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Anthropology Midterm 1 Study Guide

by: Lauran Notetaker

Anthropology Midterm 1 Study Guide ANTH 3853 001

Lauran Notetaker

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Study Guide for Midterm 1
Music, Language, and Culture
Dr. SeanO'Neill
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Music, Language, and Culture

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 3853 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. SeanO'Neill in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Music, Language, and Culture in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
1st Midterm February 22, 2016 Short Answer There will be five concepts. First, define each term then give an example or two illustrating the general significance for both language and music. One Essay (Two to choose from Evolution or Social Foundations) Be sure to start with a brief statement of your central thesis, before going on to develop this argument in the body of your paper. Toward the end of your essay, you might also comment on evolution or the possible biological basis for language and music. What light does your evidence shed on this emerging area of research? Music, Language, and Culture January 20, 2016 The course focuses on the whole world, not just non-western bard - write story to music
 “touch the sound”
 language - left side of brain music - both sides of brain Common Ground: The Spectrum Pure Language: Pure Music: (No rhythm, (No words) melody) Poetry: (Melodic Pure Language: cadence, (No rhythm, Ordinary Rhythmic Song Pure Music: (No melody) Language meter) words) Griot January 25, 2016 Library password for readings: ONeill3853 Universalism vs. Relativism Is language innate? Ex. Egypt poor kid experiment - took a child and kept it away from any spoken language to see if it would come up with its inherited language or a new language Or is it a product of the social environment? The same goes for music and culture Ex. 2 year olds picking up on a new language more quickly than that of older people Social Foundations Generating meaning Socialization Dialogic exchange Cultural traditions Ex. Nicaraguan Sign Language - placed deaf children in a room without any communication and they came up with a whole new language on their own coming from just interaction, has no roots. From genetic code? Universalism and realism go hand and hand About 6,000 languages on the planet UG - Universal Grammar George Herzog - When it comes to music, we only have dialects, not language; mutually intelligible music might be more dialect than language Bird Song Allegory
 cuckoo - all sign same song, even without exposure Ex. of pure rationalism
 bull finch - sings any song it hears, even those of other species Ex. of pure empiricism empiricism - mind is a blank slate birds communicating territory chaffinch - no song without exposure, sings basic song shortly after birth; eventually learns local “dialect” critical age: 10 months
 about 15,000 languages before living in big cities about 150,000 years ago critical age about 16 years old (when you probably cant play music anymore) The Culture Concept
 Social construction of reality Language
 Etc. (Humor, Food) Alterity - opposite of identity Culture Ontologies Ways of being Web of relationships
 Ex. Repatriating Hopi songs Ex. How close you stand to someone, interrupting while talking to friends February 1, 2016 Structuralism behavior patterns in language and music for exam: prepare your own responses takes about 10,000 hours to learn a new language UG - Universal Grammar
 holy grail of Linguistics How could language survive without sound? gestures
 - facial expressions
 - writing - rhythm
 - visual imagery theory of mind - getting into someones head Sound units: signaling devices
 functional elements of sound in language or music create shifts in meaning or structure hold no necessary meaning in isolation Phonotactics - how we put sound together tsunami psychology but can end stops Silence can even communicate something Phonemes
 - minimal units of sound in language Distinct sounds lumped together Ex. The “L” in light, Lean, Clean, Glean Asperation for “Pot”
 Unexploited for “stoP” There is about 180 symbols that make about 40 sounds in English about 2,000 languages in Africa Signaling Devices
 “Talking Drum” of West Africa “Tonemes” (Levi-Strauss)
 - Minimal units of sound in music?
 - Distinctive Scales (interrelated pitches that form melodies)  - Timbres - Tonal qualities of Instruments
 - B.B. King “Blue Notes” and Jazz notes - Microtone
 - sliding or bending strings, guitar sings goes between major and minor chords Meter: Measured flow of sound
 - Presence of “beats”
 - Regular or offset (syncopated)
 - Stress patterns (“accent”)
 - Syllables (language)
 Ex. Tabla Rhythms of India - speech copying sound Phrase Structure
 - Heirarchial organization -  Phrases
 - Groups of Words -  Melodies
 - Groups of Notes 
 Ex. From Patel (2007) Music, Language, and the Brain 
 February 3, 2016 
 Languages Lost and Found: Speaking and Whistling - Video the mamma tongue 
 90% of languages are not on the internet Canary Islands - La Gomera 
 70 Whistling Languages around the world
 Subo Gomero - more than 22,000 inhabitants and speak language 
 If your language is lost, what would you say? 
 Asiklar: Those who are in love - Video microtones 
 saz - ashnik played alvi from ashnik 
 philosophy - people, tolerance
 benefit to people, never asks for money 
 cultures transformed into something entirely new February 8, 2016 Semantics
 - Creating meaning, based or regular code - Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss Linguist Semiotic - the study of meaning
 how it is we generate meaning
 how we pair meaning with musical sound A minor - sadness Ex. Shaw Tyler plays Jimi Hendrix ways to convey myth through performance Ex. Whales have some songs that are semiotic; Dolphins possibly Musical Semantics
 Leonard Bernstein - composer/songwriter was very convinced that music narrates a story trying to be told by composer Ex. Narration of Beethoven Metaphor
 Structured Comparison Language (Source = Target) Badger = (furious) person Ex. Honey badger think metaphorically musical comedy Music (A = B)
 two measured units in flow of sound (paired phrases in melody) Ex. Beethoven’s fifth
 suggestive rapping on door Lyrical Metaphor
 Ex. John Lee Hooker “Car” for Body
 from Robert Johnson
 trying to make guitar like a piano; talking about a woman jealousy, betrayal Metonymy
 “Part for Whole” (language) the pen is stronger than a sword sword for military force pen for written word, statement “Taps” as reference to military and funerals musical allusion
 parts of melody
 as reference to whole composition Amazing Grace National Anthem Any Theme Song Synecdoche: Reciprocal Substitutions   Part Whole Whole “Hand” for work
 passage for whole work (music) Part “law” for officer
 “Genre” that is synonymous with specific artist “Classical violin” - Paganini (greatest virtuoso)   fractal - every little bit represents the whole
 Ex. Universe from the atom and how both look similar Puns
 Same sound triggers different meanings Removal from ordinary context
 Marx’s tomb is a communist plot Cell phone melodies? Ex. Mary had a little lamb” as Blues - Buddy Guy Anagrams
 Rearranging the same structural elements... Either “letters”... Or musical notes
 To create new words, melodies, harmonics, etc Ex. Stipend = spend it Archeologist = Goal is to search Virtually all melodies using one “scale” February 10, 2016 Structuralism
 Behavioral patterns in language and music Antithesis
 Pairing of opposites Love-Hate Secular-Sacred ... in council you descant on bravery, and in battle you tremble... (oxymoron) dark and light - two colors if only two in a language
 red - danger, patriotic color (crimson)
 duets - pairing opposites; major and minor chords     strong heros and villains
 Akin to counterpoint in melody (moving in opposite directions) Ex. Counterpoint guitar vs voice 2 distinct voices Chiasmus
 Reversal of formula Ex. “All for one, and one for all” A kind of symmetrical parallelism Ex. Mozart “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik” Humor
 Message sent in jest Parody
 Off-record commentary Ex. Pirates of Penzance Alliteration
 Structures that start with the same “sound” Phonemes of language
 “Notes” of music Ex. “Always avoid alliteration” - form of alliteration Harry Potter, Beethoven Words, Melodies, rhythms, etc. Ex. Beethoven’s 5th Symphony (Rhythm) Synethesia - scents that bring back memories “Mixing” the senses “Loud” tie
 “Stinky” composition
 “Sour” note
 Any image usually linked to sound Irony
 Opposition in intended meaning Sarcastic
 Dramatic Ex. “Model Biblical Philologist” Parody Palidrome
 Complete reversal of sound sequence Identical meaning and structure hannah (spelled backwards) hannah racecar (spelled backwards) racecar kayak (spelled backwards) kayak Ex. “Le Palindome” - Mozart Anaphora
 References to established figures in flow of sound “She”/“That” in language
 Otherwise meaningless in themselves Ex. St. Joseph
 When Mary walked into the room, She (?) saw her (?) husband Musical perception Reoccurring figures in music: melodies, rhythm, harmony Lost in slow motion Each element understood in terms of what came before Negation
 Oppositions in language “No”/“Not” ____
 Silence in music?
 (Not = Sound)
 Defying expectation (not what you expect) Ex. John Cage “4’33” (New Topic) Evolution
 The biological basis of language and music Music can draw people together (churches) February 15, 2016 Dr. O’Neill was sick. Class was cancelled. February 17, 2017 Evolution Genetic underpinnings for language and music
 “How could we have language if no other species has some?” Dogs know about 200 human words
 Parrots know songs, words, phrases and can repeat humans Steve Pinker
 Language is functional and biological Language is “instinct”
 Music as aesthetic pleasing without a biological role
 Music is like cheesecake, it tastes good, but is not very good for you Noah Chomsky
 Product of Natural Selection? Complexity of: Language Grammar Brain Structure Possible relation to music? Recently revised his position to consider evolution of language and music Aniruddh Patel
 Bootstrap Concept Human music benefits from language evolution Language to Music Fire Metaphor
 Cultural, rather than biological basis? Daniel Levitin
 Biological roots of Music Dance Language “Without Music we would not be human” Social functions:
 Friendship Knowledge Joy Religion Comfort Love Parallel Traits Melody/Phrases Yes! Birds and Whales Beat/Rhythm (Maybe!)
 Monkeys, Birds, [Dogs]
 Ex. Elephants and beat perception Absolute Pitch
 (1:2:3 does not equal 4:5:6) Birds, Primates
 Key Changes are not understood Relative Pitch
 (1:2:3 is about 4:5:6) Among humans
 Song is understood in any pitch/key Ex. “Summertime” Key of B-flat - Ella Fitzgerald Modulation: Key Changes
 Difficult for non-human primates Perceived as different song (1:2:3 does not equal 4:5:6) Ex. “Summertime” Key og G - Janice Joplin Harmony Consonance Sense of pleasing combinations “Le Palindrome” Mozart Greater Tolerance for Dissonance among primates, birds Ex. Symphony out of tune Tonality
 “Octave equivalence” among primates
 Ex. Octave Unison, “Lonesome Moonlight Waltz” A = 440 880 220 Preference for roots plus fifth = power chords of rock = Parallel fifths of classical
 Ex. Power Chords, “Wild Thing” Product of Natural Selection” What evolutionary forces drove development? Language Music Bird Allegory Genetic Basis
 Fox p2 gene Language Music Rhythm Similar mutation among song birds “Babbling Phase” with babies Playing with sounds Language
 spontaneous use of “exotic” sounds Music
 Melody (humming) Beats (tapping) Critical Age
 Puberty for language Ex. “Genie” Especially for grammar Cut off less strict for music Sexual Selection? Advantages for proficiency?
 home life (raising children)? Ex. McJagger Effect? Williams Syndrome
 Change in Chromosome Really good at music and language Highly fluent 


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