in greatest quantity, and usually a liquid the opening and closing of leaf stomata 65.Source ◦Site of excess carbohydrate ‣ Ionic balance of cells 66.stem monocots - primary growth 54.Propertiesof ◦Water is a polar molecule H2O ◦Neutral charge dicots - primary and secondary growth ◦Hydrogen bonding - each H2O is H- 67.stems Monocot - scattered VBs -nopith or cortex bonded to4 other molecules Dicot - pith and cortex, VBs in ring ‣ Water is powerful because of hydrogen 68.Sulfur Component of some proteins and some bond coenzymes ‣ Water forms a "tight net" ‣ Water is very cohesive 69.Translocation ‣ Food / solutes ‣ Bidirectional together tightly ‣ Water is adhesive - cellulose ‣ Phloem ◦Water is a temperature stabilizer ‣ Must expend ATPenergy by plant ◦Water is a good transport medium 70.Transpiration ‣ Water / minerals ◦Water is the best biological solvent ‣ Unidirectional ◦Found in all 3 physical forms at earth's ‣ Xylem temperature range ‣ Sunlight energy (noexpenditure by plant) 55.Regulation of ◦Travels fromone place toanother to 71.Zinc Activator or component of many enzymes Plant Growth initiate a response ◦Mostly internal;transported in phloem tissue ◦Interact with external environmental factors ‣ Temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture ◦Growth, seed germination, flowering, fruiting, shedding leaves, color loss leaves ◦Growth Inhibiting ‣ Mostly in fall/winter ◦Growth Promoting ‣ Mostly in spring/summer ◦All hormones require ATPenergy for transport. 56.root monocots - primary growth dicots - primary and secondary growth 57.roots Monocot - pith and cortex Dicot - cortex (xylem@ cortex) 58.SAM shoot apical meristem
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