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Human Sexuality Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Morgan Smith

Human Sexuality Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 2110

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Psychlogy > PSYC 2110 > Human Sexuality Exam 2 Study Guide
Morgan Smith
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Models of Sexual Arousal: Interaction of Mind and Body
Psychology of Human Sexuality
Seth Kalichman
Study Guide
Seth Kalichman, human sexuality, sexual response
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Smith on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Human Sexuality Exam 2 2/19/16 10:07 PM Sexual Response Models of Sexual Arousal: Interaction of Mind and Body • Distinguishing desire and arousal o Desire: appetite for sexual pleasure o Arousal: physical response to external cues and bodily sensations § Brain, CNS, peripheral nervous system § Brain is important for desire and decision making, perception, interpretation, feelings and sensations § Spinal cord: spinal level reflexes in sexual response o Mind-body interactions in sexual arousal § Central arousal system brain/mind interacts with peripheral arousal system ú Cognitive information processing: finding sexual meaning in thoughts, perceptions, fantasy, imagery, interpretations, appraisals ú Emotions and how they are experienced ú Peripheral arousal system: stimuli from senses, sensations from genitals, spinal cord reflexes ú Sexual response: genital response, excitement of other systems § Intensity of arousal and desire is variable o Dual control model § You can divide into two different systems: peripheral and central § Erick janssen and john Bancroft (Kinsey institute) § Inhibition: physiological and organic issues/ psychosocial, cultural and behavioral issues § Sexual tipping point § Excitation: physiological and organic issues/ psychosocial, cultural and behavioral issues ú Bancroft did studies around dual process model: asking people questions about their desire and their experience to sexual stimuli and measured physiological arousal • Plethysmograph (strain gage around penis and measures when it gets larger and photosensor that measures blood inside the vagina) o Masters and Johnson Direct observation and controlled measurements § Graph shows levels of arousal over time § o Four-Phase Model § Can ebb and flow through phases (most people do) § FIRST PHASE: excitement ú Occurs early in sexual stimulation ú Beginning of two processes that drive sexual response • Vasocongestion: engorgement of blood into vascular tissue (highly vascularized tissue in the genitals) and blood flow out decreases • Neuromuscular tension: in the genitals and throughout the body ú Start of an erection in male • Corpus cavernosa has increased blood flow • Blood flow decreases out ú Sexual arousal is increasing until it levels off with continued stimulation § SECOND PHASE: plateau ú When the excitement levels off ú Plateau continues on with continued stimulation with continued vasocongestion and neuromuscular tension (myotonia) § THIRD: climax and orgasm ú Increased vasocongestion and myotonia ú Orgasm is the release of vasocongestion and myotonia § FOURTH: resolution ú Return to the pre-excitement state ú Blood flows out and not so fast in ú Myotonia is relaxing o Apply phases to men: § Excitement: blood flowinig in faster than it flows out and myotonia is tensing ú Glands in men tenses ú Erection begins § Plateau: ú Erection remains and even increases (full erection) ú Testes enlarge and turns forward and closer to body • Unkinks the vas deferens ú Scrotum tightens and pulls forward • Brings testicles closer to the body and straightens them out ú Contraction of internal tubes starts ú Swelling of glans during plateau • Coronal ridge swells § Orgasm: ú Rhythmic contraction of all of the internal tube systems in sexual reproductive systems • Vas deferens • Urethral sphincter • Glands ú During orgasm ejaculation usually occurs • Can occur earlier • Orgasm can occur without ejaculation • Contraction of glands usually expels seminal fluid § Resolution: ú Scrotum relaxes ú Testes drop ú Erection is lost § Refractory period ú Marked in MJ four phases ú Occurs after orgasm ú Nerve impulses have to rest before they will respond again ú Time between the time that the sexual response cycle can be repeated ú Gets longer with age ú Highly variable between individuals and within individuals o Kaplan’s Three-Phase Model § Desire phase ú Psychological componenets of sexual desire § Vasocongestive phase ú In pelvic region ú Increased muscular tension § Orgasmic-release phase ú Reversal of casocongestion ú Release of muscular tension • Did it after Masters and Johnson • Linking the mind (desire) to vasocongestion o As it applies to females: § Excitement: ú Increases vaginal lubrication- most common ú Clitoris swells and elongates ú Enlargement of labia ú Inner third of vagina begins to distend ú Uterus is pulled upward ú Size increase and nipple erect during excitement § Plateau: ú Processes continue ú Inner two-thirds of vagina distends and lengthens farther ú Swelling in the outer third of the vagina • Collapsing down during outer 1/3 of vaginal walls- orgasmic platform ú Clitoris retracts under foreskin/ prepuce/ clitoral hood ú Respiration and heart rate and blood pressure increase ú Nipple size increases/ sex flush in breast/ veins become more visible/ size increase § Orgasm ú Rhythmic contraction of smooth and non smooth muscles of outer 1/3 of vagina ú Tipping forward of the uterus from wave-like contraction ú Heart rate and blood pressure peak during orgasm ú Cervix dips into inner 1/3 of vagina ú Anal sphincter contracts ú Outer muscles of vagina rhythmically contract § Resolution ú Changes in vaginal walls return to unaroused state ú Uterus tips back ú Clitoris is relaxed ú Breasts return to normal size § MJ graph women ú Three distinct patters in women arousal: ú quick excitement, no plateau orgasm and quick resolution ú Quick excitement, plateau, multiple orgasms, resolution • Women have no refractory period ú Excitement, ebbing and flowing plateau, no orgasm, resolution o Why it makes sense § Vagina outer third presses down to form orgasmic platform § Glans and coronal ridge enlarge ú This all creates a seal and makes it less likely for the penis to come out § Sperm into inner two thirds of vagina which is expanded § Uterus is tipped to receive these sperm o Intimacy-based model of Female Sexual Response Cycle § Emotional intimacyà sexual stimulià sexual arousalà arousal and sexual desireà emotional and physical satisfactionà emotional intimacy….. (cycle) § Intimacy is important in women sexual response cycle ú Emotional aspects become enmeshed with the sexual response cycle ú Important to understand context of intimacy o Graffenburg spot § 1/3 of way in the anterior wall of the vagina § why the vagina creates orgasmic platform § highly innervated § relatively small § important role in female sexual response o Kegel exercises and Sexual Response § Neuromuscular tension is a result of the musculature of the pelvic girdle § Can impact sexual response by strengthening muscles in pelvic girdle § Kegel exercises: strengthens muscles of pelvic girdle for things like sexual response, bladder control etc ú Voluntary muscular contractions of outer third of vagina and anus ú Voluntary contractions of pelvic muscles to lift the penis o Hormones and Sexual Arousal § Pituitary: testes/ovary/adrenal glands o Effects of Aging on Sexual Response § Intimacy models for women § Intimacy increase during aging and sexual response Psychosocial and Psychosexual Development • Psychosexual Stages: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) o Theory is not testable and many of his points have been proven wrong o Emphasis (over-emphasis?) of sexuality on our personality and development o No comprehensive theory like freud’s even though it is bad o Who we are and what we do/think/ feel is product of three parts to our personality that are constantly interacting and developing over our lifetime § Ego (conscious) ú Secondary process ú Reality principle ú Awareness/decision making ú Who we experience ourselves as ú Dips down into subconscious (sleep) ú Reconciles id and super ego § ID (unconscious/out of awareness) ú Fundamental ú Instinctual/primitive part of personality ú Pleasure principle: meeting needs regardless of anything else ú Drives ú Impulsive ú Primary process § Super Ego ú Moral self ú Perfect principle ú Social relations ú In conflict with the Id ú Ego ideal ú Conscience o How do these principles come together § Thanatos: death and destructive instinct § Libido: life-giving/ sex-drive o Stages § Oral: birth- 1 year ú Infants put things in their mouth ú Explore world through mouth/teething/ feeding ú Basic foundation for personality ú Survival—feeding ú Traits: • Develop sense of indulgence or frustration o Overfed vs. underfed • Develop being an optimist or pessimist o Needs met vs. not met • Manipulative for needs or passive for needs § Anal: 1 to 3 years ú Walking/independence/ talking ú Toilet training • Gaining control over anal sphincter is very important for pleasure ú Critical time for social development • Walking and can socialize by talking • Toilet training is critical to social development ú Traits • Stubbornness vs acquiescence • Orderliness vs messiness o Not attended to in the potty training • Punctuality vs. tardiness • Meticulousness vs. vagueness o Perfection in toilet training leads to anal retentive § Phallic stage: 3 to 5 years ú Psychosexual development ú ID was primary part during out first year, no super ego, weak ego ú SUPER EGO important in anal phase and ego gets strengthened by reconciling id and ego ú Phallic has a psychodevelopmental storm • Have to develop independence • Attachment ú In order to learn the culturally expected behaviors for our gender, we have to identify with our SAME SEX PARENT ú OEDIPUS COMPLEX: little boy has to switch his identification from his mother to his father • To learn expectations and behaviors for being a boy • Has to get by castration anxiety and identify with the father • Successful resolution of that is attachment to father ú ELECTRA COMPLEX: little girls don’t have to switch from their mother from birth • In competition with their mother for their fathers attention • Never really resolved • Penis envy: girls are jealous of boys ú For freud: girls development was unexplained • Saw everything revolving around men § Resolve at end of phallic: 5 years old ú Resolve complexes ú Settle penis envy and castration anxiety at the end of the phallic stage ú Have a well developed ego, super ego and id ú Fundamental aspects of your personality fixed by the age of 5 § Latency period: 6 to puberty ú Important for social development not for psychosexual development ú Quiet time psychosexually ú When we go to school/ broadening and expanding outside of family relationships ú Focus on friends and school ú Social mastery § Genital: puberty onward ú Secondary sex characteristics ú Menstrual cycle begins ú Wet-dreams ú Sexual reproductive functioning is the focus ú Outward directed libido as opposed to inward libido as before o Freud could have been misinterpreted § Wrote in German • Erik Erikson 1902-1994 o Psychosocial stages: in each go through a conflict that they have to resolve. Set of tasks that are bipolar that we have to resolve o You can change after these stages- not fixed like Freud o First stage: trust vs. mistrust o Second stage: autonomy vs. shame and doubt § 2-3 years § focus is on developing independence § toilet training ú if TT and social tasks go well, they develop sense of autonomy ú if it does not go well it can develop a sense of doubt and shame o third stage: initiative vs. guilt § can walk and talk § very independent § can develop initiative if it goes well o fourth stage: industry vs. inferiority § overlays with latency period (6-12) § early school years § basic social tasks § school work/ chores § role in family and school is good then we develop industry o fifth stage: identity vs. role confusion § Erikson thought this was most interesting § Adolescence § How we come to be who we are and how we see and express ourselves § Question who we are § Psychosocial moratorium: culturally established environment that gives you the opportunity to experiment without consequences ú Aka college § Role experimentation § Romantic relationships § Masturbation is common in adolescence ú Masturbation habits can carry over into sexual relationships § Gender identity § Sexual experimentation § Poor judgment/risk taking because of lack of experience § Erickson’s theory embraces sexual development but is not unduly focused on it like Freud o Intimacy vs. isolation § 18 to 30s § starting a family § bonding with others § formulating a career § closest relationships ú spouse/kids § successful resolution of need for intimacy § connection between intimacy and identity o Generativity vs. Stagnation § Having family in terms of children § And a career § Developmental task of having the sense that the clock is ticking so we need to leave something behind § mid-life crisis § rekindling of early life passions § bucket-list concept § stagnation: think you haven’t been successful and leaving something behind o integrity vs. despair § life-review § looking back on life, can you say you achieved things, you are proud, you completed goals § when you have regrets that leads to despair § depression in the elderly • B.F Skinner o Learning theory o We learn sexual things like we learn everything else • Social Cognitive Theory o Albert Bandura o Moral disengagement: how people can do bad things and live with themselves, and justify it o Social agency: individuals have free will o Behavior is regulated through reciprocal determinism (behaviors and internal processes are in constant interaction § Environmental manipulation § Behaviors with intended consequences § Self-talk and altered outcome expectancies o Learning by observation § Children imitate and mimic § People learn by observing the contingencies • Sexuality and Aging o Vast cultural differences in adult sexuality o Different cultures have highly variable patterns of behavior o Some cultures: age disparities in preferences for partners § America: high social status importance in partner selection compared to other cultures. Females like males of higher social status § Astonia: men like women with higher social status § Zambia: women more often have a male of an older age o Special sexual problems and patterns of aging § Everything physiologically in older age slows down § Menopause can be experienced as a problem § Illnesses § Medications § Diabetes ú Vasocongestion ú NMT 2/19/16 10:07 PM 2/19/16 10:07 PM


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