HY104 Exam 1 Study guide with essay outlines
HY104 Exam 1 Study guide with essay outlines Hy 104
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jess Snider on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hy 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari frederickson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 611 views. For similar materials see American history after 1865 in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
HY 104 Midterm Exam I Study Guide Part I: Identification 10 Identification Questions Proclamation of Amnesty and Pardon 1865, Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plan; pardon to any southerner who would swear allegiance to the union and the constitution, exconfederate leaders should not be eligible for amnesty Haymarket Riot May of 1886, a response to the death of four strikers killed by police in Chicago. Demonstrated the growing rift between labor and business interest Black Codes Were the laws passed by Southern states after the Civil War; had the intent and effect of restricting African Americans’ freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or deth 15 Amendment prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s race, color, or previous condition of servitude th 14 Amendment granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, which included slaves William Jennings Bryan Nebraska congressman; Cross of Gold speech favoring free silver; Wilson’s secretary of state until 1914; dominant force of populist force—party’s candidate for president Paternalism policy or practice on the part of people in positions of authority of restricting the freedom and responsibilities of those subordinate to them in the subordinates’ supposed best interest Thaddeus Stephens Republican leaded and one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives’ chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee; wrote most of the financial legislation that paid for the American Civil War Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire NYC, March 25, 1911; industrial disaster, caused 146 deaths of garment workers; led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the international Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, which fought for safer and better working conditions Civil Rights Act of 1875 prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation; declared unconstitutional by the supreme court Southern Farmers’ Alliance organization that rallied behind political reforms to solve the farmers’ economic problems Knights of Labor 1880s organization at the center of the burgeoning labor movement because it included skilled and unskilled, male and female, and black and white workers. Protective Tariffs Duty imposed on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers and thus protecting domestic industries from foreign competition Essay Question 1 Thesis: In the late nineteenth century, America was launched into a massive economic and social upheaval caused by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration. A main component of this new phase of America was the industrial worker, who was facing their own problems. Industrialization workers had to deal with unbearable conditions all while trying to come to grips with this new world happening around them. What it’s like to be an industrial worker Unsafe work conditions (triangle fire example) Low wages Long hours Alleviating Problems Strikes Gaining public attention over the horrible conditions Forming Unions Fighting for reforms Safety, wages, and hours Achieving Goal Unions formed to protect the workers Safety laws passed Child labor laws Wages increased Conclusion: Industrial workers made up a large portion of Americans during the 19 century and they were at the center of the economic and social upheaval. Industrial workers had a hard life with nearly unbearable working conditions. Many workers began to work for better conditions with better pay, and many achieved this goal. Unions were formed, laws were passed, and wages were increased. Industrial workers achieved all their goals by the end o the 19 century through public outreach and hard work. Essay Question 2 Thesis: “From the perspective of black southerners, it appeared that the North won the Civil War and lost the peace, for despite temporary gains, they secured no permanent political, legal, or economic rights in the postwar period” is an invalid way to describe the North postcivil war. In 1865 the North was a prosperous region, filled with a new booming economy. The North managed to fare well after the war, though the postwar era seemed bleak to newly freed slaves. The Civil War actually helped the North more than it hurt it. North Legal Rights Postwar Civil Rights Act Ending Jim Crow Laws Freed Blacks Voting Rights North Political Rights Postwar Presidential Reconstruction: outrage over black codes led to this Triumph of the radical wing of the Republican party Northern congressmen refused to seat congressmen and senators elected from the South After the rejection of Johnson’s policies in 1866, Republicans in Congress took firm control of Reconstruction in the South Blacks holding political office North Economic Rights Postwar Industrialization: North did nearly all manufacturing Increased number of immigrants and jobs in the cities Increase in large cities and factories Transportation: railroads Conclusion: To the newly freed slaves, the North seemed like it had lost due to the fact that the blacks themselves were facing bleak results during Reconstruction. The North was prospering in almost all aspects, but they weren’t able to immediately help free slaves causing the exslaves to view the postwar era as an era worse than the era before the CivilWar. Contrary to how African Americans saw the North, things were booming in the North. With a new economy that was moving along, new forms of transportation, and political gains for the Republicans, the North was looking like it was doing better than ever. Essay Question 3 th Thesis: During the late 19 century, many groups emerged to fight for various rights and protection but were met with straggly. Women’s Suffrage had begun in the 1800s but lost steam when the Civil War th begin but once that ended it began to gain power again. Another group fighting in the late 19 century was the African American Civil Rights movement. The African American Civil Rights stemmed from freed slaves still fighting for rights and they faced many hurdles that they needed to overcome. The final group that faced many struggles were labor unions. Labor workers were a large portion of the country but they had little protection. Labor unions faced a large opposing force of Corporations. These groups faced many struggles but they fought through to succeed in what they believed in. Women’s Rights Lost momentum because of the Civil War begin to regroup afterwards Government wasn’t supporting Had to fight along with Civil Rights for African Americans overshadowed African American Civil Rights Segregation favored by many Equal rights opposed Government gave no support White supremacist groups formed against Brown v. Board of Education Major step but opposed by many Labor Union Goal was to protect the common interest of workers Knights of Labor Wanted to address key issues Beaten by Gould (southwestern railroad system) Suffered a setback after Haymarket Square incident Demised afterwards American Federation of Labor Opposed by companies Bosses had upper hand with the government Demands were either partially met or not met at all Struggled until after great depressionunskilled workers came together Conclusion: The 19 century saw many reforms and groups trying to create reforms. Many groups were formed and faced struggles and puttered out while some stayed strong and still exist. Having enough people to back your group and not giving up led to many successful groups. Essay Question 4 Reconstruction is often viewed as a twelve year experiment, with many people attempting to shape the South. The only issue with this experiment was that every group had a different idea of what they wanted the South become. The newly free slaves wanted to own land, find family, and live the life that they had been dreaming of while white Southerners wanted to basically wanted things to go back to the way they were before the war. Then you had Andrew Johnson who got to attempt to make his vision of postwar South come true. Overall none of the groups’ whole vision came true, only bits and pieces being applied to the new South. Andrew Johnson Shift political control in the south from old planter aristocracy to small farmers and artisans Abolishment of slavery and loyalty oath Former slaves not allowed in government Allowed black codes to be administered Relaxed enforcement on the South Freedman Own land Same rights as whites Vote/political freedom Education Family White Southerners Wanted to take rights away from African Americans Wanted government positions back Wanted land back Conclusion: Many groups had a vision of what the new South should look like during reconstruction, but none of them got the vision they wanted. Johnson wanted to change the political system in the South and abolish slavery, which both occurred, but he also didn’t want to really punish the South and he was also okay with the way the freeman were being treated. Freedman wanted to get the land they were once promised, get an education, and overall have the same rights as whites. The freedmen eventually got all the things that were in their vision but it took time and was not achieved during reconstruction. White Southerners wanted things to go back to the way they were before the Civil War. Reconstruction accomplished many things but it could not satisfy every individual’s vision for the South. Essay Question 5 Thesis: The postCivil War era was coined the Gilded Age by author Mark Twain due to the fact that he believed that the period was glittering on the surface but underneath it was corrupt. The Gilded Age was a period in history with wealth and a booming economy, but underneath many were suffering. The captains of industry were living a good life, like they were on top of the world while Native Americans were having their land taken away and industrial workers were barely getting by from day to day. Gilded Age was a very fitting term for all that was happening during this era for most Americans. Gilded Age Culture of newly rich, lacking tradition people Wealthy becoming showing like upperclass in Europe Wealthy living extravagantly while the poor suffered immensely Wealthy business owners acted corruptly Detail Captains of Industry Rockefeller (Standard Oil), Carnegie (Steel), and Morgan (banker) Also known by some as Robber Barons Eliminated completion through predatory pricing and overcharging Amassed a personal fortune contributes positively to the country Through increased productivity, expansion of market, providing more jobs Native Americans Land being taken from them Relocated by whites Saw brutal and forceful incorporation Were seen as a problem for agents of incorporation Were seen as problems standing in the way of industrialization Whites tried to conform them into “Americans” Industrial Workers Worked long, grueling hours Violence within the workplace Dangerous work environment Many injuries in factories No safety rules to follow Daily fatalities due to poor conditions Low wagesnot enough to live on Example: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire incident Killed around 146 women due to unsafe conditions Locked doors Conclusion: The Gilded Age from the outside perspective seemed like an era of perfection, but in reality there were many underlying problems. There was a large amount of corrupt actions occurring and a good amount of suffering by those that weren’t considered lucky enough to be in the wealthy class. Individuals like Captains of Industry had the perfect life, with not a care, while Native Americans and Industrial workers were experiencing great hardships. Describing this era as the Gilded Age is the best way to describe the era because it did in fact glitter on the surface but underneath it was a corrupt mess.
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